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Then Suddhodana Raja pressed on Mahanama to give him all particulars as to the portents that attended the birth, and the time of their appearance, on which the great minister related, as before, what he had himself seen and heard. Then Suddhodana replied, "You are, indeed, the bearer of good tidings; tell me what recompense can I give? what return can I make for the news you bring?" After some delay, he replied, "Oh! grant me the privilege of attending constantly on the Prince Royal!" To whom Suddhodana replied, "be it so, as you wish."

Then forthwith Mahanama, surrounded by ministers and officers, proceeded to Lumbini to conduct the Princess Royal to the city of Kapilavastu. On the way thither, Suddhodana Raja thus addressed Mahanama, and the great ministers, and said, "I scarcely know, great ministers, whether to be glad or sorry about these tidings of the miracles attending the birth of the child." To whom Mahanama replied, "it is certainly an occasion for great joy, Maharaja, and not for sorrow; for is it possible that your majesty has not heard that these circumstances ever attend the birth of heaven descended mortals; as, for instance, in the case of the Brahman called Dashthaka, who was born from a flower, and after his birth, without any human instruction whatever, but entirely reconstructed, was able thoroughly to explain the four Vedas. And have you not heard, O king, of that wonderful birth in the old times, of a king from the head of his father (agrajanman), and who, after being so born, gradually grew up from a little boy to be a mighty king who ruled the four empires of the world. Or has your majesty not heard of a king in the old days, called Vika (f) (or, Vaska), who was born from the hand of his father, without any mother; or has your majesty not heard of that king born in old times from his father's stomach, called Rupa; or of that one called Katspa born from his father's arm; or, is it possible your majesty does not recollect the origin of your own house and family in days gone by when Ikshwaku was born from the sugar cane? All these were born in a manner quite incomprehensible to us, even as the Prince, your son, is born." To whom Suddh6dana replied, "Yes! very true, Mahanama! but all these whom you have named were of great personal dignity and renown; but in this case, it is not so plain that such is the case!" To whom Mahanama answered with great joy, "Be it known to you, Maharaja, that this prince will far ex-


ceed all those in the particulars you have mentioned." "But what proofs have you of this superiority," said Suddhodana, "Your minister, Maharaja, has compared the various signs which attended the births of those before-named with the signs at the nativity of the Royal Prince, andfinds the latter far more excellent and noteworthy." To whom the king replied again, "Let there be no trifling in this matter; for a father is naturally anxious for his son to excel others in quickness and knowledge, in conduct and decorum, in judgment and resolute application; when this is so he rejoices naturally."

And so, halting at length, they came to Lumbini. Having arrived at the outer gate of the garden, they immediately dispatched a messenger to the Queen to congratulate her on the auspicious event of the birth and its attending circumstances, and to express the king's desire to see the child. To which the queen made reply, "Go! tell the king he may enter the garden!" Then a woman in attendance, seeing the king in the garden, took the child in her arms, and approaching the king, said, "The royal babe salutes his father." To whom the king answered, "Not so! first of all send him to the Brahman ministers in attendance and afterwards let him see me!" Then the nurse forthwith took B6dhisatwa to the place where the Brahmans were. At this time, the chief minister (Kwo sse), and the Brahmans, having looked at the child, addressed Sud. dhodana in the following terms of congratulation, "All honoured be the King, and prosperous for evermore! even as we see that this babe will prosper! even so may the king and all the Sakya race increase and ever flourish. Maharaja! this child will certainly, and of necessity, become a holy Chakravartin monarch!"

At this time, Queen Maya, the mother of Bodhisatwa, beholding Suddhodana and the ministers, her face glowing with joy, immediately inquired of the king in these words, "Maharaja! recite to me I pray you the distinguishing signs of one who is to become a Chakravartin monarch! tell me, I pray you, what these are that my heart may also rejoice!" Then Suddhodana Raja desired the Brahman ministers to explain and point out the distinctive signs of a Chakravartin monarch. To whom they replied as follows,

1 The nature of the Chakravarti monarch has been exhaustively discussed by M. Senart, in the "Journal Asiatique," Aug. and Sept. 1873.

speaking both to the king and queen, "Listen then, O king, and discriminate whilst we recite the various signs of an universal monarch, derived from all the ancient Shasters: A Chakravartin monarch is possessed of such personal virtue, that he can fly through the air for the purpose of carrying on his government of the people; if there is a drought any where, he can cause the rain to descend; at his birth all discord and enmity amongst men cease, and there is universal joy and fellow-feeling amongst all people. A universal monarch is always possessed of seven precious insignia, viz., a golden discus, a magic jewel, an elephant, a horse, a fair wife, a treasurer, a warlike minister (or, a general). These are called the seven insignia (sapta Ratnani); the life of a Chakravartin is very long, and his death a quiet, painless one; his body beautiful beyond human comparison; universally beloved and reverenced by his people, even as one loves an only son, whilst he cares for and cherishes his people more than one would cherish a naked and perishing child."1

Then Suddhodana thought with himself thus, "And now what means of conveyance have I for my son in returning to the city." No sooner had he thought thus than the skilful Visvakarman caused a precious palanquin to appear of itself; so perfect that no human art could have made it so, and there were none to be compared with it.

Then Suddhodana took immediate steps to have the road prepared, the streets of Kapilvastu adorned, and all the singing men and women of the place summoned to accompany the Prince on his return. Besides these, he ordered all the conjurers, and athletes; the pearl players (ball-players ?), the water-spouters, the masqueraders, and all such, to attend the college. Then these all came to the spot, accompanied by vaulters, tumblers, ball-players (?), drumplayers, stilt-walkers, pole-climbers, walkers on their hands (head down, feet up), turners round and round like a wheel, tight-rope dancers, spear-twisters (?), sword-kickers, and so forth; every kind of such light and laughable exhibition, with musical accompaniments. Then the four guardians of the world (Chatur Maharajas), changing their appearance, assumed the garb of Brahmans, of youthful age and distinguished beauty, and themselves took charge of

1 The narrative then proceeds to speak of the birth of previous "universal Monarchs."

the Palanquin of Bodhisatwa. And at same time Sakra Devaraja, changed his appearance into that of a young Brahman of remarkable beauty, with his hair bound with the usual spiral twist, and his body clothed with yellow garments; in his left hand he carried a golden water pitcher, and in his right a beautiful gem-adorned staff; and so furnished, he went before the face of Bodhisatwa, and as he proceeded he exhorted all those whom he met in these terms, "My friends ! prepare the way, clear the road ! for now the most excellent of mortals is about to enter the city!"

At this time, Brahma Raja and the Devas of the Rupa heavens, joined together in this old strain of laudation,—

"In heaven above, in earth beneath, there is no such being as Buddha.

"In all the regions of space, through all the worlds, there is none such.

"I have looked through and examined every form of life amongst men,

"And I find there is none tobe compared with him called the Allwise (Buddha)."

At this time, not far from Kapilavastu, there was a Deva temple, the Deva's name being "Tsang Chang" (Dirghavardana ?), at whose shrine the Sakyas paid unwonted honours; then Suddhodana forthwith took the infant in his arms to this temple and addressed his ministers in these words, "Now my child may pay worship to this Deva." Then his mother (or, nurse), took the child to pay the customary honours, at which time a certain Deva, called "Abhaya" (wou wei), took the image of the Deva in the temple, and made it come down and bow before B6dhisatwa with closed hands and prostrate head, and addressed the nurse thus, "This Prince of mortals is not called on to worship, but is deserving of all worship; let me adore him, for to whom he bows down, instant destruction would follow."

[Kiouen VIII contains 6550 words and cost 3.275 taels to print.]


Return from the Garden to Kapilavastu.

§1. At this time there were five hundred Sakya princes (ministers) who, in readiness for the return of B6dhisatwa to the city, had prepared five hundred Viharas (pure abodes) for him to rest. So it came to pass as he entered the city that each of these Sakyas stood before the door of his own abode, and with joyful heart and clasped hands paid reverence to him and said, "Oh! thou God among Gods! I pray thee enter this my pure abode! Oh! thou captain of the ship! enter this my pure abode! Oh! thou golden bodied, purest among creatures, enter this my pure abode! Bestower of universal joy, enter this my pure abode! Renowned in every place, enter this my pure abode! Incomparable for virtue! enter this my pure abode!"

Then Suddhodana Raja, for the sake of those five hundred relatives, through consideration for them, caused B6dhisatwa to enter each dwelling in succession whilst he prepared for him his own peculiar abode.

Now, on the day of his birth there were five hundred Sakya princes born, of whom B6dhisatwa himself was by far the most illustrious; there were five hundred Sakya princesses born, of whom Yas6dhara was chief; there were five hundred children born of the concubines of Suddhodana, of whom Tchandaka was chief; there were five hundredchildren born of the slaves of Suddhodana, who became personal servants of the Royal prince; there were five hundred foals born of the white mares belonging to the Royal stud, of which Kantaka was chief; and so also five hundred white elephants appeared of themselves, and went round the city of Kapilavastu; five hundred lovely gardens, with fountains, tanks, &c, appeared on each side of the city; five hundred merchant-men with gold, silver, and precious stones, arrived at the city; moreover, they had (or, there were) five hundred superb umbrellas, and five hundred golden dishes filled with different sorts of grain (as tribute,), sent from five hundred different princes; on the delivery of which the bearers spoke thus: "Accept these things, O King! which we offer in respect for the Prince now born." At the same time came five hundred Brahmans and

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