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Marlborough put upon his soldiers' from our manners and our cushats was the earliest military cock- toms. We are a long way now ade which was employed on a large from the paper cross of St Barscale ; for though cockades con- tholomew, from the corn-stalks of tinued to be worn occasionally as a the Mazarinists during the Fronde, party mark fram the commencement from the two parties of the Caps of the eighteenth century, it does and Hats in the Swedish Diet in not appear that they became gene- 1788, from the scarfs of the Armagral in European armies until the nacs, and the cross of the Burgunwar of the Austrian succession dians. All these marks were evi(1740-1748). At that time they dences of a way of life which seems were knots of ribbon ; sometimes, to have disappeared ; and even if even, they were bunches of paper; similar causes were to occur again, and they were not invariably of the it is scarcely likely that badges national colour, for the French would be revived by them. In the cockade appears to have been white days of badges there were no policeand green in 1756, and not to have men, and standing armies had not become pure white, by royal ordi- grown into normal institutions ; nance, till 1767. From this latter soldiers and policemen wear badges date cockades became universal; for us now, so the public does withbut a writer in the Conversations out them, except when its small Lexicon' asserts that they did not vanities are satisfied by maintainreally take root in Germany until ing them. 1813, when, in addition to the The shape of armorial shields is separate cockade adopted by each another means of indicating nationcountry, the so-called national cock- ality. Nearly every great people ade of Germany—black, red, and has its own special form of écusson gold – was first invented. This for men, but all nations have agreed badge, which was essentially politi- in assigning lozenges to women; cal, was prohibited by the Diet in the reason being, according to the 1832; but it came up again in 1848, Legitimists of France, that, as the when it was worn even by the Gospel says of lilies that “ they toil army. It died out in 1850. The not, neither do they spin," and as wearing of cockades by nobody but spinning is a special attribute of the servants of persons who hold women, it follows not only that the Sovereign's commission is a the wearer of the lilies cannot be purely British practice; through- a woman, but also, that women out the Continent, the rule (if in- should bear arms in a shield deed there be any rule at all) is that shaped like a distaff. The first the national cockade is borne only by of these two conclusions is not the servants of great dignitaries; exactly logical, for the Salic law is but our black Hanoverian cockade certainly more ancient than the (luckily it is not English) has been French lilies; but it supplies an appropriated by almost everybody excellent and diverting example of in France during the last twenty the facility with which words, facts, years, and is coming into use or figures, whatever be their nature, elsewhere as a natural ornament can be made to serve a special of a footman's hat, without the cause. The second argument is slightest reference to the master's still more droll, for its result is to place in life. After all, this does deduce female heraldry from the not matter much, for the whole teaching of the Bible; we need not principle of badges is vanishing go back quite so far, and can con

a

kind;

tent ourselves with the explanation Flemings, “Ghent;" and we all that lozenges represent a distaff

, know who cried “ Douglas, Dougbecause that instrument was the las." In Lorraine there was special attribute of women in the custom of the strangest early feudal times when arms were all gentlemen who carried in first invented.

their arms a cross cried “Prény;" Mottoes, particularly when they all who bore a bar cried “Couassume a special form, like the vert ;” and all who had rings cried F.E.R.T. of Savoy, or the A.E.I.O.U. “Loupy.” Of all the innumerable of Austria, must certainly be classed shouts which history and tradition amongst the lesser emblems of na have handed down to us, there was tions. No one knows what the but one, or rather two at once, former example means, for the old which made a real mark the interpretation, "Fortitudo ejus Rho- double cry of the fight at Weinsdum tenuit," is now abandoned ; berg in 1140, the cry which gave but the latter may be done freely their names to Guelph and Ghibelinto English by "Austria's Empire line, "Hie Waiblingen ” — “Hie Is Over Universe.” France has never Welf.” And yet, notwithstandpossessed a national device, though ing their want of influence on her kings have borne a variety of history, war - cries have a sort of personal mottoes, of which the “Nec literature of their own; they have pluribus impar" of Louis XIV. was been written about, and have been the latest. And England is in an divided, like other subjects, into analogous position, for “Dieu et categories. There were cries of mon droit” is purely royal, and be- invocation, like “ Dieu aide," longs in no way to the country. “Notre Dame,” or “ Montjoie ;" The Prussians, on the contrary, cries of resolution, like the “Dieu have a really national phrase in le veut” of the Crusaders; cries of “ Mitt Gott fur Koenig und Vater- exhortation, like “A la rescousse, land ;” but even that dates only Montoison,” and “Au plus dru;" from the great rising in 1813. It cries of defiance, like the arrogant may be said that to some small exclamation, “Place à la bannière;" extent mottoes replaced war-cries, and cries of terror, like " Au feu” or when the latter were driven out by “ Chevaliers peuvent." Whether gunpowder; for it was not till eager the modern “Hoch” and the ancient people could no longer shout their “Hurrah” are still to be considered sentiments that they began to write as war-cries is a matter of indi. or print them. And yet scarcely vidual opinion; but when the Gerany battle-cries were really national; mans evacuated Paris on that bright excepting, perhaps, St George for March morning three years ago, England, and Santiago for Spain : and, in the intoxication of abundant nearly all the others were personal to victory, madly roared out those two each chieftain and his men. For echoing words as they passed beexample, the Duke of Lorraine neath the Arch of Triumph, it cercried, “ Lorraine au riche duc;" the tainly did seem to the half-dozen men of Hainaut, “Hainaut au noble lookers-on that the fierce shout Comte ;” the Auvergnats, “Cler- from those forty thousand throats mont au Dauphin d'Auvergne;" the well deserved the name of KriegsCoucys cried, “Coucy à la mer geschrei. If so, war-cries still conveille ;” the Venetians, “Marco, tinue to form part of the vanities of Marco;" the Normands, “Rouen;" nations in their most aggressive and the Gascons, “ Bordeaux;' the defiant form.

VOL, CXV-X0, DCCIII.

2 s

Crowns are emblems of another which was given to Theodolinda by class; many of them have possessed Gregory the Great. The crown a distinctly marked national charac- itself is now preserved at Vienna. ter, and, even now, each country In France the closed crown came has a special shape of crown for its into fashion more slowly than elsesovereign's use. The critics of the where. Some of the authorities question go deeply into the discus- pretend that Charles VIII. was sion whether Nero was the first the first French king to wear one, Roman monarch to wear a radiated and that he adopted it when he crown, or whether his diadem was took the quality of Emperor of the of the same shape as that of the East in 1495; but this looks doubtArmenian and Syrian kings, who, ful, for there are coins of Louis because they claimed direct descent XII., his immediate successor, on from Apollo, wore an imitation of which the crown is open. It is the rays of the sun. The modern only from Francis I. that the closed notion of a crown seems to date crown appears to have been regufrom Charlemagne, who took what larly worn. Of all crowns, however, we now call an imperial closed the Papal tiara is that which has crown when he was at Rome. There the most curious history. The is no sign of this sort of shape on Roman bishops had at first a mitre, any of the seals anterior to him, but like other prelates, and the legend from his time it came generally into is that they converted it into a regal use. The German emperors wore it symbol, because Clovis, after his in the tenth century, and William conversion, sent on to Pope Symthe Conqueror adopted it as soon machus a crown which he had as he became king of England. himself received from the Emperor Du Cange says that, in the middle Anastasius. This crown, according ages, the Western emperors received to this theory, was the first owned a triple crown," silver in Germany, at Rome, and was known afterwards iron in Italy, and gold in sundry at Papal coronations by the name places”- the latter phrase meant of Regnum Mundi. Cicognera says, Rome. The German crown pos- however, that Alexander III. was sessed two points, which were sur- the first Pope to wear a crown, and mounted by a diadem, a ball, and a that he added it to his mitre as a cross of pearls; the cross indicated sign of sovereignty. Boniface VIII, the guardianship of Christianity, the who died in 1303, is supposed to diadem the empire, and the two have added a second crown, to inpoints the seigneuries of Denmark dicate the union of the spiritual and Bohemia. The crown of Eng- and temporal power; and Urban V. land has four fleurs-de-lys, repre- is said to have put on the third as a senting the old claims on France; symbol of the government of the and four Maltese crosses, indicative Holy See over the Church suffering, of that amusing appellation, De- militant, and triumphant. There fender of the Faith. The famous are, however, other explanations of Lombard crown was originally all the meaning of the triple crown ; gold, like most other crowns; but one is, that it represents the Pope when Agilulph received it in 590, as sovereign sacrificer, grand judge, his wife, Theodolinda of Bavaria, and sole legislator of Christianity; put an iron ring inside to make it another, that it implies triple royalty stronger, and that is why it became —spiritual over souls, temporal known as the iron crown. The over the Roman States, and mixed legend is that the ring was made over all kings; a third, that it indiof one of the nails of the true cross, cates the threefold authority of the

Holy Father as chief of the Church, indeed, could scarcely publicly adopt as Bishop of Rome, and as temporal such rhymes as these :sovereign. Whatever doubts there “Vive Henri Quatre ! may be as to this interpretation, it

Vive le roi vaillant ! is at all events quite evident that,

Qui sait boire et se battre, as the mitre implies spiritual power,

Et être vert-galant." so does the tiara imply material A French writer says of this once power. When the Pope is going to famous quatrain, “Il est une image officiate pontifically, he wears the du caractère Français ; il est vif, tiara as he advances to the altar, égrillard, aussi peu solennel que but there he takes it off and puts on possible, et il rend à merveille la his mitre. The treasury of the fidélité monarchique de nos pères." Vatican includes seven or eight This may be; but anyhow, there is tiaras, the last of which was given nothing national in such words as by the Queen of Spain in 1855 ; its these. Even in that German land three crowns are all alike; it weighs where love of country is so deep, only 3 lb., and it cost £12,000, where convictions are so strong, Napoleon had one made for Pius where duties are so resolutely VII. after the Concordat ; its (though so disagreeably) discharged, three crowns are all different from there is no universally accepted each other; it weighs 8 lb.; it cost home-made air. There are patriotic £8800. All these details are quite chants in any quantity. “Was ist intelligible; but it is less easy des Deutschen Vaterland,” the to comprehend why, or how, the “Wacht am Rhein,” “Hurrah, GerPapal crown became possessed of mania !” and all the crowd of the name Tiara, which was the de- Volkslieder, are there, to prove the nomination given by Herodotus to fertility of the Teutonic soul; but the cap of the King of Persia. these songs are not national in There is a total want of harmonious the real symbolic sense. They all etymology in this origin.

are furiously patriotic, which is National airs necessarily come last natural, for nations are supin the catalogue of symbols, because posed to be composed of patriots; they are so miserably modern. The but not one of these purely German oldest of them — “God save the chants has the official character Queen”-has not a hundred and which alone gives an emblematic fifty years behind it. It was first value to a song. Furthermore, the sung in 1740; and it may be one real public hymn of Northern added that it is now proved to Germany, the “Heil dir im Siegerhave been composed by Dr Carey, kranz,” is sung to the English music and not by Dr Bull. The various of “God save the Queen;" and that Ranz des Vaches are much more is why it so strangely happens that, ancient, it is true; but they cannot notwithstanding her home enthureasonably be included in the same siasm, Germany has no truly nacategory of national expressions as tional air of her own. “Yankee the Russian or English hymns. Doodle" and the “ Star-spangled France has never had a national Banner"may be rigorously American, air at all. The “Chant du Depart" but they scarcely convey the notion and the “Marseillaise" are warlike of a people's prayer; and the other and Republican, not national. more or less local melodies which “Partant pour la Syrie” was a bands play, all about the world, on baby song, taught principally to State occasions, are in pretty much parrots. “Vive Henri Quatre" the same condition. All this seems was popular, not official. A nation, to indicate that our last attempt at creating another symbol, our idea of “uniform" will disappear altogether; putting nationality into music, has when, after passing through an innot been worked out brilliantly thus termediate stage of cuirassed armies, far. It is a pretty fancy; and when, in which regiments, like ships, will as in our own case and in that of be sheathed in six-inch plates, the Russia, it really attains success, it battles of the world will be fought, constitutes a heart-inspiring addi. at ranges of several degrees of longition to the stock of emblems; but tude, by the scientific employment as it may be taken to have failed of the forces of nature. If ever this at least nine times out of ten, it is occurs, the soldiers of the future to be regretted that States do not will doubtless be enclosed in laboput up their hymns to public com- ratory bottles, and be surrounded by petition, and by that means make a opaque vapours ; generals will wear new and healthier selection.

diving-dresses, and carry safetyThe other emblems which nations lamps into action ; while reconnaisuse may just as well be left as they sances will be made by spectrum now stand ; not because they are analysis. The effects of such a quite perfect, but because they are, change as this would not be limited at all events, about good enough for to the mere suppression of variethe work they have to do. It would gated coats and trousers ; they could be easy to suggest all sorts of changes scarcely fail to simultaneously exin them, but it does not follow that tend to other details too. Under any real improvement would follow such conditions of belligerence all from those changes; while, on the actual emblems would lose their other hand, they would have the value; nations would probably unsatisfactory effect of modernising discard them, and adopt, instead, ancient customs, and of destroying devices more in harmony with the what is best and truest in our vari. new methods which each of them ous symbols—their old associations. would then employ in war. France, The wisest plan will be to leave for instance, might give up the them for the present as they are, tricolour and adopt “portable deexcepting always such of them as mocratised earthquakes” as her necessarily fluctuate with fashion. badge; England might abandon the In the present condition of the world, ugly Union - Jack, and send her coats of arms and flags and crowns troops to fight beneath an oriflamme may advantageously remain in the of chemistry and dynamics ;" shape they originally assumed ; but Russia would replace the Byzantine pigtails, wigs, and stocks would be eagle by “explosive ice;" while as out of place in the uniforms of Italy would put "utilised volto-day as the horse-pistols of last canoes " in the place of the white century in a combat of artillery at cross of Savoy. United Ger5000 yards. And this last consi- many, on the contrary, would deration leads us to other thoughts. continue to employ the practiJudging from past experience, the cal but touching motto which smart coats which warriors wear, she has recently adopted, “ Blood and which are identified in every and iron :" in this respect, as in country with the national idea so many others, she is far away of force, will go on changing, ahead of her contemporaries, and is not only as a mere result of showing them the way to the mottoes varying taste in dress, but also as of the future. For the moment this a consequence of the development view of coming emblems may seem of weapons. The time may come exaggerated; but science is prowhen the token which we now call gressing very fast, and some day,

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