« ПредишнаНапред »
House upon the reports which they have sub been comprehended in these thrre reports, lemitted, the same fubje&t may be resumed, veral errors may have found a place, as well with advantage to the public, by other Select through inadvertenry, as from miliof rmation, Committees in a subsequenc fellion ;--fuch and an im,erfect knowledge of particulars : Committees to be appointed for the purpole of '-Your Committee trust and hope, however, eximining particular branches of the revenue. th:t luch errors will not be found of much im. -In some inttances, as in that of the Tobac portance, nor be likely to milead the Hoole. co 1 ade, or the great and complica ed business If what they have in general Itated shall prove of the Difilleries, ample occupation may be to be well founded, bith as to the exifting given to a Committee, without extending the practices, and the proposed means of preven. line of their enquiries beyond one object : tion, any mistakes, either in judgment or in In others, it may be material to allign a more expression, will be very immaterial : these segeneral inveftigation, as well to ascertain what veral reports being tendered only as grounds relief may be given to fair traders and manu of deliberation, and in no degree as diå fa&turers, by the lowering of particular duries, a system of measur s, which cannot be enwithout détriment to the revenue, and by forced to any advantage, but with the voited other indulgencies, as to trace and guard sense and support of Parliament. againft new species of frauds, which must be It remains for your Committed to express expected, ro long as the peceffities of the their hope, that in preventing the smuggling country require the present fyftem of taxarion. practices in future, a full indemnity may be In a country fo circumftanced, the best regue given for paft offences; and i hat in retraining lated plans that can be devised will from time the channels of fraudulent trade, means may. to time be found inadequate :- Where the be found to open new sources of honeft emduties are high the vigilance of those who are ployment and fair commerce. It is the part pursuing an illicit profit will ever be active of wisdom, as well as of human ty, to avoid snd daring; the vigilance of those who are driving to extreme d stress, or voluntary ba. hired to refiit illicit practices, seldom goes be nishment, a multitude of individuals, who, yond'a principle of duty, and oftentimes falls however combined against the laws of their fort of that principle.
country, are, by their talents, spirit, and It is evident, that in so great a detail, and activity, peculiarly capable of becoming usein so extenfive a variety of subjects, as have fo! members of society.
Circumstantial Account of the fingular Attempt to affasinate the King of
Poland in 1771, and his Miraculous Efiape.
(From Coxe's Travels just published.) A
S the attempt' on his Polish ma ter they had quitted Czestochow, they
jetty was perhaps the most atro obtained adımillion into Wartaw unrurcious, and his escape certainly the most pected or undiscovered by the following extraordinary and incredible that has hap- tratagem. They disguised themselves pened, I shall be as minute as poflible in the as peasants who came to fell hay, and artenumeration of all the principal circum- fully concealed their faddles, arms, and stances which led to, and which attended cloaths under the loads of hay which this remarkable event.
they brought in waggons, the more A Polish nobleman, named Pulaski, a effe&tually to escape detection. general in the army of the confede On Sunday night, the 3d of Septemrares, was the person who planned the ber, 1771, a few of these conspirators atrocious enterprize; and the conspirators remained in the skirts of the town; and who carried it into execution were about the others repaired to the place of redforty in number, and were headed by dezvous, the street of Capuchins, where three chiefs, named Lukawski, Straws his majesty was expected to pass by about enski, and Kosinski. These three chiefs his usual hour of returning to the pa. had been engaged and hired for that pur
lace. The king had been to vifit his pose by Pulaski, who in the town of uncle prince Zartoriski, grand chancellor Czetschokow in Great Poland obliged of Lithuania, and was on his return from them to fwear in the most folemn man. thence to the palace between nine and ten ner, by placing their hands between his, o'clock. He was in a coach, accompa. either to deliver the king alive into his nied by at least fifteen or fixteen attenhands, or, in case that was impossible, to dants, beside an aid-de-camp in the car. put him to death. The three chiefs chofe rage: scarce was he at the distance of Thirty-seven to accompany them. On
two hundred paces from prince Czarto. she ad of November, about a month af- riski's palace, when he was atcacked by
the conspirators, who commanded the fented to: his pocket-book escaped their coachman to stop on pain of initane death. rapacity: They fired feveral shot into the carriage, A great number of the assassins reone of which pafled through the body of tired after having thus plundered hiin, à beyduc, who endeavoured to defend probably with intent to notify to their rehis matter from the violence of the af- spective leaders the success of their en
falsins. Alinost all the other perfoos terprise, and the king's arrival as a priI who preceded and accompanied his ma- foner. Only feven remained with him,
jesty were dispersed; the aid-de-camp of whom Kofinski was the chief. The abandoned him, and attempted to conceal night was exceedingly dark; they were him felf by fight. Mean while the king ablolutely ignorant of the way; and, as had opened the door of his carriage with the horses could not keep their legs, they the defign of effecting this escape under obliged his ma;efty to follow them on thelter of the night, which was extreme- foot, with only one thoe, the other being ly dark. He had ever alighted, wherr lost in the dirt. the affalsins feized him by the hair, ex They continued to wander through claiming in Polish with horrible execraó the open meadows, without following tions, • We have thee now; thy hour is any certain path, and without getting to come. One of them discharged a pistol any distance from Warsaw. They again at him fo very near, that he felt the heat mounted the king on horseback, two of of the fall; while another cut him a. them holding him on each fide by the cross the head with his sabre, which pe: hand, and a third leading his horse by netrated to the bone. They then laid the bridle. In this manner they were held of his majesty by the collar, and, proceeding, when his majesty, finding mounting on horseback, dragged hiin they had taken the road which led to a along the ground beriveen their horses village called Burakow, warned them not at full gallop for near five hundred to enter it, because there were some paces through the streets of Warsaw.
Ruflians stationed in that place who mighc All was confusion and disorder dure probably artem pe to rescue him. Finding ing this time at the palace, where the ato himself, however, incapable of accomtendants who had deserted their master had panying the allaslins in the painful posspread the alarm. The foot.guards ran ture in which they held himn kept down immediately to the spot from whence the on the saddle, he requested them, since king had been conveyed, but they found they were determined to oblige him to only his hat all bloody, and his bag: this proceed, at least to give him another increased their apprehenfions for his life. horse and a boor. This request they The whole city was in an uproar. The complied with; and continuing their aflaslins prohted of the universal confu• progress through almost impassable lands, fion, terror, and confternation, to bear without any road, and ignorant of their away their prize. Finding, however, that way, they at length found themselves in he was incapable of following them on the wood of Bielany, only a league distanc foot, and that he had already almost loft from Warsaw. From the time they had liis respiration from the violence with passed the ditch they repeatedly demanded which they had dragged him, they set of Kolinski their chief, if it was not yet him on horseback; and then redoubled time to put the king to death; and thefs their speed for fear of being overtaken. demands were reiterated in proportion When they came to the ditch which to the obstacles and difficulties they ensurrounds Warsaw, they obliged him to countered. leap his horse over. In the attempt the Meanwhile the confusion and conhorse fell twice, and at the second fall fternation increased at Warsaw. The broke its leg. They then inounted his guards were afraid to pursue the conmajesty upon another, all covered as he Ipirators, lett terror of being overtaken was with dirt.
should prompt them in the darkness to The conspirators had no fooper massacre the king; and on the other crossed the ditch, than they began to hand, by not pursuing they might give rifle the king, tearing off the order of them time to escape with their prize, the black eagle of Prussia which he wore beyond the possibility of alikance. round his neck, and the diamond cross Several of the first nobility at length hanging to it. He requested them to leave mounted on horseback, and following the him his handkerchief, which they con- track of the aitaliing, arrived at the VOL. IV. June 1784.
place where his majesty. had passed the uncertainty and embarrassment. 'I ditch. There they found his pelige, give you my word,' answered his majesty, which he had lost in the precipitation with that you thall suffer no harm; but if which he was hurried away: it was you doubt iny promise, cscape while bloody, and pierced with holes made by there is yet time. I can find my way to the balls or fabres. This convinced them lone place of security: and I will certhat he was no more.
tainly direct your purfuers to take the The king was still in the hands of contrary road to that which you have seven remaining altaffins, who advanced chosen. Kohiniki could not any longer with him into the wood of Bielany, when contain himtelf, but, throwing hinjeli at they were suddenly alarmed by a Russian the king's feet, implored forgiveness for patrole or detachinent.
Instantly hold, the crime he had committed; and sware ing council
, four of them disappeared, to protect him against cvery enemy, releaving him with the other three, who lying totally on his generosity for pardon compelled him to walk on. Scarce a and preservation. His majesty reiterated quarter of an hour after a fecond Ruflian to him his assurances of fafety.' Judging, guard challenged them a-new. Two of however, that it was prudent to gain Jome the assassins then fled, and the king re- afylum without delay, and recollecting mained alone with Kosinski the chief, that there was a mill at some considerboth on foot. His majesty, exhaulied able distance, he immediately made towith all the fatigue which he had un- wards it. Kofiniki knocked, but in vain; dergone, implored his conductor to ftop, no answer was given : he then broke a and suffer him to take a moment's re- pain of glass in the window, and intreatpose. Kofinski refused it, menacing him ed for thelter to a nobleman who had with his naked fabre; and at the same been plundered by robbers. The milier time informed him, that beyond the wood refused, fuspoting them to be banditii, they should find a carriage. They con- and continued for more than half an tinued their walk, till they came to the hour to persilt in his denial. At length the door of the convent of Bielany. Ko- king approached, and speaking through finki appeared lost in thought, and so the broken pane, endeavoured to permuch agitated by his reflections, that the suade him to admit them under his roof, king perceiving his disorder, and observe adding, • If we were robbers, as you fuping that he wandered without knowing pose, it would be very easy for us to break the road, faid to him, I see you are at the whole window instead of one pain a loss which way to proceed. Let me of glass.' This argumeut prevailed. They enter the convent of Bielany, and do you at length opened the door, and adınitied ! provide for your own fafety. No,' re his majefty. He immediately wrote a note plied Kofinski, • I have fivorn.'
to General Coccei, colonel of the foot They proceeded till they came to guards. It was literally as follows: Par Mariemont, a small palace belonging to une espece de miracle je suis fauvé des the house of Saxony, not above half a mains des affallins. Je suis ici au petit league from Warsaw: here Kosinski be- moulin de Mariemont. Venez trayed fome satisfaction at finding where plutot me tirer d'ici. Je suis blefie, he was, and the king fill demanding mais pas fort.' It was with the greatest an instant's repose, he consented at difficulty, however, that the king could length. They sat down together on the perfuade any one to carry this note to ground, and the king employed these mo- Warsaw, as the people of the mill, ments in endeavouring to soften his con- imagining that he was a nobleman who ductor, and induce him to favour or per. had just been plundered by robbers, were mit his elcape. His majesty represented afraid of falling in with the troop. Kothe atrocity of the crime he had com- finski then offered to restore every thing mitted in attempting to murder his so- he bad taken; but his majesty left him 'vereign, and the invalidity of an oath all, except the blue ribbon of the white taken to perpetrate so heinous an action : eagle. Kofinski lent attention to this discourse, When the messenger arrived with and began to betray some marks of re- the note, the astonishment and joy was inmorfe. But,' said he, if I fould con- credible. Coccei instantly rode to the sent and reconduct you to Warsaw, mill, followed by a detachment of the what will be the consequence ?-I shall guards. He met Kolinski at the door, be taken and executed !!,
with his fabrc dawn, who admitted him This reflection plunged him.into new as soon as he knew him. The king
had sunk into a sleep, caused by his fa ment and various modes of torture, which tigue; and was stretched on the ground, the laws of Poland decree and inflict on covered with the miller's cloak. Coccei regicides, were mitigated; and both Luimmediately threw himfelf at his ma kai iki and Strawenski were only simply. jesty's feet, calling hi:n his fovereign, and beheaded. Kosinski was detained under killing his hand. It is not easy to paint a very ftri&t confinement, and obliged to or describe the astonishment of the miller give evidence against his two compaand his family, who instantly imitated nions. A person of distinction, who saw Coccei's example, by throwing them- them both die, has assured me, that no• felves on their knces. The king re- thing could be more noble and manly turned to Warsaw in Gencral Coccei's than all Lukawski's conduct previous to carriage, and reached the palace about his death. When he was carried to the five in the morning. His wound was place of execution, although his body. found not to be dangerous, and he soon was almost extenuated by the severity of recovered the bruises and injuries, which his confinement, diet, and treatment,'his he had iuffered during this memorable fpirit untubdued raifed him above the piglır.
terrors of an infamous and public exeSo extraordinary an escape is scarce to cution. He had not been permitted to be paralleled in history, and affords ample lave his beard while in prison, and his maites of wonder and furprite. Scarce dress was fqualid to the greatest degree; could the nobility or people at Warsaw yet none of these humiliations could decredit the evidence of theji fenfes, when preis bis mind. With a grandeur of soul they saw him return. Certainly neither worthy of a better cause, but which it is che escape of the king of France from impollible not to admire, he refused to Dainien, or of the king of Portugal from fee or embrace the traitor Kosinski. When the conlpiracy of the Duke d’Aveiro, conducted to the scene of execution, were equally amazing or improbable, as which was about a mile from Warsaw, he that of the king of Poland. I have re-, betrayed no emotions of terror or unlated it very minutely, and from authori- manly fear. He made a short harangue to lies the highest and most incontestible. the multitude allembled upon the occa
It is natural to enquire what is be- fion, in which he by no means expressed come of Kosinski, the man who saved his any sorrow for his past conduct, or conmajesty's life, and the other confpira- trition for his attempt on the king, which tors. He was born in the palatinate of he probably regarded as meritorious and Cracow, and of mean extraction: have patriotic. His head was severed from his ing assumed the name of Kofiniki, which body. is that of a noble family, to give himself Strawenski was beheaded at the same credit. He had been created an officer time, but he neither harangued the in the troops of the confederates under people, or Thewed any signs of contri. Pulaski. It would foem as if Kolinski tion. Pulaski, who commanded one of began to entertain the idea of preserving the many corps of confederate Poles the king's life from the time when Lu- then in arms, and who was the great kawski and Strawenski abandoned him; agent and promoter of the assassination, yet he had great struggles with himself is still alive, though an outlaw and an before he could resolve on this conduct, exile. He is said, even by the Russians after the folemn engagements into which his enemies, to possess military talents hc had untered. Even after he had con- of a very superior nature ; ducted the king back to Warlaw, he ex- they ever able to take him prisoner prefied more than once his doubts of the during the civil war. propriety of what he had done, and some To return to Kosinski, the man remorse for having deceived his em who saved the king's life. About a ployers.
weck after Lukawski and Strawenski's Lukawski and Straweniki were both execution, he was sent by his majesty taken, and feveral of the other affallins. out of Poland. He now refides at SemiAt his majesty's peculiar request and gallia in the papal territories, where he intreaty, the diet remitted the capital enjoys an annual pension from the king. punishment of the inferior conspirators, A circumstance almost incredible, and condemned them to work for life and which seems to breathe all the lanon the fortitications of Kaminiec, where guinary bigotry of the 16th century, I they now are. By his intercellion like cannot omit. It is that the papal nunwife with the dict, the horrible punish- tio in Poland, inspired with a furious
3 G 2
zeal against the diffidents, whom he believe the countenances of the bystanders, which ed to be protected by the king, not on displayed the most sudden alterations from ly approved the scheme for a laffinating terror to compallion, from compatsion to his majesty, but blefsed the weapons of astonithment, and from aftonuinment to the conspiracors at Czettachow, previous rapture; while the univerial blence was to their feeting out on their expedition. only broken by sighs and tears of joy. This is a trait indisputably true, and The king having finished the account, Scarcely to be exceeded by any thing un. again repeated his allurances of gratitude der the reign of Charles ix. of France, and atlection for the unteigned proofs and of his mother Catharine of Medi: they had given of their love and attachcis.
ment; and dilmilled them, by adding, In addition to the above account that he hoped he had been tbus miracu. I am enabled to add the following cir- lously preferved by Divine Providence, cumstances :
for no other purpole, than to pursue with Upon General Coccei's arrival at the additional zeat the good of his country, mill, the first question which his majesty which had ever been the great ouject of asked was, whether any of his attendants his attention. had suffered froin the afatlins; and upon Being now left alone, his majesty perbeing informed that one of the heyducs mitted the furgeons to examine the wound was killed on the spot, and another dan in his head. Upon cutting away the kin, gerously wounded, his mind, naturally it appeared that the bone was hurt, but feeling, now rendered more fufceptible by not dangerously ; from the quantity of his late danger, was greatly affected ; and clotted blood, the ope.ation of drcising his joy at his own escape was conliderably was tedious and painful, and was luba diminished.
mitted to by the king with great patience Upon his return to Warsaw, the streets and magnanimity. The surgeons proposed through which he pailed were illumined at fit to bleed him in the foot; but they with torches, and crouded by an immense laid aside this intention upon finding both concourse of people, who followed him his feer twollen considerably, and covered to the palace, crying out incessantly with blisters and bruilos. “ The king is alive.” Upon his entering The family of the heyduc, who had the palace, the doors were flung open, saved the king's life by the loss of his and persons of all ranks were admitted to own, was amply provided for : his body approach his person, and to felicitate him was buried with great pomp; and his maupon his escape. The scene, as I have jesty erected an handtome monument to been informed by several of the nobility his memory, with an elegant infcription who were present, was affoCling beyond expreffive of the man's fidelity and of his defcription." Every one ftruggled to get own gratitude, fear lim, to kiss his hand, or even to I law the monument: it is a pyramid rouch his cloaths : all were so transported standing upon a sarcophagus, with a Latin with joy, that they even loaded Kofinski and Polish inscription; the former I cowith carelles, and called him the saviour pied, and it is as follows. of their king. His majesty was so affect. “ Hic jacet Georgius Henricus Butzau, ed with thele figns of zeal' and affection, qui regen Stanislaum Auguftum nefariis that he expressed in the most feeling man, parricidorum telis impeditum, dic 111 ner his strong sense of these proofs of Nov. 1771, proprii pectoris clypeo defen. their attachment, and declared it was the dens, geminatis ictibus confotsüs, gloriolé happieh hour of his whole life. In this occubuit, Fidelis fubditi necem lugens, moment of raprure he forgot the dangers Rex pofuit hocce monumentum illius in he had avoided, and the wounds he had laudem, aliis exemplo." received and as every one seemned anxa “ Here lies George Henry Burzau, jous to Icarn the circumitances of his e. who, on the 3d of November, 1771, opo cape, he would not suffer his wounds to posing his own breast to shield Stanislaus be inspected and drelled before he had Auguftus from the weapons of nefarious himself satisfied their impatience, by re: parricides, was pierced with repeated lating the difficulties and dangers he had wounds, and gloriously expired. The vodegone. During the reciral, a person king, lamenting the death of a faithful unacquainted with the language might subject, erected this monument, as a trihave discovered the various events of the bute to him, and an incentive to others." tory from the changes of expretiion in