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the ground, and flocks of birds, in the interval of the ploughing exercises, came down in multitudes and devoured them.
The Royal Prince, seeing the tired oxen, their necks bleeding from the goad, and the men toiling beneath the midday sun, and the birds devouring the hapless insects, his heart was filled with grief, as a man would feel who saw his own household bound in fetters, and, being thus affected with sorrow on behalf of the whole family of sentient creatures, he dismounted from his horse Kantaka, and, having done so, he walked about in deep reflection, thinking about the misery attaching to the various forms of life, and as he meditated, he exclaimed, "Alas! alas! how full of misery is human life. What unhappiness there is in birth and death, old age and disease, and in the midst of all this wretchedness to know of no means of escape or deliverance! But why do men seek for no release? Why do they not strive after rest from toil? Why do they not contend earnestly for that wisdom which alone can lead them to escape from the miseries incident to life and death? Oh! where may I find a quiet spot for meditation—to cast over these causes of sorrow in my mind?"
Then Suddhodana, having watched the ploughing-match, accompanied by all the Sakyas, returned to the garden.
Then the Royal Prince, wandering about and looking from place to place for a convenient spot for rest, suddenly saw a secluded space under a Jambu Tree where he could sit in quiet, and then he addressed his attendants on each side, and bade them disperse themselves in other directions," for I," said he, "desire to be alone for a short period."
Then, gradually approaching the tree, he sat down beneath its shade with his legs crossed, and began to think upon the subject of the sorrows and pain belonging to every form of life. And then, through the power of the love and pity which these reflections produced in his heart, he was wrapt into a state of unconscious ecstacy: and, finally, by separating his thoughts from every kind of impure or worldly taint, he reached the first condition of Dhyana.1
At this time there happened to be five Rishis flying, by means
1 This incident seems to be the subject of Fig. 1, PI. xxv., " Tree and Serpent Worship."
of their spiritual powers, through the air, possessed of great energies, and thoroughly versed in the Shasters and Vedas. They were going from the south towards the north, and when they arrived just over the Jambu tree in the garden aforesaid, wishing to go onwards, suddenly they found themselves arrested in their course. Then they said one to another, '' How is it that we, who have in former times found no difficulty in flying through space and reaching even beyond Sumeru to the Palace of Vaisravana and even to the city of Arkavanta1, and beyond that even to the abode of the Yakshas, yet now find our flight impeded in passing over this tree? By what influence ia it that to-day we have lost our spiritual power?"
Then the Rishis, looking downwards, beheld the prince underneath the tree, sitting with his legs crossed, his whole person so bright with glory that they could with difficulty behold him. Then these Rishis began to consider—"Who can this be?" "Is it Brahma, Lord of the world ?—or is it Krishna Deva, Lord of the Kama Loka?—or is it Sakra?—or is it Vaisravana, the Lord of the Treasuries ?—or is it Chandradeva ?—or is it Surya Deva? —or is it some Chakravartin Raja ?—or is it possible that this is the person of a Buddha born into the world?"
At this time the Guardian Deva of the wood addressed the Rishis as follows: "Great Rishis all! this is not Brahma Deva, Lord of the World; or Krishna, Lord of the Kama Heavens; or Sakra or Vaisravana, Lord of the Treasuries; or Chandra Deva or Sflrya Deva; but this is the Prince Royal, called Siddhartha, born of Suddhodana Raja, belonging to the Sakya race. The glory which proceeds from one pore of his body is greater by sixteen times than all the glory proceeding from the bodies of all those forenamed Devas! And on this account your spiritual power of flight failed you as soon as you came above this tree!"
The Rishis, having heard the words of this guardian spirit, forthwith descended from the air, and, standing before the prince, they uttered the following verses of commendation one by one.
The first Eishi said:
"The world destroyed by the fire of sorrow
This one is able to provide a lake of water1 for escape,
"In the midst of the ignorance and darkness of the world
"In the midst of the vast bog and wilderness of sorrow
"From all the bonds and shackles of worldly sorrows
Can deliver men from all the bonds and shackles of life."
"Whatever miseries of life or death are in the world,
Is a perfect remedy for all the sorrows of birth and death." Thus the Rishis, having saluted the prince with these verses, they bowed down at his feet, and three times proceeded to circumambulate the place, and then flying away again they went on their way through the air.
Now at this time Suddhodana, having for a moment lost sight of the prince, was very much alarmed, and asking a man who passed by, he said, " Have you any knowledge as to which way my son the Royal Prince has gone? [These two former sentences are repeated in the Sanskrit original. Ch. Ed.] He has just now suddenly disappeared."
Forthwith the king sent his ministers in every direction to seek for the prince, wherever he might be. Then one of the ministers unexpectedly saw him sitting beneath the Jambu tree in the
1 Literally—" the water of the Lake of the Law."
shade, lost in meditation and wrapped away in ecstasy. Moreover, he saw that the shadows of the other trees had turned, but the shadow of the Jambu tree alone remained, overshadowing the form of the prince. Then the minister, beholding this miraculous circumstance, was filled with exultation and joy, and going away on foot, he summoned the king to the spot, and said—
"The son of the Maharaja is now dwelling
Suddhodana Raja, having heard this intelligence, immediately went to the spot beneath the Jambu tree, and there he beheld his son sitting cross-legged beneath the tree, just as in the darkest night a burning mountain belching forth fire from its summit is visible, or as suddenly from the black clouds the bright moon emerges, or as a lamp shines in a dark room. Then the Raja, having witnessed the sight, was filled with awe, the hairs on his body were ruffled and stood erect, whilst he bowed down at the feet of his son and, filled with inexpressible joy, exclaimed, "Sadhu! Sadhu! my son has indeed great personal merit." And then he added these verses—
"As the flaming top of a mountain in the night,
"I now bend this body of mine
Now for the first time since his birth
Beholding unexpectedly the Prince lost in meditation."
At this time there were some little children engaged in play, dragging along a rabbit trap (s), and passing the place where the king was, they were making a noise and laughing, on which one of the Ministers reproved them and said, "You children ! hold your tongues, and make no noise!" On which they replied, "And why may we not make a noise and play f" On which the minister replied in a verse—
"The sun, though it is past noon,
Cannot draw its shadow beyond this tree,
And so the exceeding brightness,
Unequalled in the world,
Of this one who sits in meditation beneath the tree
Unmoved and unaffected as Sumeru,
Siddhartha the prince royal! from the depth of his heart
Causes the shadow not to depart."
On the Betrothal of the Prince.
[Lit. pushing—art—contention—marriage. ]
§ 3. And now the Prince, growing up by degrees, reached his nineteenth year. And when at this age, his father Suddhodana Raja caused three Palaces to be constructed for him, each of them for a different season of the year. The first a warm palace, calculated for the winter; the second a cool palace, for the summer; the third fit for the spring and autumn. These palaces were severally surrounded by gardens, in which were tanks and pleasant streams of water, and every kind of delightful flower to please the senses.
Moreover, the king appointed a great number of skilful and distinguished personal attendants to wait on his son. Some to rub his person, others to smooth it, and others to anoint and bathe him. There were hairdressers, looking-glass holders, etc., etc., besides some to perfume his garments, others to keep the Bezoar (new hwang); others to keep the hair chaplets; others again