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lad received this bill, and not understanding to leave the Bear-garden on the right, to

avoid being borne down by fencers, wild bulls, and monsters, too terrible for the encounter of any heroes, but such whose lives are their livelihood.

the word company, used in drawing bills on men in partnership, carried it to Mr. Jeffrey Stitch of Crooked-lane (lieutenant of the major-general's company,) whom he had the day before seen march by the door in all the pomp of his commission. The lieutenant accepts it, for the honour of the company, since it had come to him. But repayment being asked from the major-general, he absolutely refuses. Upon this, the lieutenant thinks of nothing less than to bring this to a rupture, and takes for his second Tobias Armstrong of the Counter,* and sends him with a challenge in a scrip of parchment, wherein was written Stitch contra Maggot, and all the fury vanished in a moment. The major-general gives satisfaction to the second, and all was well.

We have here seen, that wise nations do not admit of fighting, even in the defence of their country, as a laudable action; and they live within the walls of our own city in great honour and reputation without it. It would be very necessary to understand, by what force of the climate, food, education, or employment, one man's sense is brought to differ so esse essentially from that of another; that one is ridiculous and contemptible for forbearing a thing which makes for his safety; and another applauded for consulting his ruin and destruction.

It will therfore be necessary for us (to show our travelling) to examine this subject fully, and tell you how it comes to pass, that a man of honour in Spain, though you offend him never so gallantly, stabs you basely; in England, though you offend him never so basely, challenges fairly; the former kills you out of revenge, the latter out of good-breeding. But to probe the heart of man in this particular to its utmost thoughts and recesses, I must wait for the return of Pacolet, who is now attending a gentleman lately in a duel, and sometimes visits the person by whose hands he received his wounds.

Hence it is, that the bold spirits of our city are kept in such subjection to the civil power. Otherwise, where would our liberties soon be, if wealth and valour were suffered to exert themselves with their utmost force? If such officers as are employed in the terrible bands above-mentioned, were to draw bills as well as swords, these dangerous captains, who could victual an army as well as lead it, would be too powerful for the state. But the point of honour justly gives way to that of gain; and, by long and wise regulation, the richest is the bravest man. I have known a captain rise to a colonel in two days by the fall of stocks; and a major, my good friend near the Monument, ascended to that honour by the fall of the price of spirits, and the rising of right Nantz. By this true sense of honour, that body of warriors are ever in good order and discipline, with their colours and coats all whole as in other battalions (where their principles of action are less solid) you see the men of service look like spectres with long sides and lank cheeks. In this army you may measure a man's service by his waist, and the most prominent belly is certainly the man who has been most upon action. Besides all this, there is another excellent remark to be made in the discipline of these troops. It being of absolute necessity, that the people of England should see what they have for their money, and be eye-witnesses of the advantages they gain by it, all battles which are fought abroad are represented here. But, since one side must be beaten, and the other conquer, which might create disputes, the eldest company is always to make the other run, and the younger retreats, according to the last news and best intelligence. I have myself seen prince Eugene make Catinat fly from the backside of Grays-Inn-lane to Hockley in the Hole, and not give over the pursuit, until obliged

⚫ A bum-bailift.

St. James's Coffee-house, June 13. Letters from Vienna of the eighth instant say, there has been a journal of the marches and actions of the king of Sweden, from the beginning of January to the eleventh of April, N. S. communicated by the Swedish ministers to that court. These advices inform, that his Swedish majesty entered the territories of Muscovy in February last, with the main body of his army, in order to oblige the enemy to a general engagement; but that the Muscovites declining a battle, and an universal thaw having rendered the rivers unpassable, the king returned into Ukrania. There are mentioned several rencounters between considerable detachments of the Swedish and Russian armies. Marshal Heister intended to take his leave of court on the day after the date of these letters, and put himself at the head of the army in Hungary. The male-contents had attempted to send in a supply of provision into Newhausel; but their design was disappointed byt he Germans.

Advices from Berlin of the fifteenth instant, N. S. say, that his Danish majesty having received au invitation from the king of Prussia to an interview, designed to come to Potsdam within a few days, and that king Augustus resolved to accompany him thither. To avoid all difficulties in ceremony, the three kings, and all the company who shall have the honour

to sit with them at table, are to draw lots, and comply with that ridiculous custom of duel.
take precedence accordingly.
ling? I must desire you to reflect, that custom
has dished up in ruffs the wisest heads of our
ancestors, and put the best of the present age
into huge falbala periwigs. Men of sense
would not impose such encumbrances on them-
selves, but be glad they might show their faces
decently in public upon easier terms. If then
such men appear reasonably slaves to the
fashion, in what regards the figure of their
persons, we ought not to wonder, that they are
at least so in what seems to touch their repu-

They write from Hamburgh of the eighteenth instant, N. S. that some particular letters from Dantzic speak of a late action between the Swedes and Muscovites near Jerislaw; but that engagement being mentioned from no other place, there is not much credit given to this intelligence.


ceed the day following to Lisle, in the neighbourhood of which city, the confederate army was to rendezvous the same day. Advices from Paris inform us, that the marshal de Bezons appointed to command in Dauphine, and that the duke of Berwick is set out for Spain, with a design to follow the fortunes of the duke of Anjou, in case the French king should comply with the late demands of the allies.

We hear from Brussels, by letters dated the twentieth, that on the fourteenth, in the evening, the duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene arrived at Courtray, with a design to pro-tations. Besides, you cannot be ignorant, that dress and chivalry have been always encouraged by the ladies, as the two principal branches of gallantry. It is to avoid being sneered at for his singularity, and from a desire to appear more agreeable to his mistress, that a wise, experienced, and polite man, complies with the dress commonly received; and is prevailed upon to violate his reason and principles, in hazarding his life and estate by a tilt, as well as suffering his pleasures to be constrained and soured by the constant apprehension of a quarrel. This is the more surprising, because men of the most delicate sense and principles have naturally in other cases a particular repugnance in accommodating themselves to the maxims of the world: but one may easily distinguish the man that is affected with beauty, and the reputation of a tilt, from him who complies with both, merely as they are imposed upon him by grand-custom; for, in the former, you will remark an air of vanity and triumph; whereas, when the latter appears in a long duvillier+ full of powder, or has decided a quarrel by the sword, you may perceive in his face, that he appeals to custom for an excuse. I think it may not be The close of this memorial seems to prepare improper to enquire into the genealogy of this the people to expect all events, attributing the chimerical monster called a Duel, which I take confidence of the enemy to the goodness of their to be an illegitimate species of the ancient troops; but acknowledging, that his sole depen-knight-errantry. By the laws of this whim, dence is upon the intervention of providence.

The court of France has sent a circular letter to all the governors of the provinces, to recommend to their consideration his majesty's late conduct in the affair of peace. It is thought fit, in that epistle, to condescend to a certain appeal to the people, whether it is consistent with the dignity of the crown, or the French name, to submit to the preliminaries demanded by the confederates? That letter dwells upon the unreasonableness of the allies, in requiring his majesty's assistance in dethroning his son; and treats this particular in language more suitable to it, as it is a topic of oratory, than a real circumstance on which the interests of nations, and reasons of state, which affect all Europe, are concerned.

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the heroic person, or man of gallantry, was
indispensably obliged to starve in armour a
certain number of years in the chace of mon-
sters, encounter them at the peril of his life,
and suffer great hardships, in order to gain the
affection of the fair lady, and qualify himself
for assuming the belle air; that is, of a Pretty Is
Fellow, or man of honour, according to the
fashion but, since the publishing of Don
Quixote, and extinction of the race of dragons,
which Suetonius says happened in that of
Wantley, the gallant and heroic spirits of
these latter times have been under the necessity
of creating new chimerical monsters to enter-
tain themselves with, by way of single combat,
as the only proofs they are able to give their

Tatler, No. 26.

A kind of wig so called.

Ì In hamorons writings, one may be led to search for qnotations no where to be found in the authors referred to, as appears from this passage.

lents, of any two classes of men in the world ; for to profess judgment, and to profess wit, both arise from the same failure, which is want of judgment. The poverty of the Critic this way proceeds from the abuse of this faculty; that of the Wit, from the neglect of it. It is a particular observation I have always made, that of all mortals a Critic is the silliest; for, by enuring himself to examine all things, whe

own sex, and the ladies, that they are in all points men of nice honour. But, to do justice to the ancient and real monsters, I must observe, that they never molested those who were not of a humour to hunt for them in woods and deserts; whereas, on the contrary, our modern monsters are so familiarly admitted and entertained in all the courts and cities of Europe (except France,) that one can scarce be in the most humanized society without risk-ther they are of consequence or not, he never ing one's life; the people of the best sort, and looks upon any thing but with a design of passthe fine gentlemen of the age, being so fond ing sentence upon it; by which means he is of them, that they seldom appear in any pub- never a companion, but always a censor. This lic place without one. I have some further makes him earnest upon trifles, and dispute on considerations upon this subject, which, as you the most indifferent occasions with vehemence. encourage me, shall be communicated to you If he offers to speak or write, that talent, which by, sir, a cousin but one remove from the best should approve the work of the other faculties, family of the Staffs, namely, sir, your humble prevents their operation. He comes upon acservant, kinsman, and friend, tion in armour, but without weapons; he stands in safety, but can gain no glory. The Wit, on the other hand, has been hurried so long away by imagination only, that judgment seems not to have ever been one of his natural faculties. This gentleman takes himself to be as much obliged to be merry, as the other to be grave.

thorough Critic is a sort of Puritan in the polite world. As an enthusiast in religion stumbles at the ordinary occurrences of life, if he cannot quote scripture examples on the occasion; so the Critic is never safe in his speech or writing, without he has, among the celebrated writers, an authority for the truth of his sentence. You will believe we had a very good time with these brethren, who were so far out of the dress of their native country, and so lost in its dialect, that they were as much strangers to themselves, as to their relation to each other. They took up the whole discourse; sometimes the Critic grew passionate, and when reprimanded by the Wit for any trip or hesitation in his voice, he would answer, ' Mr. Dryden makes such a character, on such an occasion, break off in the same manner; so that the stop was according to nature, and as a man in a passion should do.' The Wit who is as far gone in letters as himself, seems to be at a loss to answer such an apology; and concludes only, that though his anger is justly vented, it wants fire in the utterance. If wit is to be measured by the circumstances of time and place, there is no man has generally so little of that talent as he who is a Wit by profession. What he says, instead of arising from the occasion, has an occasion invented to bring it in. Thus, he is new for no other reason, but that he talks like nobody else; but has taken up a method of his own, without commerce of dialogue with other people. The lively Jasper Dactyle is one of this character. He seems to have made a vow to be witty to his life's end. When you meet him, 'What do you think,' says he, 'I

TIM SWITCH.' It is certain that Mr. Switch has hit upon the true source of this evil; and that it proceeds only from the force of custom, that we contradict ourselves in half the particulars and occurrences of life. But such a tyranny in love, which the fair impose upon us, is a little too severe; that we must demonstrate our affection for them by no certain proof but hatred to one another, or come at them (only as one does at an estate) by survivorship. This way of application to gain a lady's heart is taking her as we do towns and castles, by distressing the place, and letting none come near them without our pass. Were such a lover once to write the truth of his heart, and let her know his whole thoughts, he would appear indeed to have a passion for her; but it would hardly be called love. The billet-doux would run to this



'I have so tender a regard for you, and your interests, that I will knock any man on the head whom I observe to be of my mind, and like you. Mr. Truman, the other day, looked at you in so languishing a manner, that I am resolved to run him through to-morrow morning. This, I think, he deserves for his guilt in admiring you: than which I cannot have a greater reason for murdering him, except it be that you also approve him. Whoever says he dies for you, I will make his words good, for I will kill him. I am, madam, your most obedient humble servant.'

From my own Apartment, June 14.


I am just come hither at ten at night, and have ever since six, been in the most celebrated, though most nauseous company in town: the two leaders of the society were a Critic and a Wit. These two gentlemen are great opponents on all occasions, not discerning that they are the nearest each other, in temper and ta

* See Tatler, Nos. 3, and 63.

have been entertaining myself with?' Then out | comes a premeditated turn; to which it is to no purpose to answer, for he goes on in the same strain of thought he designed without your speaking. Therefore I have a general answer to all he can say; as, 'Sure there never was any creature had so much fire!' Spondee, who Is a Critic, is seldom out of this fine man's company. They have no manner of affection for each other, but keep together, like Novel and Oldfox in the Plain Dealer, because they show each other. I know several men of sense who can be diverted with this couple; but I see no curiosity in the thing, except it be, that Spondee is dull, and seems dull; but Dactyle is heavy with a brisk face. It must be owned also, that Dactyle has almost vigour enough to be a coxcomb; but Spondee, by the lowness of his constitution, is only a blockhead.

power is only a vertigo in the brain of princes, which for a time may quicken their motion, and double, in their diseased sight, the instances of power above them; but must end at last in their fall and destruction. Your memorial speaks you a good father of your family, but a very ill one of your people. Your majesty is reduced to hear truth, when you are obliged to speak it. There is no governing any but savages by other methods than their own consent, which you seem to acknowledge in appealing to us for our opinion of your conduct in treating of peace. Had your people been always of your council, the king of France had never been reduced so low as to acknowledge his arms were fallen into contempt. But since it is thus, we must ask, how is any man of France, but they of the house of Bourbon, the better, that Philip is king of Spain? We have outgrown that folly of placing our happiness in your majesty's being called, The Great. Therefore you and we are all alike bankrupts,* and undone, let us not deceive ourselves; but compound with our adversaries, and not talk like their equals. Your majesty must forgive us, that we cannot wish you success, or lend you help; for, if you lose one battle more, we may have a hand in the peace you make; and doubt not but your majesty's faith in treaties will require the ra

St. James's Coffee-house, June 15.

We have no particulars of moment since our last, except it be, that the copy of the following original letter came by the way of Ostend. It is said to have been found in the closet of monsieur Chamillard, the late secretary of state of France, since his disgrace. It was signed by two brothers of the famous Cavallier, who led the Cevennois, and had a personal interview with the king, as well as a capitulation to lay downtification of the states of your kingdom. So his arms, and leave the dominions of France. we bid you heartily farewell, until we have the There are many other names to it; among honour to meet you assembled in parliament. whom is the chief of the family of the marquis This happy expectation makes us willing to Guiscard. It is not yet known whether mon- wait the event of another campaign, from sieur Chamillard had any real design to favour whence we hope to be raised from the misery the Protestant interest, or only thought to of slaves to the privileges of subjects. We are place himself at the head of that people, to your majesty's truly faithful and loyal submake himself considerable enough to opposejects, &c.' his enemies at court, and reinstate himself in power there.

" SIR,

'We have read your majesty's letter to the governors of your provinces, with instructions what sentiments to insinuate into the minds of your people; but as you have always acted upon the maxim, that we were made for you, and not you for us; we must take leave to assure your majesty, that we are exactly of the contrary opinion; and must desire you to send for your grandson home, and acquaint him, that you now know, by experience, absolute

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From my own Apartment, June 16. THE vigilance, the anxiety, the tenderness, which I have for the good people of England,

am persuaded, will in time be much commended; but I doubt whether they will be ever rewarded. However, I must go on cheerfully in my work of reformation: that being my great design, I am studious to prevent my

• James Cavallier was the celebrated leader of the French

Protestants in the Cevennes, when these warlike, but en-labour's increasing upon me; therefore am thusiastic mountaineers opposed the tyranny of Louis XIV.

and mare a vigorous stand against the whole power of

France, which for a long time laboured in vain to subdue them. It was in the heat of this gallant struggle to preserve themselves from religions slavery, that the first seeds of that

wild fanaticism were sown, which afterwards grew up to such an amazing extravagance, and distinguished them, by the name of French Prophets,' among the most extraordinary enthusiasts that are to be found in the history of huMan folly.

particularly observant of the temper and inclinations of childhood and youth, that we may not give vice and folly supplies from the growing generation. It is hardly to be imagined

*Monsieur Bernard and the chief bankers of France be came bankrupts about this time.

I once heard a man of excellent sense observe,
that more affairs in the world failed by being
in the hands of men of too large capacities for
their business, than by being in the conduct of
such as wanted abilities to execute them. Jack,
therefore, being of a plodding make, shall be a
citizen: and I design him to be the refuge of
the family in their distress, as well as their jest
in prosperity. His brother Will shall go to Ox-
ford with all speed, where, if he does not arrive
at being a man of sense, he will soon be in-
formed wherein he is a coxcomb. There is in
that place such a true spirit of raillery and
humour, that if they cannot make you a wise
man, they will certainly let you know you are
a fool; which is all my cousin wants, to cease
to be so. Thus, having taken these two out of
the way, I have leisure to look at my third lad.
observe in the young rogue a natural subtilty
of mind, which discovers itself rather in for-





how useful this study is, and what great evils | cr benefits arise from putting us in our tender years to what we are fit or unfit: therefore, on Tuesday last (with a design to sound their inclinations) I took three lads, who are under my guardianship, a-rambling in a hackney-coach, to show them the town; as the lions, the tombs, Bedlam, and the other places which are entertainments to raw minds, because they strike forcibly on the fancy. The boys are brothers, one of sixteen, the other of fourteen, the other of twelve. The first was his father's darling, the second his mother's, and the third mine, who am their uncle. Mr. William is a lad of true genius; but, being at the upper end of a great school, and having all the boys below him, his arrogance is insupportable. If I begin to show a little of my Latin, he immediately interrupts Uncle, under favour, that which you say, is not understood in that manner.' 'Brother,' says my boy Jack, 'you do not show your man-bearing to declare his thoughts on any occaners much in contradicting my uncle Isaac'sion, than in any visible way of exerting him'You queer cur,' says Mr. William, do you self in discourse. For which reason I will place think my uncle takes any notice of such a dull him, where, if he commits no faults, he may rogue as you are?' Mr. William goes on, 'He go farther than those in other stations, though is the most stupid of all my mother's children: they excel in virtues. The boy is well-fashioned, he knows nothing of his book: when he should and will easily fall into a graceful manner; mind that, he is hiding and hoarding his taws wherefore, I have a design to make him a page and marbles, or laying up farthings. His way to a great lady of my acquaintance; by which of thinking is, four-and-twenty farthings make means he will be well skilled in the common sixpence, and two sixpences a shilling; two modes of life, and make a greater progress in shillings and sixpence half-a-crown, and two the world by that knowledge, than with the half-crowns five shillings. So within these two greatest qualities without it. A good mein in months the close hunks has scraped up twenty a court, will carry a man greater lengths than shillings, and we will make him spend it all a good understanding in any other place. We before he comes home.' Jack immediately see a world of pains taken, and the best years claps his hands into both pockets, and turns of life spent in collecting a set of thoughts in as pale as ashes. There is nothing touches a a college for the conduct of life, and, after all, parent (and such I am to Jack) so nearly as a the man so qualified shall hesitate in a speech provident conduct. This lad has in him the to a good suit of cloaths, and want common true temper for a good husband, a kind father, sense before an agreeable woman. Hence it and an honest executor. All the great people is, that wisdom, valour, justice, and learning, you see make considerable figures on the ex- cannot keep a man in countenance that is poschange, in court, and sometimes in senates, sessed with these excellencies, if he wants that are such as in reality have no greater faculty inferior art of life and behaviour, called goodthan what may be called human instinct, which breeding. A man endowed with great perfecis a natural tendency to their own preservation, tions, without this, is like one who has his and that of their friends, without being capable pockets full of gold, but always wants change of striking out the road for adventurers. There for his ordinary occasions. is sir William Scrip was of this sort of capacity from his childhood; he has bought the country found him, and makes a bargain better than sir Harry Wildfire, with all his wit and humour. Sir Harry never wants money but he comes to Scrip, laughs at him half an hour, and then gives bond for the other thousand. The close men are incapable of placing merit any where but in their pence, and therefore gain it; while others, who have larger capacities, are diverted from the pursuit by enjoyments which can be supported only by that cash which they despise; and, therefore, are in the end slaves to their inferiors both in fortune and understanding.

Will Courtly is a living instance of this truth, and has had the same education which I am giving my nephew. He never spoke a thing but what was said before, and yet can converse with the wittiest men without being ridiculous. Among the learned, he does not appear ignorant; nor with the wise, indiscreet. Living in conversation from his infancy, makes him no where at a loss; and a long familiarity with the persons of men, is, in a manner, of the same service to him, as if he knew their arts. As ceremony is the invention of wise men to keep fools at a distance, so good-breeding is an expedient to make fools and wise men equals.

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