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upon a level with the president, without any deference to And thus the assembly, the so-called constitutional party, the throne; all this proclaimed but too loudly that the bad given the last blow to the monarchy. They had sovereignty itself was aimed at. The queen no longer saw degraded the sovereign to the lowest degree in the eye of any ground for hope from the interior of the country. The the nation ; they had played into the hands of the king wrote to the emperor; she told me that she would herself, furious republican party; and they were about to surrenda at midnight, bring the letter wbich M. Goguelat was to bear the legislature and their new constitution into the very to the emperor, to my room. During all the remainder of the hands that were panting to destroy it, and to spill the blood day, the palace and the gardens of the Tuileries were of the king and queen, of these blind lawmakers, and one prodigiously crowded; the illuminations were magnificent. another. La Fayette and Bailly marched their pational

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The king and the queen were requested to take an airing in guards and their municipal officers once more to the Chas! their carriage in the Champs Elysées, escorted by the de Mars, on Sunday, the 18th of September, and this, aides - de - camp and leaders of the Parisian army, the amid the thunder of cannon, and of shouting multitude constitutional guard not being at that time organised. again proclaimed their devotion to the accomplished cesa. Many shouts of Vive le Roi!' were heard ; but, as often tution. But, amid the rejoicings of the people, there were as they terminated, one of the mob, who never quitted the cries and other signs that they were rejoicing, nato RS door of the king's carriage for a single instant, exclaimed, in the completion of the constitution, 23 in the fall of with a stentorian voice, “No, don't believe them : vive la monarchy. Amongst other significant symptoms, a skor nation!' This ill-omened cry struck terror into the queen; maker, in the Rue St. Honoré, exhibited a transparency, she thought it not right, however, to make any complaint with the words, “ Vive le Roi! s'il est de hoxe fou! on the subject, and pretended not to hear the isolated croak “Long live the king, if he keeps faith!" of this fanatic, a base hireling, as if it had been drowned in At this very time, the ladies and chief officers of the act the public acclamation.”

were resigning their situations because the per cestitas had abolished the honours and prerogatives connected with association of citizens could, under any form, have any them. It became a question with the sovereigps whether political existence, or exercise any inspection over the acts they should form their household without equerries and of legal and constitutional powers. Robespierre, who knew without ladies of honour. Nay, the lives of the sovereigns that the days of the assembly were numbered, and that all were not safe from poison. A pastrycook in the establish- the measures for returning a thoroughly jacobin assembly ment, who was a furious jacobin, and whom the king bad were complete, threw off his usually mild manner, and he no power to displace, had been heard to say that it would recalled to their attention their own law, which conferred the be a good thing for France if the king's days were short- most unlimited freedom of discussion and of action on all ened. In consequence of the danger, the royal family took citizens. He bade them remember how they had themselve care to eat nothing that did not come through the hands eulogised the jacobin clubs, and individually had frequented of their faithful little knot of attendants, and dined alone, them. “But,” he continued, “it is said, we have no longer serving themselves from dumb-waiters. Yet, all the time, any occasion for these clubs—the revolution' is finished. they were expected to look quite cheerful and confiding. We shall see! For my part, when I see on one side a conTheir majesties went to the opera, the Theatre Français—the stitution, only just born, beset by enemies interior and queen by herself to the Theatre Italien; at the former places exterior; when I see that discourses and external signs are they were applauded, at the latter a violent tumult arose changed, but that actions are all the same, and that men's from madame Dugazon unfortunately bowing to the queen hearts can only be changed by a miracle; when I see as, in Gretry's “ Evénemens imprévus,” she sang “Ah ! how intrigue, falsehood, and calumny studiously spreading I love my mistress !” At once arose the cry, “No mistress! alarms, and sowing the seeds of future troubles and disno master!" and the counter cries of " Vive le Roi! Vive la cords; when I see the chiefs of opposite factions fighting Reine!” till a regular fight commenced, which was only less for the cause of the revolution than for the power of ended by the arrival of a strong detachment of national domineering in the name of the monarch ; when, on the guards. The queen never again entered a theatre. other side, I see the exaggerated zeal with which they are

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other side 1 Meantime, the elements of confusion were on all sides prescribing blind obedience, and proscribing the very name rising into more intense and ominous action. The king of liberty ; when I see the extraordinary means they are and queen were in deep correspondence with Vienna, certain now employing to kill public spirit, and bring about the that no hope for them now existed in any party in France. resurrection of prejudices, and trivialities, and the old Barnave and the Lameths still promised them support from idolatries, I do not believe that the revolution is finished the constitutional party; but this party was already broken yet !". up, and the remains of it trampled under the feet of the The law against clubs was passed, but it was a dead republicans. The assembly, in its last few days, vainly letter as it passed, and only seemed to whet the edge of the essayed to curb the furies which they had fostered. The guillotine for those who passed it. Robespierre was finances were incurably bad; the army was thoroughly applauded frantically by the galleries, and his words were jacobinised; and, in discussing these matters, the two great preparing all the rabble of France for the sanguinary sxna parties in the assembly attacked each other without any about to follow. The assembly, on the eve of its extinction regard to decency. They threatened each other with their was endeavouring to bind with ropes of sand men whom no fists; they called one another infamous and lousy beggars! law, human or divine, could bind, who had been allowed to Chabroud demanded a vigorous law for enforcing discipline exist when they might readily have been crushed, and who in the army, and Alexander Lameth charged the frightful were now in force to crush all that dared to dispute with insubordination amongst the soldiers everywhere to the them. letters and instigations of Petion and Robespierre. He In the midst of these violent, unseemly, and ominos asked how could there be the necessary subordination where altercations, the assembly passed a decree granting to Jen the soldiers quoted to their officers the Rights of Man, and all the rights of citizenship, and, like England, declaring all then set them at defiance? Robespierre defended himself slaves setting foot on the soil of France free. At the same and the army. Very rude words, and the lie direct passed time, they seized and incorporated with France the city and betwixt Lameth and Robespierre. Estournel declared that district of Avignon, which had been purchased, in 1948, by the horrible jacobin faction should be put down; and pope Clement VI., of Joan, queen of Naples and countess of Chabroud's motion was passed, establishing the punishment Provence, to whom it belonged, and which ever since tåen of death for all officers, commissioned or non-commissioned, had remained a fief of the papacy. who disobeyed orders, and twenty years in the galleys for On the 30th of September Louis proceeded to the assembly all soldiers who, after a third proclamation, persisted in in order to dissolve it. On this occasion, as on all such disobedience.

public occasions, Louis spoke the sentiments which were pret On the 29th of September, the very next day, Chapelier into his mouth by his ministers and advisers, as the most presented a report on political clubs, and on the perilous safe. Although he detested the assembly and all its work, be system of jacobin affiliation. But all these measures were professed to admire their constitution, and the seal si now too late. These clubs should have been nipped in the patriotism which they had displayed. He expressed bu bud. But the assembly had supported them so long as they regret that they were not, indeed, sitting longer to consobhelped to strengthen it in its attacks on the throne; and date their legislation; and well might he do that, if now they were become all-powerful. It was now in vain looked round and noticed the members of the national cos. to proclaim, as this report did, that no society, club, or vention, who were already elected, and impatientis awaitiag

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cobin parte double

the departure of the present deputies. The jacobins had Bordeaux was of Roman origin. It had always displayed laid great stress on the election of the new deputies before a great love of independence, which its parliaments had conthe dissolution of the assembly. Whilst the deputies were in tinually kept alive. It had of late years become the great Paris, occupied in passing decrees that were soon to be blown commercial link betwixt France and the revolutionised to all the winds of heaven, the elections might be carried on United States. It had early, too, become leavened with the with less interference from them, though that could have new philosophy; it was the birth-place of Montaigne and availed little. The clubs had worked up the great mass of Montesquieu. The Gironde sent up to the new assembly the population to their own pitch, and they had returned an twelve deputies, all as yet unknown, but all deeply imbued assembly in which there was, with the exception of Con- with the new principles. Amongst them were Ducos, dorcet and one or two others, not a single man having any Guadet, Lafond-Ladebat, Grangeneuve, Gensonné, and claims to aristocratic origin. They were republicans of the Vergniaud. These, on arriving in Paris, soon found them- . deepest dye, with scarcely half a-dozen constitutionalists of selves mixed up, at the house of Condorcet and the Rolands, any weight amongst them. They were men never heard of with Robespierre, Danton, Petion, Buzot, Brissot, Carrabefore; but all zealots in republican principles, low Louvet, Thomas Paine, and, in fact, nearly all the thorough attorneys, infidels, club orators, newspaper writers, and revolutionists. The active centre of the whole party, up to unprincipled adventurers of various shades and grades. the period of the question of the war against the emigrants, Amongst them were Brissot, Gorsas, Carra, Guadet, Garats, was madame Roland, and such she continued to be of the and hundreds of still more obscure men, but destined soon Girondists after their separation into a distinct party, and to an infamous notoriety. There was no Robespierre, no after that they had become the antagonists of the Mountain Petion, because they had tied not only their own hands but or jacobin party. To obtain, therefore, a clear idea of the those of all their colleagues from serving in this new assembly; Girondists, we must at once make ourselves acquainted but Petion and Robespierre had taken care to secure posts with this remarkable woman. We have her autobiography in which they could exercise an influence paramount to all written in prison previous to her execution by the guillotine. others, and by which they could at pleasure denounce and Manon Jean Philipon Roland was the daughter of decimate the deputies themselves. Petion was elected Gratian Philipon, an engraver and painter in enamel, in mayor of Paris in place of Bailly, and Robespierre to the Paris. She was born in 1754, consequently, in the present new office of Public Accuser to the criminal tribunal ! year, at the opening of the new assembly, she was thirty

When the king had retired, Thouret, the president, seven years of age, and perished on the scaffold in 1793, announced that the national assembly had terminated its two years afterwards, at the age of thirty-nine. Her father, session, and was at an end. The new deputies assembled besides his proper profession of engraver, speculated in the very next day, the 1st of October, and assumed the diamonds and jewels. He had seven children, who all died name of the NATIONAL LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. Before in infancy except little Manon, and, in consequence, he was proceeding to the acts of this new assembly, it is necessary to passionately fond of her, and was anxious to make a fortune acquaint ourselves with its leading characters and leading on her account, but by his endeavours only made himself parties.

poorer. The mother of Manon appears to have been a As the jacobins had expected, the elections of the depart- woman of superior judgment, who cultivated the genius ments had occupied but little attention. The public gaze which she perceived in her daughter with much judgment, bad been fixed on the acts of the assembly about to retire, so and, as she feared that she might have to struggle with that a race of new men appeared, which seemed at first much difficulty through the unsuccessful proceedings of her to divide itself into two parties—the coté droit, or constitu- father, she infused into her the strength and spirit necessary tional party, and the coté gauche, or democratic party ; but for the severe martyrdoms of life. The little girl at the the latter party soon divided itself into two, the Mountain same time displayed a vivid appetite for knowledge, and and the Gironde. It is difficult to discern the distinguishing read all sorts of books that came to hand. Theology, traits of these two revolutionary parties. At first, they history, philosophy, music, painting, dancing, the exact all worked together, clearly for the downfall of the sciences, chemistry, foreign tongues and learned languages, monarchy. Robespierre, Petion, Marat, Danton, were asso- she learned all and desired more. The apprentices of her ciated with those who afterwards divided themselves into father were made the means of introducing books for her, the Gironde, with Condorcet, Brissot, the Rolands, Verg- which they brought into the workshop and purposely left, oiaud, &c. Though Robespierre, Petion, and Danton were seeming to forget them. She collected and secreted them. Her no longer in the assembly, they ruled the jacobin party there father was anxious to make an engraver of her, and a portrait from the clubs. It was not till the question of war arose of her when a girl represents her in the workshop with a book that the split took place. The Girondists were for war, Robe- in one hand and an engraving tool in the other. But she did spierre was obstinately against it. At first he stood nearly not take to this profession, and it was abandoned. She went alone. Jacobins and Girondists were alike for war; he on reading. Her mother's brother, a priest and curé, gave stood firm against it, and by degrees, though he did not her instructions in the catholic religion ; but at the same draw the jacobins very soon to his views, he drew them time she read Malbranche and Locke, and studied Delolme speedily away from the Girondists.

on the English constitution. This afterwards induced her This party of the Girondists had been growing and forming to visit England, where she was struck by the comparafor some time. It took its rise originally at Bordeaux, the tive comfort of the poor, and she wrote in her letters, “ Let great commercial city of the department of the Gironde. I fools cry out, and slaves laugh and sing, but believe me there


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are in England men who have a right to laugh at us." ually affected me; I sought nothing around me; it was But she enlivened this reading by also devouring all the dream without awaking. Yet I remember having tebeld tales, and romances, and travels of that period ; not except- with much agitation a young painter named Taboral, who ing the very freest of

called on my istka the books of Scarron

occasionally. He sa and Voltaire. But

about twenty years Plutarch was her

of age, with a swesi great book, and from

voice, intelligent him she derived her

countenance, admiration of great

blushed like a girl men, or such as ap

When I heard bin peared to her great

in the atelier, Ibai men, and her decided

always a pencil of republican principle.

something to look “I shall never

after; but, as his pre forget,” she writes,

sence embarrasseda “the Lent of 1763,

much as it pleased during which I every

me, I went away day carried that book

quicker than I en to church, instead of the book of prayers.

To improve be It was from this

education, she wei moment that I date

for a time into a con the impressions and

vent; she then te ideas which made me

turned to besfather a republican, when I

house, near the Pet had never formed a

Neuf, with in thought on the sub

from its roof love ject.” She was, in

ing over the Cheap fact, only nine years

Elysées and of age at this time.

houses of Click After Plutarch, Fé

She thought the s nélon made thedeep

trict of the Isle Sains est impression upon

Louis then very her. Tasso and the

beautiful, and, with poets followed. Thus

her mother and bet she grew up, and it

aunt Angelique, is may be supposed that

haled the fresh u her secluded sort of

with them on se life and her manners


mer evenings CD LUM would have tended to

ARINESAURI toilutuklanding and more


those straight quaya S

om POIs M. soften a heart that

watching the course early philosophy had

of the graceful river attempted to in

and the distant and durate. She says,

scape. In the day 16 When I read be

time she acutere hind thescreen which

nied her mother to closed up my cham

market, andes ber from my father's

ployed herself in the apartment, if my

duties of the bitches breathing was at

Sometimes sbe all loud, I felt a

taken into morears burning blush over

tocratic circks, sed spread my cheek,

there she felt store and my altered voice

the pain andindigna would have betrayed LIGHTHOUSE OF CORDOVAN, AT THE MOUTH OF THE GIRONDE.

tion resulting fra my agitation. I was

the rade catrast Eucharis to Telemachus, and Herminia to Tancred. Yet, betwixt the ideal world in which her imagination bad transformed as I was into them, I never thought of becoming indulged and the real one. She was deeply wounded by anything to anybody. I made no reflection that individ- the manner in which she and her mother or sunt vera

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