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1. A kind of vehiculary bed ; a carriage 2. Not great ; small; diminutive; of small

capable of containing a bed hung be- bulk.
tween two horses.

He sought to see Jesus, but could not for the 'To my litter strait;

press, because he was little of stature. Luke. Weakness possesseth me. Shakspeare.

His son, being then very little, I considered only He was carried in a rich chariot litter-wise, as wax, to be moulded as one pleases. Locke. with two horses at each end.


One wou'd have all things little; hence has The drowsy frighted steeds,

try'd That draw the litter of close curtain's sleep.

Turkey poults, fresh from the egg, in batter Milton.

Here modest matrons in soft litters driv'n, 3. Of small dignity, power, or impor-
In solemn
pomp appear.

Dryden. tance.
Litters thick besiege the donor's gate,

When thou wast little in thine own sight, wast And begging lords and teening ladies wait

thou not made the head of the tribes? i Samuel. The promis'd dole.


He was a very little gentlernan. Clarendon. 2. The straw laid under animals, or on All that is past ought to seem little to thee,

because it is so in itself.

Taylor. To crouch in litter of your stable planks. 4. Not much; not many.


He must be loosed a little season. Revelations. Take off the litter from your kernel beds. A little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of

the hands to sleep; so shall poverty come upon Their litter is not toss'd by sows unclean. thee.

Proverbs. Dryden.

And now in little space 3. A brood of young:

The confines met.

Milton. I do here walk before thee like a sow that hath

By sad experiment I know overwhelmed all her litter but one. Sbakspeare.

How little weight my words with thee can find.

Milion. Reflect upon that numerous litter of strange, senseless opinions, that crawl about the world.

A little learning is a dang’rous thing;
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.

Pepe A wolf came to a sow, and very kindly offered to take care of her litter.


5. Some; not none; in this sense it al. Full many a year his hateful head had been ways stands between the ai ticle and the For tribute paid, nor since in Cambria seen: The last of all the litter 'scap'd by chance,

I leave to reconcile these contradictions, And from Geneva first infested France. Dryden. which may plentifully be found in him, by any 4. A birth of animals.

one who will but read with a littk attention. Fruitful as the sow that carry'd

Lecke. The thirty pigs at one large litter farrow'd. LITTLE. N. S.


1. A small space. 5. Any number of things thrown sluttishly Much was in little writ; and all convey

y'd about.

With cautious care, for fear to be betray'd.
Strephon, who found the room was void,

Dryden. Stole in, and took a strict survey

2. A small part; a small proportion. Of all the litter as it lay.

Swift. He that despiseth little things, shall perish by To Li'tter. v. a. [from the noun.]

little and little

Ecclesiasticus. 1. To bring forth: used of beasts, or of

The poor remnant of human seed which rehuman beings in abhorrence or con

mained in their mountains, peopled their coun

try again slowly, by little and little. Bacon. tempt.

By freeing the precipitated matter from the Then was this island,

rest by tiltration, and diligently grinding the Save for the son that she did litter here,

white precipitate with water, the mercury will A freckled whelp, hag-born, not honour'd with little by little be gathered into drops. Boyie. A human shape.

Shakspeare; I gave thee thy master's house, and the house My father named me Autolycus, being litter'd of Israel and Judah; and if that had been too under Mercury, who, as I an, was likewise a little, I would have given such and such things. snapper up of unconsidered trifles. Sbakspears.

2 Samuel. The whelps of bears are, at first littering, with- They have much of the poetry of Mecenas, out all form or fashion. Hakewill. but little of his liberality.

Dryder. We might conceive that dogs were created Nor grudge I thee the much that Grecians blind, because we observe they were littered so

give, with us.

Brown. Nor murm'ring take the little I receive. Dryden. 2. To cover with things negligently, or

There are many expressions, which, carrying

with them no clear ideas, are like to remove but sluttishly scattered about.

little of my ignorance.

Luke They found The room with volumes litter'd round. Swift. 3. A slight attair,

As if 'twere little from their town to chase, 3. To cover with straw.

I through the seas pursued their exil'd race. He found a stall where oxen stood,

Drydere But for his ease well litter'd was the floor.

I view with anger and disdain,

How little gives thee joy and pain: 4. To supply cattle with bedding.

A print, a bronze, a How'r, a root.

Prior. LI'TTLE. adj. comp. less, superlat. least. 4. Not much. (leitels, Gothick; lýrel, Saxon.]

These they are fitted for, and little else. 1. Small in extent.


LITTLE, adu. The coast of Dan went out too little for them.


2. In a small degree.



The received definition of names should be A late prelate, of a remarkable zeal for the changed as little as possible.

Wetts' Logick.

church, were religions to be tried by lives, would 2. In a small quantity.

have lived down the pope, and the whole consisThe poor sleep little. Otway.

Atterbury. 3. In soine degree ; but not great.

If we act by several broken views, we shall

live and die in misery. Where there is too great a thinness in the

Spectator. fluids, subacid substances are proper, though they

If we are firmly resolved to live up to the dicare a little astringent.


tates of reason, without any regard to wealth 4. Not much.

and reputation, we may go through life with steadiness and pleasure.

Addison. The tongue of the just is as choice silver; the heart of the wicked is little worth. Proverbs.

3. To continue in life. Finding him little studious, she chose rather

Our high-plac'd Macbeth to endue him with conversative qualities of

Shall live the lease of nature, and pay his breath

Wotton. youth; as, dancing and fencing.

To time and mortal custom. Sbakspears.

See the minutes how they run; That poem was infamously bad; this parallel is little better.


How many make the hour full complete,

How many hours bring about the day, Several clergymen, otherwise little fond of obscure terms, yet in their sermons were very li

How many days will finish up the year, beral of all those which they find in ecclesiastical

How many years a mortal man may live. Sbaksp. writers.


The way to live long must be, to use our bó

dies so as is most agreeable to the rules of temLITTLENESS. n. s. (from little.]


Ray on the Creation, 1. Smallness of bulk.

4. To live emphatically; to be in a state All trying, by a love of littleness, To make abridgments, and to draw to less

of happiness. Even that nothing which at first we were. Donne.

What greater curse could envious fortune give, We may suppose a great many degrees of lit

Than just to die when I began to live? Dryden. tleness and lightness in their earthy particles, so

Now three and thirty rolling years are fled

Brown. as many of them might float in the air. Burnet.

Since I began, nor yet begin to live.

Live while you live, the epicure would say, 2. Meanness; want of grandeur.

And snatch the pleasures of the present day; The English and French, in verse, are forced

Live while you live, the sacred preacher cries, to raise their language with metaphors, by the

And give to God each moment as it flies : pompousness of the whole phrase, to wear off any littleness that appears in the particular parts.

Lord, in my views let both united be,

I live to pleasure when I live to thee. Deddridge.

Addison. 3. Want of dignity:

s. To be exempt from death, 'temporal or The angelick grandeur, by being concealed,

spiritual. does not awaken our poverty, nor mortify our

My statutes and judgments, if a man do, he shall live in them.

Leviticus. littleress so much, as it it was always displayed.


He died for us, that whether we wake or

sleep, we should live together with him. LITTORAL, adj. [littoralis, Latin.) Be

i Thessalonians, longing to the shore.

6. To remain undestroyed. LITURGY, K. 6. [217epia; liturgie, Fr.] It was a miraculous providence that could

Form of prayers; formulary of publick make a vessel, so ill manned, live upon sea; that devotions.

kept it from being dashed against the hills, or We dare not admit any such form of liturgy,

overwhelmed in the deeps.

Burnet. as either appointeth no scripture at all, or very

Mark how the shifting winds from west arise, little to be read in the church. Hooker.

And what collected night involves the skies ! The blessedest of mortal wights began to be

Nor can our shaken vessels live at sea, importuned, so that a great part of divine liturgy

Much less against the tempest force their way. was addressed solely to her. Howel.

Dryden. It is the greatest solemnity of prayer, the

7. To continue ; not to be lost. most powerful liturgy and means of impetration

Men's evil manners live in brass, their virtues in this world.


We write in water. Sbakspeare's Henry VIII.

Sounds wbich address the ear are lost and die To LIVE. v. n. (lýsian, lyfigan, Saxon.)

In one short hour; but that which strikes the eye 1. To be in a state of animation ; to be

Lives long upon the mind; the faithful sight not dead.

Engraves the knowledge with a beam of light. Is't night's predominance, or the day's shame,

Watts. That darkness dees the face of earth entomb,

The tomb with manly arms and trophies grace. When living day should kiss it? Sbakspeare.

There high in air memorial of my name To save the living, and revenge the dead, Fix the smooth oar, and bid me live to fame. Against one warrior's arms all Troy they led.

Popes Dryden. 8. To converse ; to cohabit: followed 2. To pass life in any certain manner with

regard to habits, good or ill, happiness The shepherd swains shall dance and sing, or misery:

For they delight each May morning.

If these delights thy mind may move, O death, how bitter is the remembrance of

Then live with me, and be my love. Sbakspears. thee to a man that livetb at rest! Ecclesiasticus.

Dr. Parker, in his sermon before them, touch- 9. To feed. ed them so near for their living, that they went

Those animals that live upon other animals near to touch him for his life. Hayward.

have their flesh more alkalescent than those that The condition required of us is a conjuncture

live upon vegetables.

Arbuthnot. of all gospel graces rooted in the heart, though

10. To maintain one's self; to be supmixed with much weakness, and perhaps with ported. many sins, so they be pot wilfully lived and died A most notorious thief; lived all his life-time Hammond, of spoils and robberies.


by with.

LI V They which minister about holy things live of Li'VELODE. 1. s. [live and lode, from lead; the things of the temple. 1 Corinthians.

the means of leading life. ) Mainte-
His goods were all seized upon, and a small
portion thereof appointed for his poor wife to

nance ; support ; livelihood.


She gave like blessing to each creature,
The number of soldiers can never be great in

As well of worldly livelode as of life,
proportion to that of people, no more than of

That there might be no difference nor strife. those that are idle in a country, to that of those

Hubberd's Tale who live by labour.

Temple. Li'VELONG. adj. [live and long.)
He had been most of his time in good service, 1. Tedious; long in passing.
and had something to live on now he vas old.


Many a time, and oft,

Have 11. To be in a state of motion or vegeta



to walls and battlements,

Your intants in your arms; and there have sate ton.

The livrlong day, with patient expectation,
In a spacious cave of living stone,

To see great Poinsey pass. Sbakspeare. The tyrant Æolus, frorn his airy throne,

The obscurd bird clamour'd the livelorg right. With pow'r imperial curbs the struggling winds.

Sbak spears.
Dryden. Young and old come forth to play
Cool groves and living lakes

On a sun-shine holiday,
Give atier toilsome days a soft repose at night. Till the livelong day-light fail.


Seck for pleasure to destroy 12. To be unextinguished.

The sorrows of this livelong night,

Prior. Pure oil and incense on the fire they throw : How could she sit the livelong day, These gifts the greedy frames to dust devour,

Yet never ask us once to play? Swift. Then on the living coals red wine they pour. 2. Lasting; durable. Not used.

Dryden. Thou, in our wonder and astonishment, Live. adj. (from alive.)

Hast built thyself a liveling monument. Milton. 1. Quick; not dead.

LIVELY. Odj. [live and like.] If one man's ox hurt another that he die, they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money.

1. Brisk ; vigorous; vivacious. Exodus.

But wherefore comes old Manoa in such haste, 2. Active ; not extinguished.

With youthful steps ? much livelier than ere A louder sound was produced by the impe

while tuous eruptions of the halituous tames of the He seems; supposing here to find his son, saltpetre upon casting of a live ccal upon it.

Or of him bringing to us some glad news? Milt.

Boyle. 2. Gay; airy. Li'VELESS. adj. [from live.) Wanting

Dulness delighted, ey'd the lively dunce, life : rather, lifiless.

Rememb’ring she herself was periness once. Description cannot suit itself in words,

Pope. To demonstrate the lite of such a batele,

Form'd by thy converse, happily to steer In life so liveless as it shews itself. Shakspeare.

From grave to gay, from lively to severe. Pope:

3. Representing life. Li'veLIHOOD. 1. s. [It appears to me cor- Since a true knowledge of nature gives us plea

rupted from livelo.c.] Support of life; sure, a lively imitation of it in poetry or painting maintenance ; means of living.

must produce a much greater. Ah! luckless babe! born under cruel star,

Dryden's Dufresnoy And in dead parents balefui ashes bred; 4. Strong ; energetick. Full little weenest thou what sorrows are

His faith must be not only living, but lisely Left thee for portion of thy livelihood! Spenser. 100; it must be brightered and stirred up by a That rebellion drove the lady from thence, to

particular exercise of those virtues specifically refind a livelihood out of her own estate. Clarendon. quisite to a due performance of this duty. Scull. He brings disgrace upon his character, to sub

The colours of the prism are manifestly more mit to the picking up of a livelihood in that full, intense, and lively, than those of natural strolling way of canting and begging. L'Estrange. bodies.

Newton's Opticks. It is their profession and livelihood to get their Imprint upon their minds, by proper arguliving by practices for which they deserve to for- ments and retlections, a lively persuasion of the feit their lives. South. certainty of a future state.

Atterbury. They have been as often banished out of most other places; which must very much disperse a people, and oblige them to seek a livelibood where they can find it.

Spectator. 1. Briskly; vigorously. Trade employs multitudes of hands, and fur- They brought their men to the slough, who nishes the poorest of our fellow-subjects with the discharging lively almost close to the face of the opportunities of gaining an honest livelihood: the enemy, did much aniaze them.

Hayward. skiltul or industrious find their account in it.

2. With strong resemblance of life. Aduisen.

That part of poetry must needs be best, which Li'VELINESS. 11. s. [from lively. ]

describes most lively our actions and passions, 1. Appearance of life.

our virtues and our vices.

Dryden. That liveliness which the freedom of the pen. Li'ver. n. s. [from live.] cil makes appear, may seem the living hand of

1. One who lives. nature. Dryden's Dufresnoy.

Be thy affections undisturbid and clear, 2. Vivacity; sprightliness.

Guided to what may great or good appear, Extravagant young fellows, that have liveli

And try if life be worth the liver's care. Prior. ness and spirit, come sometimes to be set right, 2. One who lives in any particular manner and so make able and great men; but tame and low spirits very seldom attain to any thing.

with respect to virtue or vice, happiness Loche. or misery


Lível!LY.} adv.


The end of his descent was to gather a church of them what victuals they list; for of victuals of holy christian livers over the whole world. they were wont to make a small reckoning. Hammond.

Spenser. If any loose liver have any goods of his own, 5. The clothes given to servants. the sheriff is to seize thereupon. Spenser. My mind for weeds your virtue's livery wears. Here are the wants of children, of distracted

Sidney. persons, of sturdy wandering beggars and loose Perhaps they are by so much the more loth to disorderly livers, at one view represented. forsake this argument, for that it hath, though

Atterbury. nothing else, yet the name of scripture, to give 3. (from lifene, Sax.) One of the en

it some kind of countenance more than the pretext of livery coars affordeth.

Hooker. trails,

I think, it is our way,
With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles

If tre will keep in favour with the king,

To be her men, and wear her livery.

Sbaksp. And let my liver rather heat with wine,

Yet do our hearts wear Timon's livery, Than my heart cool with mortifying groans. That see I by our faces.

Sbakspeare. Sbakspeare.

Ev'ry lady cloath'd in white, Reason and respect

And crowned with oak and laurel ev'ry knight, Make livers pale, and lustihood dejected.

Are servants to the leaf, by liveries known

Sbudspeare. Of innocence. Dryden's Florver and Leaf. LI'VERCOLOUR. adj. [liver and colour. ] On others' int’rest her gay liv'ry flings, Dark red.

Interest that waves on party-colour'd wings; The uppermost stratum is of gravel; then

Turn'd to the sun she casts a thousand dyes,

And as she turns the colours fall or rise. clay of various colours, purple, blue, red, liver. cstour. Woodward.


If your dinner miscarries, you were teized by LivERGROWN. adj. [liver and grown.] the footmen coming into the kitchen; and to Having a great liver.

prove it true, throw a ladleful of broth on one or I enquired what other casualties were most two of their liveries.

Swift. like the nickets, and found that livergrown was 6: A particular dress; a garb worn as a nearest.

Graunt, token or consequence of any thing. LI'VERWORT. n. s. [liver and wort ;

Of fair Urania, fairer than a green licbin.] A plant.

Proudly bedeck'd, in April's livery.

Sidorey. Tha: sort of liçerwort which is used to cure

Mistake me not for my complexion the bite of mad dogs, grows on commons, and

The shadow'd livery of the burning sun,

To whom I am a neighbour and near bred. open heaths, where the grass is short, on declivities, and on the sides of pits. This spreads on

Shakspeare. the surface of the ground, and, when in perfece

At once came forth whatever creeps the

ground, tion, is of an ash colour: but, as it grows old, it alters, and becomes of a dark colour. Miller.

Insect, or worm: those wav'd their limber fans

For wings, and smallest lineaments exact, LI'VERY, n, s. (from livrer, Fr.)

In all the liveries deck'd of summer's pride, 1. The act of giving or taking possession. With spots of gold and purple, azure, green. You do wrongfully seize Hereford's right,

Milton. Call in his letters patents that he hath

Now came still evening on, and twilight grey B; his attorneys general to sue

Had in her sober livery all things clad. Milton. His livery, and deny his offered homage. LI'VERYMAN, 1. s. (livery and man.]

Sbakspeare. 1. One who wears a livery; a servant of 2. Release from ward ship.

an inferiour kind. Had the two houses first sued out their livery, The witnesses made oath, that they had heard and once effectually redeemed themselves from

some of the liverymen frequently railing at their the wardship of the tumults, I should then sus


Arbuthnot. pect my own judgment. King Charles.

2. [In London.]

A freeman of some 3. The writ by which possession is ob- standing in a company. tained,

LIVES. n. s. [the plural of life.] 4. The state of being kept at a certain So short is life, that every peasant strives,

In a farm house or field, to have three lives. rate.

Dorne. What liverg is, we by common use in England know well enough, namely, that it is an allow- LI'VID. adj. [lividus, Lat. livide, Fr.] ance of horse meat; as they commonly use the Discoloured, as with a blow ; black and word stabling, as to keep horses at livery; the

blue. which word, I guess, is derived of livering or delivering forth their nightly food; so in great

It was a pestilent fever, not seated in the veins

or humours, for that there followed no carbuns houses, the livery is said to be served up for all

cles, no purple or livid spots, the mass of the nighe, that is, their evening allowance for drink:

blood not being tainted.

Bacon. and livery is also cailed the upper weed, which a

Upon my livid lips bestow a kiss: serying man wears; so called, I suppose, for that it was delivered and taken from him at pleasure:

O envy noc the dead, they feel not bliss! Dryd.

They beat their breasts with many a bruising so it is apparent, that by the word livery, is there

blow, meant horse meat, like as by the coigny is understood man's meat. Some say it is derived of

Till they turn'd livid, and corrupt the snow.

Dryd:n. coin, for that they used in their coignies not only to take meat but money ; but I rather think it Livi'DITY. 1. s. [li-vidité, Fr. from li vid.] is derived of the Irish, the which is a common Discolourarion, il y a blow. use amongst landlords of the Irish to have a com- The signs of a tendency to such a state, are mon spending upon their tenants, who being darkness or lividity of the countenance, commonly but tenants at will, they used to take


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LI'vING. participial adj.

There are several sorts of lizards ; some ir 1. Vigorous; active : as, a living faith. Arabia of a cubit long. In America they eat 2. Being in motion; having some natural

lizards; it is very, probable likewise that they

were eaten in Arabia and Judæa, since Moses energy, or principle of action : as, the

rauks them among the unclean creatures. living green, the living springs.

Calmet. Li'VING. 1. s. [from live.]

Thou’rt like a foul mis-shapen stigmatick, J. Support; maintenance ; fortune on Mark'd by the destinies to be avoided, which one lives.

As venomous toads, or lizards dreadful stings.

Sbakspeare. The Arcadians fought as in unknown place,

Adder's fork, and blindworm's sting, having no succour but in their hands; the Helots,

Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing. as in their own place, fighting for their livings,

Sbakspeare. wives, and children.

Sidney. Li'ZARDSTONE, 11. s. [lizard and stone.) All they did cast in of their abundance; but A kind of stone. she of her want did cast in all that she had, even

LIZARDTAIL. n. S. A plant. all her living:

Mark. 2. Power of continuing life.

LL.D. (legum doctor.] A doctor of the There is no living without trusting some body

canon and civil laws. or other, in some cases. L'Estrange. Lo. interj. [la, Sax.] Look; see ; behold. 3. Livelihood.

It is a word used to recal the attention For ourselves we may a living make. Spenser. generally to some object of sight; some

Then may I set the world on wheels, when times to something heard, but not proshe can spin for her living. Sbaksfrare. Isaac and his wife, now dig for your life,

perly; often to something to be underOr shortly you'll dig for your living. Denbam. Actors must represent such things as they are

Lo! within a ken our army lies. Sbakspeare. capable to perform, and by which both they and

Now must the world point at poor Catherine, the scribbler may get their living:

And say, l.! there is mad Petruchio's wife. Dryden's Dufresnoy.


Lo! I have a weapon, 4. Benefice of a clergyman.

A better never did itselt sustain
Some of our ministers having the livings of

Upon a soldier's thigh.

Sbakspeare. the country offered unto them, without pains,

Thou did'st utter, will, neither for any love of God, nor for all the

I am yours for ever. food they may do, by winning souls to God, be

- Why lo you now, I've spoke to the purpose drawn forth from their warm nests. Spenser.


Sbakspeare. The parson of the parish preaching against

For lo! he sung the world's stupendous birth. adultery, Mis. Bull told her husband, that they

Roscommon. would join to have him turned out of his living Lo! heav'n and earth combine for using personal reflections. Arbuthnot.

To blast our bold design.

Dryden's Albien. Li'VINGLY, adv. (from living.) In the living state.

LOACH. K. s [loche, Fr.] 1 In vain do they scruple to approach the dead,

The loach is a most dainty fish; he breeds and who livingly are cadaverous, or fear any outward

feeds in little and clear swift brooks or rills, and pollution, whose temper pollutes themselves.

lives there upon the gravel, and in the sharpest Brown.

streams: he grows not to be above a onger long, LIVRE. p. s. (Fr.) The sum by which

and no thicker than is suitable to that length: the French reckon their money, equal

he is of the shape of an eel, and has a beard of

wattels like a barbel : he has two fins at his sides, nearly to our ten-pence.

four at his belly, and one at his tail, dappled with Lixi'víal. adj. [from lixivium, Lat.) many black or brown spots: his mouth, barbel1. Impregnated with salts like a lixivium. like, under his nose. This fish is usually full of

The symptoms of the excretion of the bile eggs or spawn, and is by Gesner, and other phyvitiated, were a yellowish colour of the skin,

sicians, commended for great nourishment, and and a lixivial urine.

Arbuthnot. to be very grateful both to the palate and sto2. Obtained by lixivium.

mach of sick persons, and is to be fished for with Helmont conjectured, that lixivial salts do not

a small worm, at the bottom, for he seldom rises above the gravel.

Walton's Anglor. pre-exist in their alcalizate form. Boyle. LixI'viate. adj. [lixivicux, Fr. from lix. LOAD. n. s. (hlade, Sax.] ivium.] Making a lixivium. 1. A burden ; a freight ; lading.

In these the salt and lixiviated serosity, with Fair plant with fruit surchargid, some portion of choler, is divided between the Deigns none to ease thy load, and taste thy sweet? guts and the bladder. Brown.

Milton. Lixiviate salts, to which pot-ashes belong, by

Then on his back he laid the precious load, piercing the bodies of vegetables, dispose them to And sought his wonted shelter. Dryden. part readily with their tincture. Boyle

Let India boast her groves, nor envy we LIXIVIUM. n. s. (Lat.] Lie; water im- The weeeping amber, and the balmy tree; pregnated with alkaline salt, produced

While by our oaks the precious loads are born, from the ashes of vegetables ; a liquor

And realms commanded which these trees adorn, which has the power of extraction.

2. Weight; pressure ; encumbrance. I made a lixivium of fair water and salt of

Jove lighten'd of its load wormwood, and having frozen it with snow and salt, I could not discern any thing more like to

Th' enormous mass, the labour of a God. Pope. wormwood than to several other plants. Bogle. 3. Weight, or violence of blows. LiʻZARD. n. s. (lisarde, Fr. lacertus, Lat.)

Like lion mov'd they laid on load,

And made a cruel fight. An animal resembling a serpent, with

Chevy Cbace.

Far heavier load thyself expect to feel legs added to it.

From my prevailing arm.




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