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have no proposa! humbły. I shall never forget the duty ix. 21

2118*80 119 which I owe to your Majesties.

you are determined Queen. Well, but will you say noto be

of this kingdom, in thing more? which, wext to the King, you have the King. Have I not said a great deal,

antes you atest interest? Madame?

u ham hvi King. Neither you nor he, Madame, Queen. You are the cause of the can make it appear so, having raised disasters of this kingdom. Are you eight armies solely to ruin me. not afraid that the displeasure of the

Queen. What armies, my son? you King will effect the total ruin of your
are deceived; do you imagine the King interest?
could not have destroyed you had it King. No, Madame, I know that

it been his pleasure ?

cannot be so totally ruined, but there King. It was neither in the King's will still remain some rallying point, la pe ca power, nor in yours, Madame, to de- for me. stroy me.

Queen. But leaving all this, tell me Queen. Are you ignorant, then, of why, under the false pretence of the the King's power, and of what he can Leaguers, having obliged the King to

break through his own edict, and de

natural King. No, Madame, we know well ny you the liberty of exercising your enough what he can do, but we also religion, you are continually complain all know what he cannot do.

ing against his authority? Queen. You will not then obey the King. Madame, do you wish me to King ?

repeat what you are saying to the King. Madame, I have always en- princes and gentlemen who are with deavoured to do so, and have exerted ine? myself to make it appear so by my Queen. No, no, I do not wish that; actions, having frequently written to but will you not obey the King ? him to beg he would honour me with

King. Madame, I must speak the his commands, that, under his autho- truth. I have not obeyed the King rity, I might oppose the League which these eighteen months. has arisen in his kingdom to the pre Queen. Do not say so, my son. judice of his own edicts, and the de

King. Madame, I inust say so; for struction of his tranquillity and re- the King, who should have been a fapose.

ther to me, instead of treating me like Queen. Do not deceive yourself, my a son, has made war upon me like a son; they are not leagued against the wolf; and you yourself, Madam, have kingdom; the King himself approves played the lioness towards me, and it. There is no confederacy,--those given me a scratch when I was weak: who, you imagine, are of it, are the est. Now I am more powerful than best Catholics-in short, the King is you are, but still I fear your artificesy satisfied with all they have done. But which do me more harm than all the let us not mind this; ask all you wish, armies which could be brought against, the King will grant it, but ask only me. for yourself. Can you think the mem Queen. Have I not always been & bers of this pretended religion love friend and mother to you?

King. Madame, you were indeed a King. Madame, I shall ask nothing tender mother when I was very young, of you ; but if you will make some till I was fifteen years old, and for proposal, I will lay it before the princes this I am grateful to you; bat during and the gentlemen, both within and the last six years, your conduct

, towithout the kingdom, to whom I am wards me has entirely changed. bound by oath, and without whom I Queen. Believe me, the King and will neither act nor negociate. myself are only desirous of serving Queen. Well, my son, I see you you. will not say any thing. - I assure you King. Excuse me, Madame, but I the King, my son, loves and honours know quite the contrary. you, deşiring nothing more than to

Queen. Never mind that. Do you embrace you as his good brother and wish that all the trouble I have taken subject, and to give you the next rank during the last six months should be to hinself.

1 fruitless, aften heving so long to King, Malame, I thank him very with me? 15wyda bus

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you?

SO.

King. Madame, it is 'not my fault; treating homewards, when the Duke,

on the contrary, it is your own. I do insolently braving his sovereign, and * not prevent your sleeping quietly in in defiance of the treaty just agreed on,

your bed, but during the last eighteen attacked, defeated, and dispersed the b gros months you have effectually hindered peaceable strangers, underthe pretence me from lying down in mine.

that the King had a secret understandQueen. Must I then always be in ing with the enemies of his country. troubles when I am so anxious for For this ungovernable sally the Duke rest?

was loaded with encomiums; the King. Madame, these troubles are churches rung with the commendayour pleasures, your nourishment; if tions of the priests, who did not hesi. you were at peace you would not live. tate to apply the words of Scripture

Queen. How is this? I have always for the purposes of treason, and "Saul seen you calm and tractable, now you has slain his thousands, and David his are overcome by passion.

ten thousands," became the favourite King. Madame, it is true ; but mis- text of the day. The leaguers loudly fortunes and the ill treatment I have demanded the presence of their idol in received at your hands, have changed Paris. The King forbid his approach ; my natural disposition.

yet he dared disobey the positive orders Queen. Well

, since you cannot act of his sovereign, and, returning to the of yourself, we will endeavour to get capital, demanded an audience of his a truce for a short time, during which offended master. The King, on receiyou may confer with the churchmen, ving the intimation of this effrontery, and your other associates, in order to remained for some moments motion make as good a peace as we can, in the less with surprise and vexation; on manner which shall seem to you most recovering his recollection, he consulta expedient.

ed with Alphonso D'Ornano, what was King. Very well, Madame, I will do to be done in so momentous a crisis.

“ Sire," replied the Sicilian, “ do you Queen. Ah! my son, you deceive regard the Duke of Guise as a friend yourself; you imagine you have troops, or as an enemy?" The King replied and you have none.

by a significant gesture, and the courKing. Madame, I did not come here tier added, “ If you will commit the to hear news of my troops from you.”, execution of this business to me, I

will this day throw the head of the From the sulky answers of the good Duke of Guise at your feet.” But the Bearnois to his politic mother-in-law, King shrunk from the proposal, and it is evident he strongly distrusted her dared not refuse the demanded auhonesty. Nothing was effected in con- dience to his audacious enemy, who sequence; and the march of the Ger- came to the Louvre with the whole man troops to the assistance of their city in his train, filling the air with brethren in France, still farther alien- the shouts of “Guise ! Guise ! Long ated the mind of the King from his live the pillar of the church !” The cousin of Navarre. The distress of his King received him coldly; the Duke situation was greatly increased by the endeavoured to justify his condact, establishment of the Council of Six and then retired amid the acclamations teen, an association in Paris con- of the people to his palace. Embolds sisting of persons, distributed in the ened by, the weakness of the King, sixteen wards of the city, who entirely and the presence of their chief, the engrossed the management of affairs, Leaguers next ventured to appear in were devoted servants to the Duke of arms in the city of Paris ; and the day Guise, and insolent opposers of the of the Barricades" (so named from megal authority. The fight of the their closing the streets with cannor King of Navarre and his party to join and chains against all passengers exhis German auxiliaries, induced the cept their own party) beheld an attack King, now heartily desirous of peace, upon the King's troops, and the blood and wearied and 'disgusted with the of the royalists shed without pity or insolence of Guise, to offer terms to remorse by the infuriated Leaguers. the strangers. A treaty was made be- The prayers and entreaties of the tween them, (they had already refu- Queen-Mother alone prevailed upon

ed to fight against the King of France the Duke (who was quietly regarding ta person ;) and they were quietly re- the spectacle) to exert his authority, VOL. XI.

3 Z

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mable contest. Un- marks, pretenders to the throne find

tred among the Lea- all steps easy of ascent to it except the the instant obedience to last, which is always too high to be

their unbounded devotion mounted. The Duke was silently and ohh petson, was more convincing to secretly opposed in this great project the king of the danger of his own si- by his own family, who did not wish tuation, than all the former insolence to see him King of France Charles of the haughty Lorraine. He took the Duke of Mayenne, his brother, Charles first opportunity of making his escape Duke of Nevers, Charles Duke of Ele from Paris, leaving the Duke absolute beuf, and Charles Duke of Aumale, master of the capital and its resources ; his cousins, although united to supa and when at a distance from its towers, port the power and dignity of their he turned back for a moment, and house, would not become his accomthrowing a look of vengeance upon plices in treason. Separating them the city which he was destined never selves, therefore, from the private plan again to behold, declared, with a so- of the Duke, but still continuing their lemn oath, that he would never enter union with the League, they formed, it again, except through a breach.(6) under the name of the Caroline party 5 But when the ardent spirits of the a fourth faction in the distracted kingmultitude began to calm, they sin- dom; but, preserving their loyalty, cerely regretted the step they had thus they gave information to the unhappy compelled their monarch to take, and Henry, by Alphonso D'Ornano, of the every art was put in practice to make designs of the Dukeof Guise againsthis him break his resolution of returning crown, with the solemn assurance of to them no more ; but petitions and their non-participation in his guilty that negociations were of no avail, even projects.(8) In the memorial given byr et de the processions had lost their charm in the King to M. Maisse, it is stated, the eyes of the monarch-he conti- that the Duke of Mayenne desired nued firm to his determination; and the King to take care of himself, and although he received and heard them added, “ that the enterprize against with kindness, yet with the humble him was so near its execution, that he request of his “good city” he abso- almost feared the notice would be toor lutely refused to comply. To put an late ;" and Peter le Maitre, one of the end to their useless entreaties, he sum- witnesses afterwards examined im Pads moned a meeting of the states at Blois," ris, asserted, that the King declared where, as before, to his infinite vexa- he was obliged to act resolutely, Both tion, the elections fell entirely upon for the safety of his own person and the creatures of the Guises, who, at- the tranquillity of the state

, both br tending the convocation, gave law to which were threatened by the plots of the monarch, and by their organ, the the Duke of Guise. " council, compelled him again to re But as it was not in the power of voke the indulgences granted to the the King of France to bring his dating reformed, and to declare Henry of Na- enemy to the stroke of public justice, varre, the real heir of his crown, a other methods were therefore to be rear traitor, heretic, excommunicated, and sorted to, and the dagger of the assassins incapable of the succession, which they was destined to free the monarch from adjudged to be the right of the old his fears, and the kingdom from farm Cardinal of Bourbon.

ther miseries.

It was determiwed in Dictating to his sovereign, named a council of Heriry's friends, that the general-in-chief of the armies, recei- Duke should fall by their daggers on ving from the people honours due only the morning of the following Friday, to the monarch, (i) the Duke of Guise the 23d of December, and his own inwas making rapid advances to the solent security, and utter contemper throne; but, as Montaigne justly re- for the King, hurried him on torthe

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**(6) The author of the “ Martyrdom of the Brothers, ** from whom we shall more largely hereafter, mentions this circumstance with his usual exaggeration. From

quote thie top of a hill,” says he; “Henry looked upon the city, and swore that he would so deal by it, that posterity should say, there stood Paris, and that he should never be satisfiat all bathed in the blood of its inhabitants.!!.

li PUTOV 09 bradugonamol van S7nD'Aubigné. :1.9 Formunur

*91.489789298 based] (8) De Thou-Serrce,

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the interesting to you, I make no fura majestic, has occupied, perhaps, toor

fate which threatened him. Many be wounded by the
were the notices he received of the and powerful, add.
plot against his life, but all were treat and I should be
ed with a similar disregard. Once in red any of you."'The
particular, the night before his death, being assembled, and the

he found a note under his cover at arrived, the King's restlessness, the supper, containing these significant as De Thou remarks, was always in. lui expressions, 1,44 Take care- they are creased to madness in frosty weather, i about to play you an ugly trick. He grew so insupportable that he sent to

read this billetit-wrote at the bottom, command the attendance of the Duke; In They dare not," and then threw it who almost immediately followed the under the table at

y royal message. On his arrival he sat - The night of the 22d was passed by some time in the council-chambers the King in a state of extreme anxiety conversing with the gentlemen till the and restlessness. The weakness of his King sent to desire his presence in his mind was struggling with the great cabinet; he rose to obey the mandate, ness of his enterprize, and his coward- and, stooping down to raise the curtain ice with his extreme desire of revenge. before the door,' received at that mot He arose by day-break, and dressing ment the swords of the conspirators in himself in great hurry and trepida= his body; he made some desperate tion, rassembled the members of his but ineffectual struggles, and fell dead private councils, and urged them by at the foot of the King's bed, heaving every argument he could suggest, not only one deep sigh. to fail in the parpose for which they Such was the miserable death of were met. He told them that that day the ambitious Duke of Guise. The must be the last of his life, or that of particulars of this transaction, as relathe Duke of Guise. It depended upon ted by Raynouard, we forbear to give, them, he said, whether he or his re as they are detailed more clearly in bellious subject was to be the victim. the informations made at Paris, with Public duties, he remarked, he knew translations of which we shall hereafthey would willingly pay, but he now ter present our readers, as they conrequired more, a proof of their attach- tain much curious matter, together ment to himself, as well as regard for with the opinions of both parties upon their suffering country, and which the subjeet, and something in the could only be evinced by the death of papers of Miron, the King's physician) the Duke of Guise from their hands, which is intended to be a justification Hethen distributed poniards, adding, of Henry's conduct upon this occasion.

lawful sovereign, who For the present, we will trespass no authorise you to use them against the longer upon the patience of our readtraitor who has sworn his destruction.” ers, which we would not have done so He then retired to his cabinet, where much, had it been possible to have he continued pacing backwards and compressed the long notice of Raynforwards in great anxiety; and pre- ouard into a smaller compass, without sently opening the door of the council- any injustice to himself and the use. chamber, he exhorted the gentlemen fulness of his researehes. assembled not to suffer themselves to In my lasty I gave you a short account origin, progress, and perfect develop of my lately published Biographicalment of some of the principal European Treatise on the Writers of Italian Li- languages, a subject of inquiry, which terary Historyand as you have been as you well know, when direeted cout pleased to say, that whatever concerns wards the elucidation of our own som

my pursuit of letters, will norous tongue, alike so beautiful and thesh apology for continuing in the great and too exclusive a share of our samec somewhat egotistical strain. I literary labours, and has not yet ceased not long ago published two volumes of to be a matter of atrimonious disputes* Essays and Researches, regarding the I dedicate my first volume almost

$7:171 - vodT 3089

"It is I, your

LETTER FROM SIGNOR

TOUCHING SOME POINTS OF ITALIAN
LITERATURE.

110 3"4201

nable contesto Un marks, pretenders to the throne find ed among the Lean all steps easy of ascent to it except the

instanit obedience to last, which is always too high to be their lunbounded devotion mounted. The Duke was silently and song was more convincing to secretly opposed in this great project ring of the danger of his own sie by his own family, who did not wish tüation, than all the former insolence to see him King of France Charles of the haughty Lorraines He took the Duke of Mayenne, his brother, Charles first opportunity of making his escape Duke of Nevers, Charles Duke of Bila from Paris, leaving the Duke absolute beuf, and Charles Duke of Aamiale; master of the eapital and its resources; his cousins, although united to stop 1 and when at a distance from its towers, port the power and dignity of their he turned back for a moment, and house, would not become his accomthrowing a look of vengeance upon plices in treason: Separating them the city which he was destined never selves, therefore, from the private plan again to behold, declared, with a so- of the Duke, but still continuing their lemn oath, that he would never enter union with the League, they formedy it again, except through a breach:(6) under the name of the Caroline party r But when the ardent spirits of the a fourth faction in the distracted kingad multitude began to calm, they sin- dom; but, preserving their loyaltyy cerely regretted the step they had thus they gave information to the unhappy compelled their monarch to take, and Henry, by Alphonso D'Ornano, of the every art was put in practice to make designs of the Dukeof Guise againsthis him break his resolution of returning crown, with the solemn assurance at to them no more ; but petitions and their non-participation ini his guilty negociations were of no 'avail, even projects.(8) In the memorial given by processions had lost their charm in the King to M. Maisse, it is statent fab the eyes of the monarch-he conti« that the Duke of Mayenne desired nued firm to his determination, and the King to take care of himself

, and although he received and heard them added, that the enterprize against with kindness, yet with the humble him was so near its execution, that he request of his “ good city” he abso. almost feared the notice would be toor lutely refused to comply. To put an late;" and Peter le Maitre, one of the end to their useless entréaties, he sum-) witnesses afterwards examined in Pou le mõned a meeting of the states at Blois, ris, asserted, that the King declaredo where, as before, to his infinite vexa- he was obliged to act resolutely, both tion, the elections fell entirely upon for the safety of his own person and the creatures of the Guises, who, at- the tranquillity of the state

, both of tending the convocation, gave law to which were threatened by the plots of the monarch, and by their organ, the the Duke of Guise. *** council, compelled him again to re But as it was not in the power of voke the indulgences granted to the the King of France to bring his

dering reformed, and to declare Henry of Na- enemy to the stroke of public justice vatre, the real heir of his crown, a' other methods were therefore to be 183 traitor, heretic, excommunicated, and sorted to, and the dagger of the assassin incapable of the succession, which they was destined to free the monarch forth adjudged to be the right of the old his fears, and the kingdom from far. Cardinal of Bourbon.

ther miseries. It was determined in Dictating to his sovereign, named a council of Henry's friends, that the general-in-chief of the armies, recei. Duke should fall by their daggers on ving from the people honours due only the morning of the following Fridays! te the monarch, (i) the Duke of Guise the 28d of December, and his own ina was making rapid advances to the solent security, and utter conterapt throne, but, as Montaigne justly re- for the King, hurried shimoon to the *b[6) The anthor of the “Martyrdom of the Brothers;" from whom we shall quote more largely hereafter, mentions this circumstance with his usual exaggeration. Promo by it, that posterity should say, there stood Paris, and that he should never be satisfied till bathed in the blood of its inhabitants.?! ins.rrrior owj braildug og nol 2007 367 D'Aubigné. aunt mm qnibns

4613 T109991 yrst.sash bas ay sad 8) De Thou-Serret,

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