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and written, if not in the Munchausen style, at least under the bias of tribes and states confounding tribes and states, and facts repealing facts, as well as in the most stringent terms of sarcastic stereotype vituperation about the unapproachable savageness and blood-thirsty propensity and vindictiveness of the Gauls, or Cimbro-Celts, in distant lands. Before stones are thrown, observe subsequent enlightened times, 'circumspicite externum mundum.'

Does the partial, one-eyed, world ever employ the faculty of thought in such matters, that they, the Celts, the enemy,(par excellence of the classic pen), as invaders, never received any provocation to retaliate the Rowland for an Oliver, as the French of late in Africa, the English in India, the Dutch in the Indian Archipelago ? Else why the perpetual and ever-sneaking aggrandisement of two or three antique nations that you must divine ! To accomplish such a feat of territorial strides, recourse must have been had, all along, to ocean-beds of Celtic blood by these never thirsty dogs of war'. Hence am I not surprised that the Cimbro-Celts should dare to beard the lions in their dens, to avert, it may be, greater calamities on their commingled race of 'good and bad' throughout Europa's breadth ; nor am I, indeed, more astonished to see the great migration of trans-Alpine Gauls, either in defence of a race oppressed, or in a crusading march of primeval love of Deffrobanian and Asian land, veering towards Greece and Asia Minor, in the fifth and sixth centuries, as on a later occasion in B. c. 281, than at the late Gallic-Brito-Ligurian invasion of Sebastopol in support of weakness against might. I grant a good deal to Grecian pride of prose, and Roman fund of poesy, when spleened and gored to shame, defeat, and loss of prestige,on the battle-field by mere · barbaric'(?) troops of Cimbric Hyperborean Celts. I receive, cum grano salis,’ Pausaniasian facts (?) reduplicated at pleasure by copyists of a Roman mould, to calm the unguent sores and tender points of stung historic spleen about the fabled panic tales of blood, and milk, and slaughter of their ‘kin and kind,' when lanced to wounds of quasi-death by hostile hands.

Again, two kings of the (Cimbri) Boii (country of Bologna), At and Gall (the Atis and Galatus of Greece and Rome), endeavoured to arm the people, in order to seize the Roman colony at Ariminum, and they called in the aid of " Gaulish mercenaries" (Cyfforddwy y Gal) from beyond the Alps."

At another period we find the pike, or javelin-armed Gesatæ (Gaisda, from gais, a pike ; hence Gæsa Alpina), a warlike people, who, like the Swiss of modern times, “ gladly served under the rich Gaulish tribes of Italy,” and, encamping on either side of the Via Aurelia, near the Portus Telamonis, and about three days march of Rome. Here they found theinselves suddenly confronted with three Roman armies; upon this the Gaisda, according to the version of Polybius, cited by Michelet, who, however, by ever supplementing the naked highland idea as something outrè on the subject, insinuates a process untenable as far as the bravado of a Bombastes Furioso is concerned, “ threw off their clothes by way of bravado.” To this distorted, yet unique, view of the question, as viewed and reviewed, I demur in toto. The ancient Celtic warriors, by disencumbering themselves of the ample well-known folds of their upper breithwe, brychan, or plaid would thus find their arms more at liberty with their own ponderous weapons and bucklers, to exercise their own peculiar tactics of military warfare. Go into the barracks of a highland regiment and learn historic wisdom, all ye base detractors of the millions of the Cimbro-Celtic race! The various grades of officers in this very Celtic army, and on this very occasion, were, according to Polybius, “decked with collars, chains, and bracelets of gold.” This custom was universally adopted by the grand Cimbro-Celtic family from immemorial ages, as badges of distinction, by princes, by chiefs of clans, by Druids, Ovates, and chief bards, and others on the roll of fame, as we gather from the bards and triads. This practice was subsequently followed by the Homeric Trojan, Greek, and Roman chieftains.

The Cimbric torc, or golden collar, though designed and wrought by the hand of pre-historic Bapßapol, became the boast and ornament of many a Greek, of many a Manlius Torquatus, after the distribution of the Celtica spolia belli. The Scaligerian school, with Lord Macaulay at its head, have impotently, and impudently, essayed to ignore the Cimbro-Celtic manufacture, as well as in that of other national articles, to be hereafter explained. As this is not the time and place to discuss the question, I will, till next we meet, bequeath a little text from Tacitus to supply the stolen aureis nummis of the original Cæsarean commentary : “ Britannia fert aurum,argentum et alia metalla.”

I leave these flippant, errant tongues in the crushing hands of an Akerman, and a De Saussaye, for the present. Truth must prevail, however clogged by the erasive wheels of time, and the Volusenian rust of modern scribes, un-versed, un-oiled by mental friction with the silent dead.

Moreover, the Gauls, or Celts (according to the ipsissima verba of Keightley), whose original seats were France and the British Isles, had felt the desire of change, and lust of acquiring new abodes, to which barbarians are subject. (?) [So then, the Victorians, of all nations, according to this doctrine, are classed as adventurers and barbarians.] It was now more than a century since they had occupied the plane of the Po in Italy, and had reached and sacked Rome; they also advanced and seized the countries along the Danube, and they now held the plains of Thrace. They proceeded to invade Macedonia. The next year (Ol. 125, 2, i.e., 282, B. c.), they were joined by numbers of their countrymen from about the Danube; and an army, we are told, of fifteen myriads of foot, and six myriads of horse, led by Brennus (y Brennin, or the king), and Acichorias (Acichwr), entered Thessaly.”

In the name of a nation's dignity, and honorable dealing, says an admirer of Hume, Johnson, Macaulay, and Co., can this be true? What! were Gaul and Prydain, at that most South-SeaIslandish period, so densely populated, so warlike, so diplomatic, so ambassadorial, so civilised, so well equipped in all the appliances of sea and land transport as to be able to send out, whether right or wrong, such an invading force across the hostile fleets and armies of Greece and Rome! One of these three horns of a dilemma must for ever butt, upset, and kick a balance so unjust. English histories, as put into our juvenile hands, are either indisputably grossly negligent, unpardonably ignorant, or scandalously treacherous, respecting the primeval condition, manners, customs, and vestments of the most ancient Britons' and their Celtic allies, during, I will not say the pre-historic, which is not to be wondered at, but, what is far worse, and more reprehensible, during the patent evidences of the unravelled records of historic times.

Again, Brennin, according to Thierry, citing an ancient writer, is blamed for “not consulting any priest of his nation as to the future success of the fight, or, in lieu of such person, any Greek diviner.” To consult a native priest, the painted, skin-clad, BapBapou must have known something about Greek, which is more than can be said of many triflers, styling themselves annalists, or historians 'totius veritatis', who attribute to the Brennin, and his army of Greece,"nothing but the idealities of a New Zealander. The Cimbric Brennin, when at Delphi, is reported by Justin to have said, “ It was right that rich gods should bestow their bounty on men ; that they had no need of wealth, inasmuch as it was they who were used to bestow it on men.” He is also stated to have thrown his gold sword into the scale to make up the required balance; as a dross of earth, a bauble without price, compared to tarnished deeds of prowess—as of fame and

" Art enslaved and sold, “ And science priestless of the idle gold!" There is a vast fund of moral and physical wealth implied in the Brennin's philosophic views. The Druidical mines of Britain are inexhaustible, not only to the merchant, but to the philosopher also.

The other Celts, according to Michelet, cast themselves into that great Asia, amid the quarrels of Alexander's successors.

The old Cimmerian Allwysbont fell to the Trocmi; the coasts of the Aigwm to the Tolistoboii; the south to the Tectosages.

Behold, now, our Gauls returned to the cradle of the Kymry, not far from the “Beisfor Cymreig;” behold them established upon the ruins of “ Troiau," and in the mountains of Asia Minor, whither the French will lead a similar crusade so many centuries after, under the banners of Godfrey de Bouillon, and Louis the Young.”

About 200 years after the preceding events we find them, according to Plutarch, creating a tumultuous Cimbricus vel Gallicus, a Cimbric or Gallic panic, and threatening Rome itself, under their king Belin, or Beleus. But, eventually, they were forced, notwithstanding all the military skill and bravery of Belin, to succumb to Marius, the Roman general, after one of the bloodiest battles on record, when 100,000 (some say 200,000), were either killed, taken prisoners, or put to flight, A. U. C. 640, or 112 B. C. The vanquished on this occasion, according to Cicero, included Gauls, and, according to other authors referring to the same event, the defeated army was indiscriminately styled Galli vel Cimbri, accompanied by Teutones.

Juvenal, inter alios, corroborates the peril incurred by the Roman republic, in the tottering condition of its capital, and the total discomfiture of the Cimbro-Teuton-Celtic army, in the following emphatic language:

“Hic tamen, et Cimbros et summa pericula rerum
“ Excipit, et solus trepidantem protegit urbem

“Atque ideo, postquam ad Cimbros stratemque volebat.” The coat of mail, also, of their King Beleus, which was dug up at Aquæ Sextiæ, or Aix, in Province, where Marius routed them, proves the mutual identification, or amalgamation, of these dauntless warriors, by the well-known antiquarian inscription in Cimbric Coelbrenic characters, which I have put in Roman letters, as “ BELEOS CIMBROS.”

And, finally, to sum up the question, let us now ascertain what are the opinions of the learned and accomplished Arnold on this Celtic question of Italian, Roman, Grecian, and Asian invasions; he will, I trust, decide, when doctors disagree. He propounds several questions, amongst others : “ To what Celtic race did the Gauls who invaded Italy belong ?” Were they Gael, or were they Kymry (Cimbri)? or, did they belong to some third division, distinct from each of these, which has since utterly perished.” He then goes on to prove from Diodorus the distinction between the Gauls and the Celts according to the Romans, and states his own impression that Celt and Gaul are but different forms of the same race; and further states, “ that to these more remote tribes belonged the Kimbri, whom some writers identified with old Cimmerians, and that these Kimbri were the people who took Rome, and sacked Delphi, and carried their conquests even to Asia ;” as we have already seen. And further, he adds that he “ considered the more remote Gauls," i.e., the Gauls, in allusion to the difference of language, on the shores of the ocean, that is, on the shores of the British Channel and the North Sea, to “include, according to Diodorus, the people called Kimbri ; that the people now calling themselves Kymry, namely, the Welsh, differed in language and customs from the Celtic tribes in Ireland and Scotland, and that the Keltæ and Galatæ of Diodorus were two great divisions of the same race, analogous to the Gael and Kymry existing at this day in Great Britain.'

“Oh England! thou who art so great and free
As oft thy children vaunt, and foes confess;
“ Think that thy might was not conceded thee
To scorn thine elder sister and oppress;
“No! 'twas to aid, acknowledge her, and bless :
“For God hath fixed her dwelling place apart,
“ And given her gifts that thou dost not possess ;
“Hurt not her shieldless form with envious dart,
“But bear her by thy side with nobly generous heart.


“Nations like phantasms have haunted her,
“ And passed as vapours from the rising day;
“ Creed, custom, speech, opinion, that confer
“ On them a character, have died away
“To newer forms of up-growth and decay;
“ But she has kept alive her ancient fire,
“ Through Persian, Grecian, Roman, English sway;
6 Oh! cherish it, and it shall not expire
“ Until her mountains feed earth's last great funeral pyre.”

It will not, perhaps, be deemed uninteresting, at this final stage of our peregrinations, to us who have essayed to weather the storm of Hume-an and Macaulay-an contumely and of wrong, to ascertain somewhat of the Cimbro-Celts, independently of their warlike achievements, as partially seen through the dim contracted foci of Grecian or of Roman spectacles.

Cæsaris, vel Voluseni, vel Scaligeri commentariis relictis.

We cannot, of course, expect to retain, more than did our modern-life forefathers about forty or fifty years ago, mutatis mutandis, in reference to the alleged barbarous, and wits frightened

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