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language (this signifies the art of "numbers"), or the language called Adamourdha [this signifies to "cover" or "repeat"], or the language called Anouroma, or the language called Vyadashra [this signifies "confused"], the language called Darada [name of a mountain), the language called "Sikyani" [no meaning], the language called "Kousa" [this signifies a "bridle"), or the language of Tchina [i.e., of the "great Tsui" (or China)), or the language called Mana [i.e., a measure equal to a "pint"), the Madhyachari writing [the letters of the "middle"), or the language called "Vitsati" [i.e., a man], or the writing called Pushpa (a "flower"], the language called Deva [a God], or Naga [a dragon], or Yaksha [no signification], or Gandharva Ca Deva of music], or Asura [no wine drinker), or Garuda Under bid], or Kinnara [neither man], or Mahoraga Ca great dragon), or Meigachaka [the sound of all beasts], or Kakaruda [sound of birds), or Bhaumi Devas [earth' s], or Antarikshadevas [Devas of space], or Uttakuru [the northern region], or the language of Purvavideha [eastern continent], or of Utchepa [that which is raised], or of Nikchepa [that which is rejected], or of Sagara [the sea], or of Vajra [diamond], or of Lekhaprakileka [gone after], or Vikhita [fragments of food], Aniboutta [not yet existing]1, or Sastravartta or Kannavartta [revolving numbers], Compute [raised and revolving], Nikchepavartta [rejected, revolving], Padalik(hita) [foot], Dvikuttarapadna [union of two sounds in one word], Yavaddasatara [ten sounds], Madhyaharini (middle flowing], Rishiyastapatpata [the sufferings of all the Rishis], Dharanipakchari [seeing the earth], Gayanaprekchini [beholding space), Sarvasatanisanta [all medicinal plants Sarsanyagrahani [united wisdom' s [all sounds]."

The young prince, having recited these different languages, again addressed Tisvamitra, saying, "Of all these different styles of writing which does my master design to teach me?"

To which Visvamitra, with a smiling face, without any personal feeling of envy or shame, replied in these Gathas :—

"This child of rare and excellent wisdom,
following the customary rules of the world,

1 This is the general explanation of the Inter section of the sacred (Buddhist) Books.

Himself, altho' acquainted with all the Shasters,
Has deigned to enter my school.

And now he has thoroughly recited from beginning to end The names of different writing, of which I never heard, surely this is the Instructor of Devas and men, Who condescends to seek for a master!" At this time, five hundred noblemen entered the college with the royal prince, and began to learn the sounds of the different letters, on which occasion, the Prince, in virtue of his Supreme wisdom, gave forth the sound of each letter in the following excellent manner:—

1. In sounding the letter "A," pronounce it as in the sound of the word "anitya."

2. In sounding the letter "I", pronounce it as in the word "indriya."

3. In sounding the letter "Tr ", pronounce it as in the word "upagata"(?).

4. In sounding the letter "ri", pronounce it as in the word "riddhi."

5. In sounding the letter "O", pronounce it as in the word "ogha"(?).

6. In sounding the letter "ka", pronounce it as in the word "karma,"

7. In sound the letter "kha", pronounce it as in the word "khanda."

8. In sounding the letter "ga", pronounce it as in the word "gata"^).1

At this time Suddhodana Raja, again assembling all his ministers of state for consultation, spake to them thus: "My Lords and Ministers!—Which of you can tell me of a skilful teacher of the military arts and the science of war, whom I may appoint to instruct Siddartha, my son?"

Then all the ministers respectfully answered the king and said, "Mahdraja! the Son of Supra Buddha, Kshantedeva by name, is thoroughly competent to teach the Prince all the martial accomplishments of which you speak."

To whom Suddhodana replied, with great joy, "Go summon

1 [And so on, for all the letters (there are thirty-eight)]. Compare the "Lalita Vistara," p. 124 n.

this Kshantedeva to my presence;" on whose arrival the Raja spoke thus: "Kshantadeva! I hear that you are able to instruct my son Siddartha in all martial accomplishments,—is this the case, or not?" Then forthwith Kshantadeva addressed the king and said, "Your servant is able and willing to do so." "If so," replied the king, "you have now the opportunity—do so."

On this occasion SuddhAdana appointed a garden for his son's accommodation, in which he might practice all the athletic and martial accomplishments. (This garden was called Kan-kii, diligent labour).

Then the prince, entering the garden with five hundred Sakya youths, engaged himself in every delightful recreation. At this time Kshantedeva, bringing forth the different martial and athletic instruments, began to attempt to instruct the Royal Prince. But, on his part, the prince requested his teacher to devote himself to the other Sakyas; "As for me," he said, "I will be my own instructor;" on which Kshantadeva applied himself to perfect the five hundred young Sakya noblemen in all the arts of bis calling —riding the elephant, archery, chariot racing, and so on.

This being accomplished and the youths having acquired skill in all these arts; then Siddartha also replied, "It is well, I am self-taught" (and in the same way with respect to other things). On which, the teacher, Kshantedeva, uttered this Gatha:—

"Though young in point of years,
Yet without using any great effort,
how easily he explains and asks learned questions,
In a moment he sees through every thing.
After a few days' study,

He surpasses those who have devoted years to it,
perfect in all manly arts
He excels all those who enter with him into competition."

[Kiouen XI has 5615 letters, and cost 2'807 Taels.]


On the excursion for observation.

§ 1. Now the Royal Prince, up to the time of his eighth year, grew up in the royal palace without any attention to study; but from his eighth year till his twelfth year he was trained under the care of Visvamitra and Kshantedeva, as we have related.

But now, having completed twelve years and being perfectly acquainted with all the customary modes of enjoyment, as men speak, such as hunting, riding and driving here and there, according to the desire of the eye or for the gratification of the mind; such being the case, it came to pass on one occasion that he was visiting the Kan-ku garden, and whilst there amused himself by wandering in different directions, shooting with his bow and arrow at whatever he pleased; and so he separated himself from the other Sakya youths who were also in the several gardens enjoying themselves in the same way.

Just at this time it happened that a flock of wild geese, flying through the air, passed over the garden, on which the young man, Devadatta,1 pointing his bow, shot one of them through the wing, and left his arrow fixed in the feathers; whilst the bird fell to the ground at some distance off in the middle of the garden.

The Prince Royal, seeing the bird thus transfixed with the arrow, and fallen to the ground, took it with both his hands, and sitting down, with his knees crossed, he rested it in his lap, and with his own soft and glossy hand, smooth and pliable as the leaf of the plaintain, his left hand holding it, with his right hand he drew forth the arrow, and anointed the wound with oil and honey.

At this time Devadatta, the young prince, sent certain messengers to the Prince Royal, who spoke to him thus—"Devadatta has shot a goose which has fallen down in your garden, send it to him without delay."

Then the Prince Royal answered the messengers and said, "If the bird were dead, it would be only right I should return it forthwith to you; but if it is not dead you have no title to it."

1 Devadatta is generally called the cousin of Siddartha. According to Spence Hardy, he was his brother-in-law. M. B., p. 61.

Then Dis sent again to the Prince Royal, and the message was this: "Whether the bird be living or dead it is mine; my skill it was that shot it, and brought it down, on what ground do you delay to send it me?" To which the Prince Royal answered, "The reason why I have taken possession of the bird is this, to signify that in time to come, when I have arrived at the condition of perfection to which I tend, I shall thus receive and protect all living creatures; but if still you say that this bird belongs not to me, then go and summon all the wise and ancient men of the Sakya tribe, and let them decide the question on its merits I"

At this time there was a certain Deva belonging to the Suddhavasa heaven, who assumed the appearance of an old man and entered the assembly of the Sakyas, where they had come together, and spoke thus: "He who nourishes and cherishes is by right the keeper and owner; he who shoots and destroys is by his own act the loser and the disperser." 1

At this time all the ancient men of the Sakyas at once confirmed the words of the would-be clansman and said, "Verily, verily, it is as this venerable one says, with respect to the difference between Devadatta and the Royal Prince."

The Story of the Ploughing Match.

§ 2. Now at another time it happened that Suddhodana Raja assembled all the Sakya princes, and took with him the Prince Royal to go to see a ploughing-match (or field cultivation or slowing). Then in the enclosed space were assembled the half-stripped men, each labouring hard in the ploughing contest, driving the oxen and urging them on if they lagged in their speed, and from time to time goading them to their work. And now, when the Sun increased in his strength, and the sweat ran down both from men and oxen, then for a few moments they ceased from their labours. In the meantime, various insects came forth from

1 The principle of this decision is not unlike that recorded of Solomon.

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