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Total, 100 l. fo that the French may fell Wares of equal Goodness at 100 l. which we shall not be able to sell under 150 l, and this upon a Suppofition too, that they pay 20 l. for one third Part of their Quantity of Wool, which costs us only 10l. Thus if we suppose that they use two Thirds of their own Growth, they can afford to give for what they buy from us, or from Ireland's double the Price of our Market, and yet fell so much cheaper than we can, as is already stated.
Our Manufacturers make a Noise about the running of Wool, and about that only, as if this were their only Evil. They are affisted in their. Clamour, and misled in their Reasoning, by those whofe Business it is to raise a Dust, and to hide the true, the principal Cause of the Declension of the Britis Trade; that is of the British Grandeur..
This assigning non caufa pro causa, is (when it can *pass upon People) the most dangerous Kind of Sophistry; the Principle being falle, the false Deductions from it may be numberless.
If a Master-Weaver, who returns Twenty Thousand Pounds a Year in his Trade, should complain that Wool is risen. Ten per Cent. by clandestine Exportation, and that the Manufacturer is ruined by it; it would be in vain to tell him, that there is a single Evil that prejudices his Manufacture in a much greater Degree: He would laugh at me, as an ignorant Pretender, to prefume to be wiser than a Man in his own Trade, And yet I may venture to fay, that the Duty on Soap and Candles is an heavier Clog on the Ma. nufacture, than any probable Advance in the Price of the unwrought: Commodity can. amount to. But here is the Difference, the Master knows when he pays an advanced Price for Wool, but he
null and Candierenture to lan in his der to pre
forgets that he pays the Candle-Tax in the Wages of the Workman.
I do not mean upon the Whole, that France will be able to cut us out from every particular Branch or Article of the Woollen Manufacture, I doubt not that we are in Possession of a Manufacture of some Sorts both of Cloths and Stuffs, which they cannot equal; especially without the Help of our Wool, or that of Ireland. But then this must be admitted, that tho' we could totally cut off the clandestine Exportation, yet the French would still be able to increase in the Manufacture of vast Quantities of coarse Goods; and let us remember, that tho'a Yard of fine Cloth may be worth a Guinea, yet the Proportion of that Export is but small. It is the Cloathing of the Millions that makes Millions of Money; and if the French are to supplant us in foreign Markets for the Sale of coarse Goods, tho' perhaps the Fountain of our Wealth will not be quite exhausted, yet I fear it will run miserably low. It is idle to say, that their coarse Manufactures will not be as good as ours, if they fell at a lower Price, that will more than compensate the Difference, The Multitude do not affect the nicest Goods, they are glad to be warm at a cheap Rate, and I think our Merchants have said something like this in their Complaints of the Irijh Trade to Lisbon. They say, that the Irish Goods are not comparable to ours, but because they can undersel us, they have a ready Market, while ours lye unfold upon the Factors Hands.
It would be proper to apply this Complaint against Ireland, to France, and to Prufra too; for the Prufian has supplanted us very lately in our Trade to Muscovy, to the Value of many Thou
The Multitore than comhey fell at allac
fand Pounds a Year for coarse Cloathing for the Russian Armies. Does all this depend on the Running of Wool from home? Has the Almighty given fleecy Sheep only to England and Ireland We may possibly hinder Foreigners from getting our Wool, but what Act of Parliament shall prevent their working up their own? Why do not we make a Law to forbid their Grass to grow, and to intercept their Sun-fhine.
Nothing but the true Foundation of the Growth of the Wealth of private Dealers, can make a trading Nation flourish. We must fell great Quantities, and that cannot happen unless we fell at least as cheap as our Neighbours : It is easy to see,' that we cannot effect this, while we are plunged in Debt: It is no Wonder that we are thus in Debt, fince, after our devouring Land War, we continue to support a great Army at home and abroad ever since; and that by Taxes which were half devoured by those who collected them. It is natural for People to flock out of the Mortgaged-Kingdom to America, France or Holland, or any other place where their Industry may feed and cloath them, which it cannot at home :: And thus (just as it happens in the Case of private Persons) the Increase of the Nation's Debt occafions the Decrease of the Means of paying it. The Loss of the Nation by maintaining a great Army, is not yet sufficiently stated, besides the positive Loss of paying them, there is also a negative Loss of at least 200,000 l. per Annum, which they would and ought to get, if they were left to labour. for their Subfiftence.
I am, &c. DG . Miscela
A Letter from Bishop Barlow to his Honoured Friend Mr. Edward Cooke, * at
e in Plow-Yard in Fetter-Lane.
Have received your Letter, and the ingeI nuous book + you so kindly Sent me; and TE this comes (with my love and Service) to
bring my harty Thanks. Though my businesses be many, and my Infirmities more, (beinge now past the 74 year of my Age) yet I have read over your Booke, with great content and satisfaction: For I doe really believe, that the many pertinent Records, and profes which you have brought, are sufficient to evince the truth of your positions. You have done me a great honor in the Conclusion of your Booke, which I wish I were worthy of. You are pleased to make use of the fame words and chalenge to yours, which I
* This Gentleman was one of the Benchers of the Temple, and, some time, Licenser of the Press. - A Discourse on the Nature of the English.Constitution. Written by Mr. Cooke.
have made to my * Adversaries; and I doubt not, but you will, and (God willinge) I shall (when there is a just occasion) be able to make good that chalenge. Some of our late fcriblers seeme to make the Kingdome of England, rather Elective than Successive and Hereditary; and that it is in the Power of the Parliament to depose and sett upp Kings, or alter the Governement (which was fataily and traiterously put in practice, (to the horror and amazement of all good men) by the late longe Parliament) yet it is evident, and in our laws and publique Acts of Parliament declared, (which you better know) that this Kingdom ever was, and for ever + ought to be hereditary and successive. Nor did the Conqueror, or any Kinge since, ever acknowledge or pretend to any popular or Parliamentary Election : But even those Kings, who had not an undoubted immediate right of Succession, did ever clame the Crowne, as Heires and Successors to it. Soe William the Conqueror; (as you have well proved) fo Henry the 4. (after the Deposition of Richard the 2) did in full Parliament, challenge the Crowne Jure Sanguinis, as legall Heire to it, as appeare by our authentique Records: The Record is now in print, amongst our Historians published by I Cornelius Beeg, who had that Record from me. But I need not tell you, what (I believe) you better know. And Henry the 7 (as my Lord Bacon in his Life tells us (as I remember) when he was to be proclamed Kinge, layed clame to it, not onely as marryinge Elizabeth, (next Heire of the House of Yorke) but
* See his Remains.
# Vide Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores Decem, pag. 2757. lin. 50.