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Fr.) To pronounce a publick discourse any way else with such ease and certainty proupon sacred subjects.

vide, that none of her children may, as Adana, From that time Jesus began to preach.

dissemble that wretchedness, the penitent conMattbew.

fession whereof is so necessary a preamble, espe. cially to common prayer?

Hooker. Prophets preach of thee at Jerusalem.

Nehemiab. Truth as in this we do not violate, so neither It is evident in the apostles preaching at Jeru

is the same gain-sayed or crossed, do not in those salem and elsewhere, that at the first proposal of very preombles placed before certain readings, the truth of Christ to them, and the doctrine of

wherein the steps of the Latin service book have

been somewhat too nearly followed, Hocker. repentance, whole multituues received the faith, and came in.

Hammond. Doors shut, visits forbidden, and divers cone Divinity would not pass the yard and loom,

testations with the queen, all preambles of ruin, the forge or anvil, nor preaching be taken in as

though now and then he did wring out some an easier supplementary trade, by those that dis- petty contentments.

Wetta. liked the pains of their own. Decimy of Piety.

This preamble to that history was not improAs he was sent by his father, so were the apos

per for this relation.

Clareado. des commissioned by him to preach to the gen

With preambles sweet tile world.

Decay of Piety.

Of charming symphony they introduce
The shape of our cathedral is not proper for

Their sacred song, and waken raptures high.

Stiltos. our preaching auditories, but rather the figure of an amphitheatre with galleries. Graunt.

I will not detain you with a long preamble. TO PREACH. v. a.

Drydea. 1. To proclaim or publish in religious PREAMBULARY., adj. [from preamble.]

PREA MBULOUS. Previous. Not in orations. The jews of Thessalonica had knowledge, that

use, though not inelegant. the word of God was preached of Paul. Acts. He not only undermineth the base of religion, He decreed to commissionate messengers to

but destroyein the principle preambulous unto all preach this covenant to all mankind. Hammont. beliet, and puts upon us the remotest error from


Broot. 2. To inculcate publickly; to teach with

PREAPPREHE'NSION. n. s. [pre and af. earnestness.

There is not any thing publickly notified, but prebend.). An opinion formed before we may properly say it is preached. Hooker. examination. He oft to them preacb'd

A conceit not to be made out by ordinary Conversion and repentance.


eyes, but such as regarding the clouds, behold Can they preach up equality of birth,

them in shapes conformable to preapprebersiees. And tell us how we all began from carth?

Brorin, Dryden. PREASE. n. s. Press ; crowd. Spenser. See Among the rest, the rich Galesus lies,

PRESS, Obsolete.
A good old man while peace he preach'd in vain,
Amidst the madness of th' unruly train. Dryden.

A ship into the sacred seas,

New-built, now launch we; and from out our PRLACH. n. s. (presche, Fr. from the verb.]

prease A discourse; a religious oration. Not Chuse iwo and fifty youths. Cbsps. in use.

PREAʼSING. part. adj. Crowding. Spenser. This oversight occasioned the French spitefully Pre’BEND. n. s. [prebenda, low Lat. preto term religion in that sort exercised, a mere preach.


bende, French.) PREACHER. n. s. (prescbeur, Fr. from

1. A stipend granted in cathedral churches,

His excellency gave the doctor a preeend is preacb.]

St. Patrick's cathedral. 1. One who discourses publickly upon re


2. Sometimes, but improperly, a stipen. ligious subjects.

diary of a cathedral ; a prebendary: The Lord gave the word ; great was the com- Deans and canons, or prebends of cathedral pany of the preachers.


churches, in their first institution, were of great You may hear the sound of a preacher's voice, use, to be of counsel with the bishop. Bucas. when you cannot distinguish what he saith.

Bacon. PRE'BENDARY. K. s. [prebendarius, Lat.) Here lies a truly honest man,

A stipendiary of a cathedral. One of those few that in this town

To lords, to principals, to prebendaries. Spenser. Honour all preachers; hear their own. Crashaw. I bequeath to the reverend Mr. Grattan, pro2. One who inculcates any thing with bendary of St. Audeon's, my gold bottle-screv. earnestness and vehemence.

Seritt. No preacher is listened to but Time, which PRECA’RIOUS. adj. (precarius, Latin; gives us the same train of thought, that elder precaire, French.] Dependent; uncer people have tried in vain to put into our heads tain, because depending on the will of before.

Swift. another ; held by courtesy ; changeable PREA'CHMENT. n. s. [from preach.] A

or alienable at the pleasure of another. sermon mentioned in contempt; a dis

No word is more unskilfully used than course affectedly solemn.

this with its derivatives. It is used for Was't you, that revellid in our parliament, And made a proachment of your high descent?

uncertain in all its senses ; but it only Shakspeare.

means uncertain, as dependent All this is but a preachment upon the text.

others : thus there are authors who men

L'Estrange, tion the precariousness of an account, of PREAMBLE. n.s. (preambule, Fr.]Sonic- the weather, of a die. ibing previous; introduction; preface. What subjects will precarious kings regard?

How were it possible that the church should A beggar speaks toq softly to be heard. Drydana




Those who live under an arbitrary tyrannick PRECE'DENCE. n. s. [from prevedo, power, have no other law but the will of their PreCE'DENCY.) Latin.] prince, and consequently no privileges but what are precarious.

Addison. 1. The act or state of going before ; This little happiness is so very precarious, that

priority. it wholly depends on the will of others. Spect. 2. Something going before ; something He who rejoices in the strength and beauty of


Not used. youth, should consider by how precarious a tenure I do not like, but yet it does allay he holds these advantages, that a thousand acci

The good precedence. dents may before the next dawn lay all these glo

It is an epilogue or discourse, to make plain ries in the dust.


Some obscure precedence that hath tofore been PRECA'RIOUSLY. adv. [from precarious.]

Sbakspeare Uncertainly by dependence; depen- 3.. Adjustment of place. dently; at the pleasure of others.

Among the laws touching precedence in JustiIf one society cannot meet or convene toge

nian, divers are, that have not yet been so rether, without the leave or licence of the other so

ceived every where by custom. Selder. ciety; nor treat or enact any thing relating to The constable and marshal had cognizance, their own society, without the leave and autho

touching the rights of place and procedence. rity of the other; then is that society, in a man

Hale. ner, dissolved, and subsists precariously upon the 4. The foremost in ceremony. mere will and pleasure of the other. Lesley.

None sure will claim in hell
Our scene precariously subsists too long

Precedence ; none, whose portion is small
On French translation and Italian song :
Dare to have sense yourselves; assert the stage,

Of present pain, that with ambitious mind
Will covet more.

Milton. Be justly warm'd with your own native rage.

The royal olive accompanied him with all his

Pope. PRECA'RIOUSNESS. n. s. [from precari

court, and always gave him the precedoncy:

Howel. ous.] Uncertainty; dependence on

That person hardly will be found, others. The following passage from With gracious forin and equal virtue crown'd; book, otherwise elegantly written, af

Yet if another could precedence claiin, fords an example of the impropriety

My fixt desires could find no fairer aim. Drydia. mentioned at the word precarious. 5. Superiority. Most consumptive people die of the discharge

Books will furnish him, and give him light and they spit up, which, with the precariousness of the precedency enough to go before a young foliower. symptoms of au oppressed diaphragm from a mere

Lorte. lodyinent of extravasated matter, render the Being distracted with different desires, the

operation but little adviseable. Sbarp. next inquiry will be, which of them has the prePRECAU’TION. n. s. (precaution, Fr. from

cedency, in determining the will to the next action?

Locke. præcautus, Lat.) Preservative caution;

PRECE'dent. adj. [precedent, Fr. pręcepreventive measures. Unless our ministers have strong assurances of

dens, Lat.] Former ; going before. bis falling in with the grand alliance, or not op

Do it at once, posing it, they cannot be too circumspect and Or thy precedent services are all speedy in taking their precautions against any

But accidents unpurpos'd. Shakspeare. contrary resolution.


Our own precedent passions do instruct us, What levity's in youth.

Sfakspeare. TO PRECAU'TION. v.a. (precautioner, Fr.

When you work by the imagination of another, from the noun.) To warn beforehand.

it is necessary that he, by whom you work, have By the disgraces, diseases, and begacy of hope- a precedent opinion of you, that you can do strange ful young men brought to ruin, he may be pre- things.

Bacon. cautioned.


Hippocrates, in his prognosticks, doth make PRECEDA'NEOUS. adj. (This word is, I

good observations of the diseases that ensule upon

the nature of the precedent four seasons of the believe, mistaken by the author for


Bacon. præcidaneous; præcidaneus, Latin, cut or The world, or any part thereof, could not be slain before. Nor is it used here in its precedent to the creation of man.

Hal. proper sense.] Previous; antecedent. Truths, absolutely necessary to salvation, are That priority of particles of simple matter,

so clearly revealed, that we cannot err in them, influx of ihe heavens and preparation of matter

unless we be notoriously wanting to ourselves; might be antecedent and precedaneous, not only

herein the fault of the judgment is resolved into • in order, but in time, to their ordinary produce a precedent default in the will.

Sout). tions.

Hale. Pre'CEDENT. N. S. [The adjective bas To Prece'de. v.a. [præcedo, Lat. preceder, the accent on the second syllable, the French.)

substantive on the first.) Any thing 1. To go before in order of time,

that is a rule or example to future How are we happy, still in fear of harm? times ; any thing done before of the But harm precedes not sin.


same kind. Arius and Pelagius durst provoke,

Examples for cases can but direct as preces To what the centuries preceding, spoke. Dryden. dents only.

Hooker. The ruin of a state is generally preceded by an Eleven hours I've spent to write it over, universal degeneracy of manners and contempt The precedent was full as long a doing. Sbaksp. • of religion.


No pow'lin Venice 2. To go before accordi ng to the ajust- Can alter a decree establish'd ; ment of rank,

'Twill be recorded for a precedenti



his way

And many an errour, by the same example, the catholick church is in like sort divided into 3
Will rush into the state.
Sbakspeare. number of distinct societies.

Hioker. God, in the administration of his justice is This is the manner of God's dealing with bose not tied to precedents, and we cannot argue, that that have lived within the precincts of the church; the providences of God towards other nations they shall be condemned for the very want of shall be conformable to his dealings with the true faich and repentance.

Perkins. people of Israel.

Tillotson. Through all restraint broké loose, he wings Such precedents are numberless; we draw Our right froin custom; custom is a law.

Not far off heav'n, in the precincts of light,

Granville. Directly towards the new created verid. Milt. Prece'DENTLY. adv. (from precedent, PRECIOʻSITY. n. s. [from pretiosus, Lat.]

n adj.] Beforehand.

1. Value ; preciousness. PRECE'NTOR. n. s. (pracentor, Lat. pre- Any thing of high price. Not used in centeur, Fr.) He that leads the choir. either sense.

Follow this pretentor of ours, in blessing and The index or forefinger was too naked shereto magnifying that God of all grace, and never to commit their preciosities, and hath the tuition yielding to those eremies, which he died to give of the thumb scarce unto the second joint. us power to resist and overcome. Hammond.

Brotin. PREʼCEPT: n. s. (precepte, Fr. præ

Barbarians seem to exceed them in the ceceptum, Latin.) A rule authoritatively

ricsity of their application of these preciesities.

More giver y a mandate ; a comunandment; a PREʻCIOUS. adj. (precieux, Fr. pretiosus, direction.

Latin.) The custom of lessons furnishes the very simplest and rudest sort with infallible axioms

1. Valuable; being of great worth.

Many things, which are most precious, are and prucets of sacred truth, delivered even in the very letter of the law of God. Hooker. neglected, oniy because the value of them lieth


Hosier. 'Tis sufficient, that painting be acknowledged for an art; for it follows that no arts are without Why in that rawness left you wife and chil. their precepts.


dren, A precept or commandment consists in, and Those precious motives, those strong knots of

love, has respect to, 'some moral point of doctrine, viz, such as concerns our manners, and our in

Without leave taking ?


I never saw . ward and outward good behaviour. Ayliffe.

Such precions deeds in one that promis'd nought Prece'PTIAL. adj. [from precept. ] Con- But begg'ry and poor luck. Sbakspeare. sisting of precepts. Not in use.

These virtues are the hidden beauties of a Men

soul, which make it lovely and precious in his Can counsel, and give comfort to that grief sight, from whom no secrets are concealed. Which they themselves not feel; but tasting it,

Spectator. Their counsel turns to passion, which before 2. Costly; of great price : as, a precious Would give preceptial medicine to rage;

stone. Fetter strong madness in a silken thread,

Let none admire
Charm ach with air, and agony with words.

That riches grow in hell; that soil may best
Deserve the presious bane.

Miltas. PRECEPTIVE. adj. [preceptivus, Latin; 3. Worthless. An epithet of contempt or

from precept.] Containing precepts ; irony. giving precepts.

More of the same kind, concerning these The ritual, the preceptive, the prophetick, and precious saints amongst the Turks, may be seta all other parts of sacred writ, were n.ost sedu- in Pietro della Valle.

Lecka lously, most religiously guarded by them.

PRECIOUSLY. adv. [from precious.] Goverument of the Tongue. As the preceptive part enjoins the most exact

1. Valuably; to a great price. virtue, so is it most advantageously entorced by

2. Contemptibly. In irony. the promissory, which, in respect of the re

PresCIOUSNESS. n. s. [from precious.] wards, and the manner of proposing them, is Valuableness; worth; price. adapted to the same end. Decay of Piety. Its preciousness equalled the price of pearls. The lesson given us here, is preceptive to us

Wilkins. not to do any thing but upon due consideration. PRECIPICE, n. s. (præcipitium, Latin;


precipice, French.) A headlong steep; PRECE'PTOR. n. s. (præceptor, Latin ; a tall perpendicular without gradual precepteur, Fr.) A teacher; a tutor.

declivity: Passionate chiding carries rough language You take a precifice for no leap of danger, with it, and the names that parents and precep- And woo you: cwe destruction.

Sbalsposte. tors give children, they will not be ashamed to Where the water dasherh more aga nst the bestow on others.

Locke. bottom, there is noveto more swiftly and more It was to thee, great Stagyrite, unknown, in precifice; in the bzeaking of the waves And thy preceptor of divine renown. Blackmore. there is ever a-ricitice.

B.990. PRECE'SSION. 1. s. [fram præcedo, præ

I ere long that pripice must tread,

Wherce ncne return, at leads unto the dead. cessus, Lat.] The act of going before. PRECINCT. n. s. (præcinctus, Lat.] Out


No stupendous precifice denies ward limit ; boundary

Access, no horror turns ar zy our eyes.

Derb. The main body of the sea being one, yet Swití down the frecipice of time i: goes, within divers precincts, hath divers names; so

And sinks in minutes, which in ages rose. Drys.


His gen'rous mind the fair ideas drew 3. To hasten unexpectedly. Of fune and honour, which in dangers lay ; · Short intermittent and swift recurrent pains

Where wealth, like fruit, on precipices grew, do precipitate patients into consumptious. Nor to be gather'd but by birds of prey. Bryd.

Harvey. Drink as much as you can get; because a good 4. To hurry blindly or rashly. coachnan never drives so well as when he is As for having them obnoxious to ruin, if they drunk; and then shew your skill, by driving to be of fearful natures, it may do well; but if an inch by a precipice.

Swift. they be daring, it may precipitate their designs, PRECIPITANCE. ? n. s. [from precipi. and prove dangerous.

В.co. PRECIPITANCY. tant.) Rash haste ;

Dear Erythræa, let not such blind fury headlong hurry.

Precipitate your thoughts, nor set them working,

Tilltire shall lend them better means Thither they haste with glad precipitarcr. Than lost complaints.

Denban. Alilton. 'Tis not likely that one of a thousand such

s. To throw to the bottom. A term of precipitancies should be crowned with so unex

chymistry opposed to sublime. pected an issue.


Gold endures a vehement fire long without As the chymist, by catching at it too soon, any change, and after it has been divided by lost the philosophical elixir, so precipitancy of

corrosive liquors into invisible parts, yet may our understanding is an occasion of error. presently be precipitated, so as to appear again in Glanville. its own form.

Grew. We apply present remedies according unto TO PRECIPITATE. V. n. indications, respecting rather the acuteness of

1. To fall headlong. disease and precipitancy of occasion, than the

Hadst thou been aught but goss'mer feathers, rising or setting of stars.

Hurried on by the precipitancy of youth, I

So many fathom down precipitating,
Thou'dst shiver like an egg.

Shalspears took this opportunity to send a letter to the


2. To fall to the bottom as a sediment in A rashness and precipitance of judgment, and

chymistry. hastiness to believe something on one side or the By strong water every metal will precipitate. other, plunges us into many errors. Watts.

Bacor. PRECI'PITANT. adj. (pracipitans, Lat.) 3. To hasten without just preparation. 1. Falling or rushing headlong.

Neither did therebels spoilthe country, neither Without longer pause,

on the one side did their forces increase, which Downright into the world's tirst region throws

might hasten him to precipitate and assail them. His flight precipitant. Milton.

Bacon, The birds heedless while they strain

Precipitate. adj. [from the verb.] Their tuneful throats, the tow'ring heavy lead 1. Steeply falling. O'ertakes their speed; they leave their little Barcephas saith, it was necessary this paradise lives

should be set at such a height, because the tour Above the clouds, precipitant to earth. Pbilips. rivers, had they not fallen so precipitate, could 2. Hasty; urged with violent haste.

not have had sufticient force tothrust themselves,

under the great ocean. Should he return, that troop so blithe and

Raleigh. bold,

When the full stores their ancient bounds

disdain, Precipitunt in fear, would wing their flight, And curse their cumbrous pride's unwicidy

Precipitate the furious torrent flows;

In vain would speed avoid, or strength oppose.

Prior. 3. Rashly hurried. The commotions in Ireland were so sudden

2. Headlong; hasty ; rashly hasty. and so violent, that it was hard to discern the

The archbishop, too precipitate in pressing the rise, or apply a remedy to that precipitant re

reception of that which he thought a reformabellion.

Clarendon King Cbarles.

tion, paid dearly for it. PRECIPITANTLY. adv. [from precipi- 3. Hasty ; violent.

Mr. Gay died of a mortification of the bosvels; tant.] In readlong haste; in a tu

it was the most precipitat: c36e I ever knew, multuous hurry.

having cut him off in three days. Arbutonet. TO PRECIPITATE. v. a. [præcißito, Precipitate. n. s. A corrosive medi.

Lat. precipiter, Fr. in all the senses.] cine made by precipitating mercury. 3. To throw headlong.

As the escar separated, I rubbed the superShe had a king to her son-in-law, yet was excrescence with the vitriol stone, or sprinkled uron dark and unknown reasons precipitated and it with precipitate.

Wiseman, banished from the world into a nunnery. Bacon. Ere vengeance

Preci'PITATELY. adv. [from precipiPrecipitate thee with augmented pain. Milton. tate.]

They were wont, upon a superstition, to pre- 1. Headlong; steeply down. sipitate a man from some high cliff into the sea,

2. Hastily; in blind hurry. tying about him with strings, many great fowls.

It may happen to those who vent praise or Wilkins.

censure too precipitutely, as it did to an English The goddess guides her son, and turns him from the light,

poet, who celebrated a nobleman for erecting Herself involvd in clouds, precipitates her flight.

Dryden's monument, upou a promise which he

forgoi, tül it was done by another. Swift. Dryden.

Not so bold Arnall; with a weight of skuil 3. To urge on violently.

Furious he sinks, presipilately dull.

Pope. The virgin from the ground Upstarting fresh, already clos'd the wound,

PRECIPITA’TION. 1. s. (precipitation, Fr. Precipitates her flight.

Dryden. from precipitate. )

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1. The act of throwing headlong. 2. Formal; finical ; solemnly and supera

Let them pile ten hills on the Tarpeian rock, stitiously exact.
That the precipitation might down-stretch

The raillery of the wits in king Charles the
Below the beam of sight, yet will I still

Second's reigni, upon every thing which they Be this to them.

Sbakspeare. cailed precise, was carried to so great an extra2. Violent motion downward.

vagance, that it almost put all christianity out of That could never happen from any other cause


Addisor. than the hurry, precipitation, and rapid motion PRECISELY. adv. [from precise.) of the water, returning at the end of the deluge

1. Exactly; nicely; a curately. towards the sea.


Doth it follow, that all things in the church, 3. Tumultuous hurry ; blind haste. ;

from the greatest to the least, are unholy, which Here is none of the hurry and precipitation,

the Lord hath not himself precisely instituted ?

Hooker, none of the blustering and violence, which must

When the Lord had once precisely set down have attended those supposititious changes.

W codward.

a for:n of executing that wherein we are to 4. In chymistry, subsidency : contrary to

serve him, the fault appeareth greater to do

that which we are not, than not to do that which sublimation.

we are commanded.

Separation is wrought by precipitation or subli-

He knows,
mation; that is, a calling of the parts up or down, He cannot so precisely weed this land
which is a kind of attraction.

Bacon. Ashis misdoubts present occasion,
The precipitation of the vegetative matter, His toes are so enrooted with his friends. Sbak.
after the deluge, and the burying it in the strata Where more of these orders than one shall
underneath amongst the sand, was to retrench be set in several stories, there must be an ex-
the luxury of the productions of the earth, quisite care to place the columns precisay one
which had been so ungratefully abused by its

over another. former inhabitants.


In his tract my weary feet have slept,
Precipitous. adj. (præcipites, Lat.)

His undeclined ways precisely kept. Sandys.

The rule, to find the age of the moon, care J. Headlong; steep.

not shew precisely an exact account of the mooi, Monarchy, together with me, could not but

because of the inequality of the motions of the be dashed in pieces by such a precipitous fall as

sun and of the moon.

Holder. they intended.

King Charles.

Measuring the diameter of the fifth dark 2. Hasty; sudden.

circle, I found it the fifth part of an inch pro Though the attempts of some have been pre


Neutea cipitous, and their enquiries so audacious as to 2. With superstitious formality ; with too have lost themselves in attempts above humanity,

much scrupulosity ; with troublesome yet have the enquiries of most defected by the way:


ceremony. How precious the time is, how precipitous the Preci'SENESS. n. s. [from precise. ] Exact. occasion, how many things to be done in their ness ; rigid nicety: just season, after once a ground is in order.

I will distinguish the cases; though give me

Evelyn. leave, in the handling of them, not to sever 3. Rash; heady.

them with too much preciseness.

Bares. Thus fram’d'for ill, he loos'd our triple hold,

When you have fixed proper hours for parAdvice unsafe, precipitous and bold. Dryden.

ticular studies, keep to them, not with a super

stitious preciseness, but with some good degrees PRECI'SE. adj. (precis, Fr. præcisus,

of a regular constancy.

Watts. Latin.)

PRECISIAN. 1. s. [from precise.] 3. Exact; strict ; nice; having strict and 1. One who limits or restrains. determinate limitations.

Though love use reason for his precisien, he Means more durable to preserve the laws of admits him not for his counsellor. Sbakspeure. God from oblivion and corruption grew in use, 2. One who is superstitiously rigorous. not without precise direction from God himself,

These men, for all the world, like our free Hocker.

cisians be,
You'll not bear a letter for me ; you stand Who for some cross or saint they in the window
upon your honour; why,thou unconfinable base-
ness, it is as much as I can do to keep the term

Will pluck down all the church.
of mine honour precise.


A profane person calls a man of piety a pre-
The state hath given you licence to stay on cisian.
land six weeks, and let it not trouble you if
your occasions ask farther time; for the law in Precision. 1. s. [precision, Fr.] Exact
this point is not precise.

Bacon. limitation.
Let us descend from this top

He that thinks of being in general, thinks
Of speculation; for the hour precise

never of any particular species of being; unless Exacts our parting.

Milton, he can think of it with and without precision at In human actions there are no degrees and the same time.

Lecke. precise natural limits described, but a latitude is I have left out the utmost precisions of fracindulged.

Taylor. tions in these computations as not necessary; The reasonings must be precise, though the these whole numbers shewing well enough the practice may admit of great latitude. Arbuthnot. . difference of the value of guineas. Loke.

The precise difference between a compound I was unable to treat this part more in detail, and collective idea is this, that a compound idea without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, unites things of a different kind, but a collective, without wandering from the precision or breakthings of the same kind. Watts. ing the chain of reasoning.





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