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duals, wlio by degrees secured a right in appearance, and circumstances which oc. them, between which, and the exercise of curred during the foregoing discussion, conit, no liw could interpose ; and this right, ceiving him to be a misguided, ratlier than by purchase or conveyance, was made over an unprincipled person, he asked him, whe. to individuals of every class or order in the ther he had never heard his associates in community, who could afford to avail them- reform confess, that their object was, in efselves of it by the profits of professions, fect, to do away with the regal governcommerce, or any other branch of honour- ment ?' 'We never professed any such able industry and exertion. It might be views,' was the reply. And yet, sir, it is affirmed, indeed, that this innovation was clear as the sun at noon-day, that a House essentially democratical; and it might with- of Commons, reformed according to your out difficulty be proved, by reference to plan, could not subsist under a monarchiy; facts, that these rotten boroughs have coni in plainer terms,—that a regal government stantly afforded an opening to the admission could not co-exist with a legislature so of men who have most strenuously advo- formed, for a single year. It would be no cated the cause of the people, and who longer a house of representatives, but a could by no other means have found their chamber of delegates, who, claiming to goway into parliament.' What of that ?' vern in the name of the sovereign people, demanded the stranger. Have not the would feel, and quickly avow the inconpeople, in the same proportion, been dis- sistency, of submitting their decrees to the possessed of their rights ? have they not ordeal, either of Lords, or King. They forfeited their franchises ?? Surely not in would at least discover, as the old Rump the instances to which I allude. The rights of Oliver Cromwell, and their more moyou speak of must have disappeared with dern copyists, the French Regicides did,the population.'
that both a King and a House of Peers only "All I mean to say,' said the stranger, stood in their way, and that they could just who appeared to have exhausted his stock as well do without them. With their subin hand—all I mean to say is, that it is sequent necessity of recurring for security hard the people of England should be de to the old standard, and of restoring the prived of their undoubted rights. God same things, under the different names of knows, I want no bloodshed or plunder ; Emperors-or Protectors—of Conservative but if Parliament won't do us justice, we Senates, and Councils of State - we have are entitled to take our own affairs into our nothing at present to do.' 'And so, you own hands.". The plea of necessity is, un would have us submit-Stop, sir,' cried questionably, a strong one; but until you Pen, fiercely, 'I can reason with a REhear the case made out to your perfect sa FORMER ; but I must repel a REBEL: tisfaction, it might be wiser to leave your you either fight under false colours, or you affairs—where they are. Depend upon it, must disprove the result I have anticipated, it would not mend the matter to have a to be consistent with your scheme.' Why, horde of mob-orators-adventurers without thee ben't one of them radicals-ater all, principle--moral or religious ; poor, des mun, be’est thee ?' asked the grazier. perate, and needy masters_either of your That's the way with you all,' cried the liberties or your exchequers. Let me put baffled reformer ; “you can call names.' one question to you, which I would rather 46 • Not I,' answered Pen, with great you should answer to yourself, upon your calmness ; ' I did not say you were a repillow to-night: What reasonable ground bel-I only meant to show, that what is have you to suppose, that six hundred men, called radical reform, must inevitably lead of honourable life and characterI repeat to the subversion of the constitution, for generally, for exceptions must ever present which it professes to entertain so jealous an themselves--of birth, rank, and education, affection, that those who are capable of -men, who in their private conduct are reasoning upon the subject, cannot fail to unimpeachable, should, by being assem- perceive it, and that those who are not, bled together in a body, become at once are only blind instruments in the hands of rogues, plunderers, and tyrants ? Or, by those who do. The charge of corruption what possible process can you arrive at this is brought against our existing institutions conclusion, on the other side, that an equal and public functionaries, without any evinumber of men, chosen by the most igno- dence beyond that which goes to prove, rant and unenquiring classes
of the people, what no man in his sense ever doubted, under the influence of leaders, who are that no human work is, or ever can be per. known to be of desperate fortune, and offect, or perfectly exercised. A change is most abandoned character in every private proposed under the general and undefined relation of life,--are, by incorporation, to term of reform, which actually undermines, become at once pure, incorrupt, and in- and provides for the destruction, of all that corruptible stewards of a people's rights and is virtually good with what may be suppoproperty ?'
sed capable of improvement, and has ren“Our hero, after a short time, finding dered the country for centuries the envy his opponent silent, addressed him in a more and admiration of Europe; whilst it carries calm and friendly manner, and from his with it not a shadow of pretence of reme
It is a
dying a single evil, it professes to have dis- pretext, which ga covered. The popular branch of the con to the rebellious Rouw stitution has for many years been gaining they thoughtlessly accu ground upon the other two estates; and I rials for their own future subjuga have no hesitation in affirming, that the be incapable of informing a power of the crown is more circumscribed whether they were about to fire anot and limited in the present, than in any for- Troy,” or to see a man creep into a quart mer period of our history. The few crafty bottle.” politicians, who are the secret springs, and With this long and splendid pasa movers of the radical party, perceive this, -and cry out against the House of Com- sagę we. quit Pen Owen. mons, as the usurpers of power, -whilst book which no doubt the Whigs will they affect to identify the interests of the
run down, One consolation the Tories people, with those of the crown, at the very have when they see their books run time, in fact, when they are labouring to
down by the Whigs is, that though seize upon that popular branch of the le- the Whigs of our day can write regislature, as the most effective and power- views enough, none of them (at least ful means of becoming masters of the go. there is scarcely an exception) can vernment, and turning it equally against the write books. Lord Byron being laid people, and the two other estates of the out of view, and perhaps Tom Moore, realm. All parties, my good sir,” con where is the man now living that can tinued Pen-whose brain having been set in commotion by the hostile appeal recent- Tory? Can Jeffrey write a book? He
write a tolerable book, and is not a ly made to the outside of his head, or by the sapping system of the spirituous reme
could as soon leap his horse over a dies within it, -had become unusually elo: six-foot stone wall and a double diteh. quentg all parties are constructed upon Could Mackintosh? We for one would the same principles; it matters not whether be the first to subscribe for it. Could it is limited to the weekly club at mine Brougham ? No more than Joseph host's in the village, or extended over the Hume, or Lord A. Hamilton, or the country, in affiliated societies, from a pa. Duke of Bedford. We had, to be sure, fent-stock in the metropolis. A few strong forgot Mr Luttrell, but we can scarceand determined heads, who perceive all ly after all quite credit that teport their points, and concentrate all their means of aggression, gain the ascendant ; a larger
about his being a Whig. We believe number of agents receive from them their
no man to be a Whig until it is procue, and dole out in daily portions, through ved against him. To do otherwise, the medium of a hireling and prostituted would be press, or in clubs, associations, and public
6 to bar from the kind heart meetings,-poisoned food for discontent, All thoughts of human gentle charity, and disaffection towards the government.
And think of the poor brothers of our race The evils incident to all men, but more
As if they had not sprung from Adam's pressing upon the subordinate classes, -as
loins." must inevitably and necessarily be the case
WORDSWORTH (we think.) in every community,—are made to appear Farewell, then, wise, witty, perhaps the result of peculiar and extraordinary cor wicked author of Pen OWEN! WE, at ruption on the part of their governors: every least, love thee, (we mean all true Toprivation is felt, which had never been felt ries) admire thee, praise thee! Write before, and the common lot of man is rendered intolerable to them, by the conviction, on! Write three volumes yearly, paintthat it is the immediate product of tyranný ing, the living follies as they rise !” and oppression. There is but one step Lash and spare not the vile, the filthy, from feeling an injury, to the attempt at the sacrilegious, the blasphemous, inredressing it. A patriot, or mob orator, is fidel, rebel crew of the UNENGLISH, at hand with the means, and the misguid- and verily thou shalt have thy reward ed multitude rush forward to aid his patri- in the favour of all the good, the wise, otic exertions, without stopping to inquire, and the patriotic !-Au Revoir !-and or without sufficientintelligenceto ascertain, that, we hope, is not a long look. Thou the nature or extent of his designs. The art not a poet, so far as we see, nor people of this country, who wept tears of blood as a martyred sovereign was led to
art thou a man of romance. Thy vein slaughter,--had been blind instruments in is the keen clear bitter; if it be not the hands of his murderers, and invested
so grand as some others, 'tis at least them with power sufficient, to crush their
a far rarer one in these sentimental monarch, and themselves. The people days. Thou wearest on thy shoulders are again called forth, and encouraged by a truly knowing head of the old Engthe promises of men, who have not even the lish cut. Would we could see thy VOL. XI.
Sellers, whose exa The Cathedral, which is situated in wountry, to judge from the centre of this citadel, is an object
delineations, must have of peculiar veneration to the Pales;
more than twenty years ago. “it is,” says our author," what the biller respects the work is useful, and I Capitol was to the ancient Romans, Häre Adapted it as my model in general in what the Pantheon is to France ; in the following pages.
" Born in Poland, and possessing a to. short, it is the precious receptacle for pographical knowledge of my country, I the mortal remains of their kings and have determined to give the extent to this their heroes, and it is not without a work which its object appeared to me to feeling of respectful veneration, minrequire. Writing for foreigners, in a lan- gled with religious awe, that one preguage foreign to myself, I have endea- sumes to penetrate its ancient aisles, voured to unite in the work perspicuity where one is surrounded by mauso. with utility, and I shall be too happy if, leums, inscriptive tablets, statues, and while I have no other merit than that of chapels decorated with marble and being the first to present to the world an bronze, and where one cannot advance exact description of some provinces of my a step without meeting with some country, I shall be enabled to make self useful to travellers, and to point out monument of the renown of the counto strangers whatever objects in Poland try, of the valour and victories of heare most worthy to arrest their attention.” roes. There repose the venerable ashes
Our author' then proceeds in his de- of Boleslas III. and IV, of Ladislas scriptive tour, commencing with Cra- Lokietek ; of Casimir the Great; John cau, situated on a gentle ascent on the Albert; Stephen Batory; Sigismoud left bank of the Vistula, which divides III. ; Ladislas IV.; John Casimir ; it into three parts. The old town, Michel Wiszniowiecki ; John SobiCracau, properly so called, the an- eski; and Frederick Augustus II.” cient capital of Poland, is one of In the Chapel of the Sigismonds are these parts, Podgorze and Casimir are deposited the remains of St Stanislas
, the other two, and there are besides the patron of the kingdom, and those suburbs in different directions. One of the heroic Kosciuszko and Poniapart of the town of Casimir is inha- towski, which have been restored from bited by about 6000 Jews, who are foreign graves through the intervenexcluded from the main or old town tion of the Emperor Alexander, (King of Cracau, in which they are not even of Poland) and are now deposited in allowed to pass the night. The re the vault of King John Sobieski, who mains of antiquity which adorned the conquered the Turks before Vienna, city have been in a great measure de- and saved that capital.* stroyed by the Austrians, whose bar Our author proceeds to enumerate barous policy it was to annihilate every and describe eight churches, (of which, monument which might remind the he says, Cracau may boast as the Poles of the renown of their ances- finest in Poland,) and other splendid tors. The old town was anciently for- and remarkable public buildings;tified by a double circle of walls, and the Academy, bearing the name of by towers remarkable for the variety Daughter of the Sorbonne," foundof their forms; the gates were of Go- ed by the Jagellons in 1343, and posthic architecture, and were very ele- sessing a library of 30,000 volumes, gant; the Royal Castle or Citadel, and 4000 rare Mss., as well as a ca(Zamek) built in the early ages, and binet of natural history, and an anaformerly the habitation of the kings tomical theatre; and the palaces of the of Poland, rises splendidly conspicu- bishops and nobility, which ornament ous, and commanding an extensive the city. The “ Place" is in the cenprospect, upon a rock called Wewel, tre of the city. It was formerly the in the heart of the city. But the Aus- custom to erect a lofty throne in it on trians totally overturned the ramparts, the day after the coronation of the partly destroyed the gates, and cons kings, seated upon which they received verted the Castle into barracks. the homage of the tributary princes.
* Mr Palmer is the author of the Authentic Memoirs of Sobieski, which he address. ed to the Sovereigns assembled at the Congress at Vienna, in order to remind them of the claims of the Poles, who had, by their services, rescued that city from impending destruction. Mr Palmer is an Englishman.
In the neighbourhood, many plea- tête de pont. The sing excursions may be made, particu- is actively rebuilding larly to the Salt Mines of Wieliczka, tiful and general plans situated in Austria, a stage from Cra- Duke Constantine has there a upru
The chambers and passages in palace, and usually represents, as do these mines, cut out of the pure and puty, the citizens of these suburbs in sparkling salt, are described as superb, the General Diet. These, and such The passages are dry, clean, and every like liberal proceedings, heal gradualwhere high enough for persons to walk ly the wounds formerly inflicted on upright. In places, they open into the Poles. Prague is separated from large caverns, one of which is in the Warsaw by the Vistula, and comform of a capacious chapel, with an municates with the capital by a flyaltar, ornaments, and two monks, ap- ing bridge of 263 toises in length, parently in the act of solemnizing a which is speedily to give way to a mass, and a statue of Augustus III., more permanent one in masonry and all cut out of the rock of salt, which is chain-work, after a model by Mr in enormous masses, and in general Metzel. most beautifully crystallized. A se The castle, on a lofty and imposing cond pleasure-trip may be made to the situation, commands the Vistula and marvellous caverns of Czaiowice, lying its opposite banks. It contains many in the midst of scenery worthy of me- superb and interesting apartments, lo-dramatic imitation. Dark' forests, adorned with pictures, marbles, and frowning precipices, subterraneous tor- bronzes. The palaces and public rents, castles, donjons, and the bones buildings, to judge from the descripof those who had taken refuge in the tions, and from the very neat prints caves, from the scourge of war and with which this volume is adorned, are pestilence, would furnish forth mate- very magnificent. Chaste in their rials for the most gloomy scene-paint- architecture, splendid in their extent, er of the most gloomy spectacle. and classical in their embellishments,
At Cracau there are two fairs every they would honour any capital in the year, which are well frequented. În world ; and yet one has never heard of the whole territory there are only 100 Warsaw as distinguished for architecnational guards (infantry,) 40 cavalry, tural beauty. In the midst of the and 200 mounted and dismounted of large court of the Academy, a statue ficers of police. There is a good deal of KOPERNIK, (Copernicus), who was of commerce in grain.
by birth a Pole, and had been educated We need not follow the author in the University of Cracau, is by this through the small towns on the road time erected. The churches, the hosto Warsaw, but shall join him at that pitals, and the schools, are numerous capital, which contains 99,000 souls, and handsome. Many of the streets, independent of the garrison, amount- squares, and places, are spacious and ing to 20,000 more. It is now the beautiful, some of them ornamented capital of Poland ; and has been, since by statues and pillars. Thorwaldson is the time of Sigismond III., the ordi- employed on a bronze equestrian stanary residence of her kings. It is si- tue, in memory of Prince Joseph Potuated on a considerable hill, on the niatowski, to be placed in some one of left bank of the Vistula, and consists the principal squares. There are some of an old and new town, suburbs, streets in the city, as in all places of (which are the most beautiful parts of antiquity, which are narrow, and the the capital,) and four conterminous houses of which are very high ; but towns, having each their exclusive pri- improvements are daily made in these vileges, and their respective town- respects. houses ;-their names are Grzybow, Our author enumerates the merits Leszno, Szolec, and Prague. Prague, of the different inns, coffee-houses, resformerly of a large extent, was totally taurateurs, &c. in every place he dedestroyed by Suwarrow, in the war of scribes, with all the zest of a con1794. More than 2000 inhabitants, noisseur ; and perhaps the capital may without distinction of sex and age, were boast of many which are of the first butchered by the cruel soldiery. It was order. We must, however, take all afterwards rebuilt ; but, in the war of this cum grano, especially as to ac1816, it was again partly pulled down, commodations on the road; for we to make room for fortifications, and a have been cautioned against believing
&c. of our author · We shall extract one more descrip
call good inns in tion, and then take leave of that depre ney do very well for the partment. This passage is not from
who carry their beds, and pro- the pen of Krasinski, but is extracted accommodations with them on their by him from another work. It saJourneys,- as is the custom in other vours somewhat of the style of the northern countries, as Prussia, Rus- Arabian Nights Entertainments; but sia, and even some parts of Germany. our readers must judge for themselves. In England, where the population is It is a description of Arcadia, a coungreat, and where constant and frequent try seat of the Princess Radzivill. intercourse is kept up, for the sake of business or pleasure, the encourage that this place is indebted for its magni
“ It is to the exquisite taste of this lady, ment to innkeepers is great, and the ficence; all that Art and Nature have proinns and their accomınodations pro- duced of rarity and price, in the most disportionably good. This is not the tant countries, are brought together here ; case in other northern climes, where and it seems as if they had contested for the innkeeper does not feel it worth pre-eminence in the production of their his while to risk any expence upon the treasures. accommodation of his employer. In “ You enter by a house, having the apdeed, our author himself observes, at pearance of a Dutch fam; scarce fave you p. 94, that although there is some im- crossed the threshold of the door, which provement in the inns, “it is still al- proves to be the entrance of a palace of most indispensible for a foreigner tra- crystal, than you believe yourself to be in velling in Poland, to take his bed along mirrors_crystals and marble
an enchanted hall;—porphyrybronze, with him, which he could rarely omit with skill and taste, complete the illusion
. with safety, even in the towns. On leaving this splendid apartment, you
Several newspapers and literary pass by a shady walk to a grotto, which magazines are published at Warsaw. you reach by steps contriyed in the enorThere are many well stocked book-mous masses of rock of which the grotto is shops ;-15 printing presses ;--two li- formed. The grotto serves as an entrance thographic establishments ;--and se to a building, whose appearance is that of veral engravers ;-academies for de a Gothic castle, adorned with armour and signing after nature ;-and an annual chivalric devices; and which seems to have exhibition of paintings, which last year of the olden time. Leaving this, you pass
been the residence of some preux chevaliercontained 180 works in painting and by an open arcade to a bold arch in the engraving ;-rewards are given by Grecian style, which serves as a frame to government for the best perform- the charming landscape formed by the everances ;-a royal academy, founded in green thickets which surround the temple. 1816, by the Emperor Alexander ;- The gates of the temple are of precious an academy, for the instruction of materials (acajou,) and are opened by a key the deaf and dumb ;--an academy of of gold, enriched with diamonds. The music;-a dramatic school ;-and four vestibule is in the form of a rotunda, lightschools on the Lancasterian plan. ed by a cupola in the daytime, and by a CuAmong the numerous manufactures of pid, in a niche, bearing a torch, at night. the place, it is remarkable that there On advancing, you are surprised to see the are above 50 coach-making establish- rotunda change into a suite of apartments
The first of these is a museum, containing ments, in which branch there is a considerable export trade. In War- --Etruscan vases-fragments of inscrip
every thing that is most curious--in cameos saw there are 220 streets, and nearly tions_bas reliefs tripod candelabras, &c. 4000 houses__3000 of which are of The imposing aspect of the temple, strikes masonry, covered with tiles, and the you, on your entrance, with a sort of reliremainder are of wood. The wooden gious awe; and carries you, in imagination, houses are gradually disappearing, and back to the days of the oracles of oid. The give room for new and splendid build- grandeur of the vase and of the cupola, ings in stone; and it is not now law- charms and seduces the eye, which reposer ful to build in wood. The streets are with delight upon thosc walls of white paved with various sized stones, the marble, adorned with Corinthian coluicns
, inequality of which, although they are sacred fire which burns upon the
and statues of Vestal virgins, guarding the carefully repaired, renders them un- The harmonious tones of an organ increase pleasant to foot passengers. The city, the charm; and, in the midst of the and its suburbs, are lighted with are sweetest sensations that the soul can enjoy, pand lamps.
you find yourself, as it were by enchant.