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he small proportion of wood about them, which could not contain air enough to render the strokes, in any considerable neasure, full and sonorous. There is a great deal of differnce in the make, not only of the several kinds of instrunents, but even among those of the same name. The Syinga, for example, has sometimes four, and sometimes more pipes, as high as the twelve. The same variety of strings may be observed on their harps, and of stops on their Tibia, which shows the little foundation that such writers have gone upon, who, from a verse perhaps in Virgil's Eclogues, r a short passage in a classic author, have been so very nice n determining the precise shape of the ancient musical nstruments, with the exact number of their pipes, strings, nd stops. It is, indeed, the usual fault of the writers of ntiquities, to straiten and confine themselves to particuar models. They are for making a kind of stamp on everyhing of the same name, and if they find anything like an old lescription of the subject they treat on, they take care to egulate it on all occasions, according to the figure it makes n such a single passage: as the learned German author, quoted by Monsieur Baudelot, who had probably never seen nything of a household god, more than a canopus, affirms oundly, that all the ancient lares were made in the fashion of a jug-bottle. In short, the antiquaries have been guilty f the same fault as the system-writers, who are for cramping heir subjects into as narrow a space as they can, and for relucing the whole extent of a science into a few general naxims. This a man has occasion of observing more than nce, in the several fragments of antiquity that are still to be seen in Rome. How many dresses are there for each particular deity! What a variety of shapes in the ancient rns, lamps, lachrymary vessels, Priapuses, household gods, which have some of them been represented under such a articular form, as any one of them has been described with a an ancient author, and would probably be all so, were hey not still to be seen in their own vindication? Madam Dacier, from some old cuts of Terence, fancies that the larva, r the persona of the Roman actors, was not only a vizard or the face, but had false hair to it, and came over the whole ead like a helmet. Among all the statues at Rome, I remember to have seen but two that are the figures of actors, which are both in the Villa Matthei. One sees on them the
fashion of the old sock and larva, the latter of which answers the description that is given of it by this learned lady, though I question not but several others were in use; for I have seen the figure of Thalia, the comic muse, sometimes with an entire head-piece in her hand, sometimes with about half the head, and a little frizze, like a tower, running round the edges of the face, and sometimes with a mask for the face only, like those of a modern make. Some of the Italian actors wear at present these masks for the whole head. I remember formerly I could have no notion of that fable in Phædrus, before I had seen the figures of these entire headpieces.
Personam tragicam fortè vulpes viderat ;
As wily Renard walked the streets at night,
Lib. i. Fab. 7.
I find Madam Dacier has taken notice of this passage in Phædrus, upon the same occasion; but not of the following one in Martial, which alludes to the same kind of masks.
Non omnes fallis, scit te Proserpina canum,
Lib. iii. Ep. 43.
In the Villa Borghese is the bust of a young Nero, which shows us the form of an ancient Bulla on the breast, which is neither like a heart, as Macrobius describes it, nor altogether resembles that in Cardinal Chigi's cabinet; so that without establishing a particular instance into a general rule, we ought, in subjects of this nature, to leave room for the humour of the artist or wearer. There are many figures of gladiators at Rome, though I do not remember to have seen any of the Retiarius, the Samnite, or the antagonist to the Pinnirapus. But what I could not find among the statues, I met with in two antique pieces of Mosaic, which are in the possession of a cardinal. The Retiarius is engaged with the Samnite, and has had so lucky a throw, that his net covers the whole body of his adversary from head to foot, yet his antagonist recovered himself out of the toils, and was conqueror, accord
ng to the inscription. In another piece is represented the combat of the Pinnirapus, who is armed like the Samnite, and not like the Retiarius, as some learned men have supposed on the helmet of his antagonist are seen the two Pinnæ, that stand up on either side like the wings in the petasus of a Mercury, but rise much higher, and are more bointed.
There is no part of the Roman antiquities that we are better acquainted with, than what relates to their sacrifices. For as the old Romans were very much devoted to their reigion, we see several parts of it entering their ancient basso relievos, statues, and medals, not to mention their altars, tombs, monuments, and those particular ornaments of architecture which were borrowed from it. An heathen ritual could not instruct a man better than these several pieces of antiquity, in the particular ceremonies and punctilios that attended the different kinds of sacrifices. Yet there is much greater variety in the make of the sacrificing instruments, than one finds who have treated of them, or have given us their pictures. For not to insist too long on such a subject, I saw in Signior Antonio Polito's collection, a patera without any rising in the middle, as it is generally engraven, and another with a handle to it, as Macrobius describes it, though it is quite contrary to any that I have ever seen cut in marble; and I have observed, perhaps, several hundreds. I might here enlarge on the shape of the triumphal chariot, which is different in some pieces of sculpture From what it appears in others; and on the figure of the discus, that is to be seen in the hand of the celebrated Cascor at Don Livio's, which is perfectly round, and not oblong, as some antiquaries have represented it, nor has it anything Like a sling fastened to it, to add force to the toss.
Protinus imprudens, actusque cupidine lusus
Ov. MET. lib. x.
The unwary youth, impatient for the cast,
Notwithstanding there are so great a multitude of clothed statues at Rome, I could never discover the several different Roman garments, for 'tis very difficult to trace out the figure of a vest, through all the plaits and foldings of the drapery; besides that, the Roman garments did not differ from each
other so much by the shape as by the embroidery and colour, the one of which was too nice for the statuary's observation, as the other does not lie within the expression of the chisel. I observed, in abundance of bas reliefs, that the cinctus gabinus is nothing else but a long garment, not unlike a surplice, which would have trailed on the ground had it hung loose, and was therefore gathered about the middle with a girdle. After this it is worth while to read the laborious description that Ferrarius has made of it. Cinctus gabinus non aliud fuit quàm cum togæ lacinia lævo brachio subducta in tergum ita rejiciebatur, ut contracta retraheretur ad pectus, atque ita in nodum necteretur; qui nodus sive cinctus togam contrahebat, brevioremque et strictiorem reddidit. De re Vestiar. lib. ic. 14. Lipsius's description of the Samnite armour seems drawn out of the words of Livy; yet not long ago a statue, which was dug up at Rome, dressed in this kind of armour, gives a much different explication of Livy from what Lipsius has done. This figure was superscribed BA. TO. NÎ., from whence Fabretti1 concludes, that it was a monument erected to the gladiator Bato, who, after having succeeded in two combats, was killed in the third, and honourably interred by order of the Emperor Caracalla. The manner of punctuation after each syllable is to be met with in other antique inscriptions. I confess I could never learn where this figure is now to be seen, but I think it may serve as an instance of the great uncertainty of this science of antiquities.
In a palace of Prince Cesarini, I saw busts of all the Antonine family, which were dug up about two years since, not far from Albano, in a place where is supposed to have stood a villa of Marcus Aurelius. There are the heads of Antoninus Pius, the Faustinas, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, a young Commodus, and Annius Verus, all incomparably well cut.
Though the statues that have been found among the ruins of old Rome are already very numerous, there is no question but posterity will have the pleasure of seeing many noble pieces of sculpture which are still undiscovered, for, doubtless, there are greater treasures of this nature under ground, than what are yet brought to light. They have often dug into
1 Vide Fabr. de Columnâ Trajani.
ds that are described in old authors, as the places where ch particular statues or obelisks stood, and have seldom ed of success in their pursuits. There are still many such omising spots of ground that have never been searched o. A great part of the Palatine mountain, for example, 3 untouched, which was formerly the seat of the imperial ace, and may be presumed to abound with more treasures this nature than any other part of Rome.
Ecce Palatino crevit reverentia monti,
But whether it be that the richest of these discoveries fall o the pope's hands, or for some other reason, it is said at the Prince Farnese, who is the present owner of this t, will keep it from being turned up till he sees one of his n family in the chair. There are undertakers in Rome o often purchase the digging of fields, gardens, or vineds, where they find any likelihood of succeeding, and me have been known to arrive at great estates by it. They y according to the dimensions of the surface they are to eak up, and after having made essays into it, as they do coal in England, they rake into the most promising parts it, though they often find, to their disappointment, that ers have been beforehand with them. However, they nerally gain enough by the rubbish and bricks, which the esent architects value much beyond those of a modern ke, to defray the charges of their search. I was shown