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the fawn colour of the doe. Among | It is undoubtedly the nerves which hunting quadrupeds, such as the tiger, connect the brain with organs where the the leopard, the jaguar, the panther, there pigment is retained. By cutting a nerve, is a shade of skin which man has always the colouring-matter is paralyzed in that been anxious to appropriate for his own portion of the skin through which the use. The old Egyptian tombs have nerve passes, just as a muscle is isolated paintings of the negroes of Sudan, their by the section of its nerve. If this opera. loins girt with the fine yellow skins for tion be performed on a turbot when in a which there is still a great sale. All the dark state, and thrown into a sandy botbirds which prey upon the smaller tribes, tom, the whole body grows paler, exceptand fishes like the shark, are clothed in ing the part which cannot receive ceredead colours, so as to be the least seen bral influence. The nerves have, in genby their victims.
eral, a very simple and regular distribuThere is an animal which, for two tion: if two or three of these are cut in thousand years, has excited the curiosity the body of the fish, a black transversal and superstition of man by its change of band following the course of the nerve colour – that is, the chameleon. No will be seen ; whilst, if the nerve which reasonable observation was ever made animates the head is thus treated, the upon it, until Perrault instituted some turbot growing paler on the sand, keeps experiments in the seventeenth century. I a kind of black mask, which has a very He observed that the animal became pale curious effect. at night, and took a deeper colour when These marks will remain for many in the sun, or when it was teased; whilst weeks, and what may be called paralysis the idea that it took its colour from sur- l of colour has been remarked in conserounding objects was simply fabulous. quence of illness or accident. Such was He wrapped it in different kinds of cloth, seen in the head of a large turbot, the and once only did it become paler when body being of a different colour. It was in white. Its colours were very limited, watched, and died after a few days, evivarying from gray to green and greenish dently of some injury which it had rebrown.
ceived. The subject offers a field of imLittle more than this is known in the mense inquiry : the chemical and physipresent day : under our skies it soon loses cal study of pigments, the conditions its intensity of colour. Beneath the Afri- which regulate their appearance, their incan sun, its livery is incessantly changing; tensity, and variations under certain insometimes a row of large patches appears fuences; the want of them in aibinos, on the sides, or the skin is spotted like a and the exaggerated development in trout, the spots turning to the size of a other forms of disease. To Mr. Darwin, pin's head. At other times, the figures in England, and to M. Ponchet, in France, are light on a brown ground, which a mo- the subject is indebted for much rement before were brown on a light search, which will no doubt be continued ground, and these last during the day. as occasion offers. A naturalist speaks of two chameleons which were tied together on a boat in the Nile, with sufficient length of string to run about, and so always submissive to the same influences of light, &c. They
From The Academy, offered a contrast of colour, though to a WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN THE LAST CENcertain degree alike; but when they slept
TURY. under the straw chair which they chose IN turning through some files of old for their domicile, they were exactly of newspapers, we have been surprised to the same shade during the hours of rest notice that the question as to the pro- a fine sea-green that never changed. priety of women taking a more prominent The skin rested, as did the brain, so that part in public affairs was quite as diliit seemed probable that central activity, gently discussed a century ago as it is thought, will, or whatever name is given, now-a-days. A few extracts which we has some effect in the change of colour. I have made will furnish somewhat curious The probability is, that as they become illustrations of this. The Morning Post pale, ihe pigment does not leave the skin, of April 14, 1780, contains the following but that it is collected in spheres too announcement:small to affect our retina, which will be “ Casino, no. 43 Great Marlborough impressed by the same quantity of pig- Street, this evening, the 14th inst., will ment when more extended.
commence the First Sessions of the FEMALE PARLIAMENT. The Debate to be! 7. On quacks and empirics, including carried on by Ladies only, and a Lady to those of the State, the Church, and the preside in the chair. Question — Is that Bar, etc., etc.” assertion of Mr. Pope's founded in jus- / About this time, too, we find the fol. tice, which says 'Every woman is at lowing ingenious problem propounded for heart a rake?' On the Sunday evening the solution of a like gathering in “The a theological question to be discussed.” | Large Hall, Cornbill :"-"Which is the
In succeeding issues of the paper, happiest period of a man's life: when formal reports of the proceedings of this courting a wife, when married to a wife, parliament in petticoats are published, I or when burying a bad wife.” such as: -“Friday, April 21. The Speak-) In 1788 an advertisement appears of er having taken the chair, it was resolved the proposed opening, on March 17, of nem. con. that the assertion of Mr. Pope's, Rice's elegant rooms (late Hickford's), which says, “Every woman is at heart a Brewer Street, Golden Square, for public rake' is not founded in justice. A mem- debate by ladies only. The first subject ber presented to the House several peti- suggested seems quite as comprehensive tions from men milliners, men mantua in the matter of women's rights as the makers, &c., &c., against a bill entitled most zealous advocate of them in our own • An Act to prevent men from monopo-day could desire. This is it: “Do not lizing women's professions. Resolved the extraordinary abilities of the ladies in that said bill and said petitions be con- the present age demand academical honsidered.”
ours from the Universities, a right to " Such is the universal rage for public vote at elections, and to be returned speaking," writes the Morning Post, of members of parliament ?" May 20, 1780, “that the honourable Mrs.
- possessed of no less than two thousand pounds a year, constantly speaks at the Casino Rooms on the nights of the ladies' debates."
From Nature. In the Morning Post of March 9, 1781, COL. GORDON'S JOURNEY TO GONDO we meet with this report:-“ La Belle
KORO. Assemblée - Budget." The opening of! We have been favoured with the folthe Budget, and the debate which en- lowing remarks concerning Colonel Gorsued upon the taxes that were proposed don's journey to Gondokoro. Colonel by the female Premier, as the Ways and Gordon, “ His excellency, the GovernorMeans for procuring the supplies for the general of the equator !” arrived at Kharpresent year, afforded such high and un- toum on March 13, and had with him a common amusement to the numerous and Pall Mall Gazette of Feb. 13; he writes splendid company in the Rooms, that a on the 17th from Khartoum as follows:general request was made that on the “At this season of the year the air is subsequent Friday the Ladies should re- so dry that animal matter does not decay sume the consideration of the Budget, in or smell, it simply dries up hard ; for inpreference to the question given out from stance, a dead camel becomes in a short the chair. In obedience, therefore, to time a drum. the desire of the public, the Ladies mean “The Nile, flowing from the Albert this evening to resume the debate on the Nyanza below Gondokoro, spreads out following taxes, viz. :
into two lakes ; on the edge of these 1. Old maids and bachelors over a cer- / lakes aquatic plants, with roots extendtain age.
ing 5 ft. into the water, flourish ; the na2. On men milliners, men mantua mak-tives burn the tops when dry, and thus ers, men marriage brokers...
form soil for grass to grow on ; this is 3. On female foxes, female dragoons, again burnt, and it becomes a compact female playwrights, and females of all mass. The Nile rises and floats out pordescriptions who usurp the occupations of tions, which, being checked in a curve of the men.
the channel, are joined by other masses, 4. On monkies, lap-dogs, butterflies, and eventually the river is completely parrots, and puppies, including those of bridged over for several miles, and all the human species.
navigation is stopped. 5. On made-up complexions.
“ Last year the governor of Khartoum 6. On French dancers, French frizeurs, went up with three companies and two French cooks, French milliners, and steamers, and cut away large blocks of the French fashion mongers.
| vegetation ; at last one night the water
burst the remaining part, and swept Rome, a married woman is known by her down on the vessels, dragging them father's name ; she cannot take the surdown some four miles, amidst (according name of her husband, because he has no to the Governor's account) hippopotami, surname for her to take. In all this we crocodiles, and large fish, some alive and are carried back to the days when the confounded, others dead or dying, the smallest man in Athens or Rome could fish being crushed by the floating masses. not call Perikles or Cæsar anything but One hippo was carried against the bows Perikles or Cæsar — nay more, when of the steamer and killed, and crocodiles he could not call Agaristê or Julia any. 35 ft. long were killed : the Governor, thing but Agariste or Julia. At Rome, who was on the marsh, had to go five to be sure, there were little delicacies miles on a raft to get to the steamer. about the use of prænomen, nomen, and
" The effects of these efforts of the cognomen; while Perikles could be Governor of Khartoum is that a steamer nothing but Perikles in the mouth can now go to Gondokoro in twenty-one of anybody, he whom the outer world days, whereas it took months formerly to called Cæsar would be known to an inner perform the same journey."
circle as Caius. So in the Universities a Colonel Gordoń left Khartoum on man is spoken to from the first moment March 21, and in his last letter from of introduction by his cognomen, allowing Fashoda, 10° N., he touches on some of for a few exceptional cases in which, the scenes on the banks of the rivers - owing to some special charm either in the storks, which he was in the habit of the man himself or in his prænomen, the seeing arrive on the Danube in April, prænomen is used instead. But Greeks, laying back their heads between their Romans, Icelanders, and undergraduates wings and clapping their backs in joy at all agree in calling a man by nothing but their return to their old nests on the one or other of his real names. Even in houses, now wild and amongst the croco- Iceland there are respectful ways of diles 2,000 miles away from Turkey ; the marking official rank, as when a man monkeys coming down to drink at the speaks to the Governor or the Bishop, edge of the river, with their long tails, but there is nothing like our fashion of like swords, standing stiff up over their putting a handle to the name of everybacks; the hippos and the crocodiles. body. We use this last phase of set pur. Such scenes to a lover of nature, as Col.(pose ; people constantly say that such a Gordon is, doubtless would serve to man has got a title, that he has got a make up in some measure for the loss of “ handle to his name," when he is made civilized society and comforts.
anything which gives him a right to be called Sir or Lord. Grave heraldic authorities who write peerages and books of landed gentry, and people who write
letters to explain how, though they are From The Saturday Review. not peers, they are still noblemen, draw a TITLES.
distinction between “titled” and “un. In the latter part of Mr. Bryce's ac- titled " nobility, or gentry, or whatever count of Iceland in the Cornhill Maga-/ word they choose to express that foreign zine * he gives a curious picture of a state thing which the law of England has alof society in which men who are perfect. I ways so unkindly refused to acknowledge. ly civilized in their thoughts and manners When people say that the new lord or live in a physical condition not much baronet or knight has got a “title," or a above that of savages. And one feature"handle," they forget that he has been of very primitive life they still keep in all called by a " title," or a "handle," ever its fulness. They have hardly any sur since the first time that his nurse spoke names, and they have no titles. A man of him as “ Master Tommy," or perhaps is simply Sigurd ; if you wish to distin- more familiarly as “Master Poppet." guish him from some other Sigurd, he is We are so much in the habit of giving simply Sigurd Magnusson. If you go to everybody titles, just as we are so much a house, and wish to see its mistress, you in the habit of talking in prose, that we ask for nobody but plain Ingebiorg ; or, have got to be as unconscious of the one if you wish to be formal, you do not call process as of the other. We are so conher Lady or Mrs., but only Ingebiorg stantly in the habit of giving everybody Sigurdsdottir. For in Iceland, as in old the titles of Mr., Mrs., Miss, or Master,
I that we forget that all these are titles, • LIVING Age, N. .; :
and we funcy that no one bears a title but those who are called Lord, Lady, or Sir., less a title - indeed, according to our In fact, the smaller every-day titles are showing, it was much more of a title more strictly and purely titles than the than if he had been called Duke of Montothers, because they are mere titles, morency. A man was not to be called while the others are in most cases titles Monsieur, but he was to be called Ciand something more. Duke, Earl, toyen; but Citoyen expressed, just as Bishop, are not mere titles; they wear much as Monsieur, the feeling which disbadges of actual rank ; they are originally itinguishes all of us from the Greek, the and still to some extent, descriptions ! Roman, and the Icelander, the shrinking of office. But we call people Mr. and from calling a man by his name and nothMrs., not to express rank or office, but ing else. It never came into the head of simply to avoid what passes for the un- an Athenian or a Roman to speak of a due familiarity of calling them, in Greek man as Citizen Perikles, or Citizen Cæsar, or Icelandic fashion, simple John and though there would really have been Mary. The custom undoubtedly came more sense in so doing than there was in through the use of official descriptions. , among the French Republicans, for no A man was called John the Earl, or Peter Athenian or Roman had declared that all the Bishop, or anything else, greater or men were equal, and the title of citizen smaller, to mark him off from those Johns might have expressed the very wide disor Peters who held some other office or tinction between the member of the rulno office at all. The official description ing commonwealth and the member of easily slides into the title used, not any of the inferior classes, from the mere merely to describe office, but to express slave up to the Latin or the Plataian. respect. But, as long as the description And even in those cases where intimate marks out any definite office, or even any friendship or any other ground causes definite rank, it is not a mere title ; it men to speak of one another simply by really serves to point out what the man their names, it is only done privately and is, and not merely to avoid the necessity among equals. The man whom we speak of calling him by his simple Christian to as Smith becomes Mr. Smith in a or surname. If John Churchill is Duke speech or an article, and in the like sort of Marlborough, we call him Duke of the undergraduate, to whom Smith is Marlborough, not merely to avoid calling Smith from the very beginning, speaks of him John Churchill, but to express the Mr. Smith either to his tutor or to his fact that he is Duke of Marlborough. scout. Thus, even when we go furthest But if John Churchill is nothing but in dropping titles, we do not dare to drop John Churchill, and we call him Mr. them altogether; we have not got back John Churchill, we do so, not to express to the stage of talking of Perikles and any fact at all, but merely to avoid the Sigurd at all times and to all persons. seeming rudeness of calling him simply There is indeed one exception, though John Churchill. Thus the Icelander not in our own country. He who finds recognizes the official rank of the Govo himself reviewed in a German periodical ernor and the Bishop, only he differs enjoys the privilege of being praised or from us in holding that plain Sigurd and blamed by his simple surname and nothIngebiorg have no need to be called any-ing else. And it might be well to set up thing but Sigurd and Ingebiorg.
an iootoalteia, an interchange of privilege, In this way it is plain that the “un-lin this matter. If for no other cause, yet titled classes” are really those who are for this, that, as the German and the most truly titled, those to whom titles Englishman, if they try their hand at any are most habitually given simply as tities kind of title, are sure to miscall one and for no other reason. All Europe, another, a good deal of inaccuracy is except the happy Icelanders, conforms to saved if they agree to call one another the fashion, and there seems no great by no title at all. likelihood that the rest of Europe will go There is something in our received back to the simpler practice of one un- system of titles, great and small, which sophisticated island. How deeply em- seems very puzzling to men of all other bedded the practice is in all modern nations. The Baronet or Knight and the habits of thought is shown by the fact Esquire seem ve mysterious beings. It
"GAGE that when the first French Republicans is stra're tl year, nor itle of “ Sir," in its determined to abolish titles, all that they origin with another peri ench, should bave bedid was to abolish the old titles, and to come one getting up a purely English that invent a new title of their own. When a no Fstered letter. Ain understand it. We man was called Citizeno do' and itetra cuecks'cnspeney-orders should makes our titles so puzzling to Frenchmen is their variety. | Baronet," as his description, and wait for An Englishman's description may begin other people to give him the title of Sir ? in twenty different ways; a Frenchman's Besides the substantive title or dedescription always begins in one way. scription, there is the honorary adjective An Englishman may be Lord, Sir, Col- and the honorary periphrasis. These are onel, Doctor, plain “ Mr.”; a Frenchman much older than mere titles; they are as is always "Monsieur." He may be old as Homer. What our modern rules plain letter " M.," or he may be “M. le have done is simply to stiffen them, so Duc;" but he is “M.” in every case. that everybody knows exactly which to Then the Esquire outrages the feelings apply to everybody. But it is odd how of the whole human race by sticking his the substantives and adjectives got contitle after his name instead of before it. founded, as if they were things of the This no foreigner can allow. A French- same kind which excluded one another. man must indeed be familiar with Eng. It is now thought vulgar to call a privy lish ways to keep himself from putting councillor or a peer's son “Hon.” or “M. John Smith, Esq." You may write!“ Right Hon. A. B., Esquire.” It was the down your description in full in your own right thing early in the last century. hand, but the “M.” is sure to appear in And the older usage was more rational. the address of the letter which your for- A peer's son is an Esquire ; “ Esquire " eign friend writes to you. His feeling is, is therefore his proper description ; he is “ Vous êtes trop modeste," as an English-| also entitled to the complimentary adjecman is sometimes told when he begs tive“ Honourable.” The substantive earnestly not to be called “ Milord.” and the adjective in no way exclude one The truth is that the style of the Esquire another. One might make a long list of is altogether anomalous. It is stuck | usages in the way of titles which are abafter the name and not before, because surd and nngrammatical ; as, for instance, it is not really a title, but a description. the last new piece of affectation, “ The A. B. is described as Esquire, as another Reverend the Honourable A. B.," which man may be described as Knight, Clerk seems to have just displaced “ The Hon
- anything down to Labourer. The de- ourable and Reverend A. B.,” which is scription of “ A. B., Esquire,” is, in fact, grammatical and intelligible. But it is the remnant of the oldest formula of all, enough to point out the crowning ab“ Cnut Cyning,” “Harold Eorl,” and the surdity of such phrases as “Her Malike, which survives, or did survive a jesty," "Her Majesty the Queen," and few years back, when visitors to Blen- the like. They are vulgar corruptions of heim are called on to look at the portrait the fine old formula “the Queen's Ma. and exploits of “ John Duke." By some jesty.” When the King, Prince, Duke, odd freak, this kind of description goes or other exalted person has once been on in any mention of an Esquire which is described it is sense and grammar to go in the least degree formal, though col- on speaking of “his Majesty," "his loquially he is spoken of by the “ Mr.” Highness," his Grace ;” but it is clearly which it would be thought disrespectful ungrammatical to talk of “his Majesty's to put on the outside of a letter. The when nothing has gone before for “his" peasant who talks about Squire Tomkins to refer to. And “Her Majesty the is far more consistent. Then again this Queen,” can all the heralds in the land description of “Esquire," a mere de-parse these words ? When Charles the scription and no title, is, oddly enough, First greeted Laud on his highest promojust the thing which a man avoids call- tion with the words “ My Lord's Grace of ing himself. It has an odd look when a Canterbury, you are welcome,” he spoke sheriff, signing an official paper, signs the King's English ; but “His Grace the " A. B., Esquire," and it has an odd | Archbishop of Canterbury" is simple sound when a magistrate qualifying de- gibberish. scribes himself as “A. B., Esquire." From these difficulties, and from these Whether a Sheriff who is a Baronet courtly vulgarisms, men were of old free should sign himself, as he commonly at Athens, and they are still free in Icedoes, “Sir A. B., Baronet,??' we doubt. land. Should he not rather sin himself “ A. B.,