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Then the congress adjourned to to-morrow morn-, as are required for the support of your governor eat ing, at 9 o'clock.
over them, and other public esigencies, and trials
by their peers. By the one they are secured from l'uesday, Oct 22d, 1765, A. M-The congress unreasonable impositions, and by the other from the met according to adjournment. The address to bis arbitrary decisions of the executive power. The con
tinuation of these liberties, to the inhabitants of majesty being engrossed, was read and compared, America, we ardently implore, as absolutely neces. and is as follows, viz:
sary to unite the several parts of your wide extend.
ed dominions, in that harmony só essential to the To the king's most excellent majesty, preservation and happiness of the whole. Protected The petition of the freeholders and other inhabi. in these liberties, the emoluments Great Britain re.
tants of the Massachusets Bay, Rhode Island and ceives from us, however great at present, are inconProvidence Plantations, New Jersey, Pennsyl. siderable, compared with those she has the fairest varia, the government of the counties of New. prospect of acquiring. By this protection, she will Castle , Kent and Susses upon Delaware, and pro-ling
to all Europe, the merchandize which America
forever secure to herself the advantages of conveyvince of Maryland, Mosi humbly sheweth,
furnishes, and for supplying, through the same chanThat the inhabitants of these colonies, a boundless source of wealth and naval strength. Yet
nel, whatsoever is wanted from thence. Here opens unanimously devoted with the warmest sentiments these immense advantages, by the abridgement of of duty and affection to your sacred person and go those invaluable rights and liberties, by wbich our vernment, and inviolably attached to the present happy estal lishment of the protestant succession in growth has been nourished, are in danger of being your illustrious house, and deeply sensible of your fect rendered useless by the late acts of parliament
forever lost, and our subordinate legislatures in e royal attention to tbeir prosperity and happiness, imposing duties and taxes on these colonies, and es: humbly beg leave to approach the throne, by repretending the jurisdiction of the courts of admirality senting to your majesty, that these colonies were here, beyond its ancient limits; statutes, by which originally planted by subjects of the British crown; who, animated with the spirit of liberty, encourag- lutely to dispose of the property of their fellow sub
your majesty's commons in Britain undertake absoed by your majesty's royal predecessors, and confid. ing in the public faith for the enjoyment of all the enforcing whereof, they are subjec: ed 10 the detet;
jects in America without their cousent, and for the sights and liberties essential to freedom, emigrated mination of a single judge, in a court unrestrained from their native country to this continent, and, by by the wise rules of the coromon law, the birihright their successful perseverance, in the midst of innu. merable dangers and difficulties, together with a
of Englishmen, and the safeguard of their persons profusion of their blood and treasure, have happily
and properties. added these vast and extensive dominions to the by our peers, of which we implore your majesty's
The invaluable rights of taxing ourselves and trial empire of Great Britain.
protection, are not, we most humbly conceire, un. That, for the enjoyment of these rights and liber. constitutional, but confirmed by the Great Charter ties, several governments were early formed in the of English liberties. On the first of tbese rights the said colonies, with full power of legislation, agreea- honorable house of commons found their practice bly to the principles of the English constitution; of originating money; a right enjoyed by tbe kingthat, under those governments, these liberties, thus dom of Ireland, by the clergy of England, until re. vested in their ancestors, and transmitted to their linquished by themselves; a right, in fine, which all posterity, have been exercised and enjoyed, and by ouber your toajesty's English subjects, both within the inestimable blessings thereof, under the favor and without the realm, have hitherto enjoyed. of Almighty God, the inhospitable desarts of Amer
With bearts, therefore, impressed with the most ca have been converted into flourishing countries; indelible characters of gratitude to your majesty, science, humanity and the knowledge of divine and to the memory of the kings of your illustrious truths diffised through remote regions of ignor. house, whose reigns have been signally distirguisb. ance, infidelity, barbarism; the number of Britished by their auspicious influence on the prosperity subjects wonderfully increased, and the wealth of the British dominions, and convinced by the most and power of Great Britain proportionably augmen- affecting proofs of your majesty's paternal love to ted.
all your people, however distant, and your unceasing That, by means of these settlements and the un- and benevolent desires to promote their happiness, paralleled success of your majesty's arms, a founda. we most humbly beseech your majesty that you will tion is now laid for rendering ihe British empire the be graciously pleased to take into your royal consid. most extensive and powerful of any recorded in his eration the distresses of your faithful subjects on tory; our connection with this empire we esteem this continent, and to lay the same before your maour greatest happiness and security, and humbly jesty's parliament, and to afford them such relief, as conceive it may now be so established by your royal in your royal wisdom their unbappy circumstances wisdom, as to endure to the latest period of time; shall be judged to require. this, with the most humble submission to your ma- And your petioners will pray, &c. jesty, we apprehend will be most effectually accomplished by fixing the pillars thereof on liberty and The memorial to the lords in parliament being justice, and securing the inherent rights and liber. ties of your subjects here, upon the principles of the engrossed, was read and compared, and is as fol. English constitution. To this constitution, these lows, viz: two principles are essential; the right of your faith. ful subjects freely to grant to your majesty such aids) To the right honorable the lords spiritual and tempe
ral of Great Britain, in parliament assembled, # South Carolina, we presume, is omitted in the The memorial of the freeholders and other inbabi. copy.--[ED.
tants of the Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, New Jersey, Pennsylva.,future grievances, thereby promoting the united in. nia, the government of the counties of New.terest of Great Britain and America, as to your Castle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware, and pro. lordships, in your great wisdom, shall seem most vince of Maryland, in America,
conducive and effectual to that important end.
And your memorialists will pray, &c.
Then the congress adjourned to to-morrow morn. in his American colonies, though they acknow. ing, 9 o'clock. ledge a due subordination to that august body, the British parliament, are entitled, in the opinion of
Wednesday, Oct. 23d, 1765, A. M.---The congress your memorialists, to all the inherit rights and lib. met according to adjournment. erties of the natives of Great Britain, and have,
The petition to the house of commons being en. ever since the settlement of the said colonies, ex ercised those rights and liberties, as far as their grossed, was read and compared, and is as fol. local circumstances would permit.
lows, viz: That your memorialists bumbly conceive that one to the honorable the knights, citizens anıl burgesses of the most essential rights of these colonists, which they have ever till lately uninterruptedly en
of Great Britain, in parliament assembled,
The petition of his majesiy's dutiful, loyal subjects, joyed, to be trial by jury.
the freebolders and other inhabitants of the colo. That your memorialists also humbly conceive another of these essential rights, to be the exemp.
pies of the Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations, New Jersey, Penntion from all taxes, but such as are imposed on the
sylvania, the government of the counties of New. people by the several legislatures in these colo. Castle, Kent and Sussex upon Delaware, and pronies, wbich rights they have also, till of late enjoy.
vince of Maryland, in America, ed. But your meinorialists humbly beg leave to represent to your lordships, that the act for grant. Most humbly sheweth, ing certain stamp duties in the British colonies in
That the several late acts of parAmerica, &c. fills his majesty's American subjects liament, imposing divers duties and taxes on the co. with the deepest concern, as it tends to deprive lonies, and laying the trade and commerce under them of the two fundamental and invaluable rights very burthensome resiric ions, but, above all, the and liberiies above-mentioned; and that several other act for granting and applying certain stamp duties late acts of parliament, which extend the jurisdic. in America, have filled them with the deepesi contion and power of courts of admiralty in the plan. cern and surprize, and they humbly conceive the extations beyond their limits in Great Britain, there. ecution of them will be attended with coisequen. by make an unnecessary, unhappy distinction, as to ces very injurious to the commercial interest of the modes of trial between us and our fellow sub. Great Britain an l her colonies, and must terrainate jects there, by whom we never have been excelled in the eventual ruin of the latter. Your petition. in duty and loyalty to our sovereign.
ers, therefore, most ardently implore the attention That, from the naturai connection between Great of the honorable house, to the united and dutiful Britain and America, the perpetual continuance of representation of their circumstances, and to their which your memorialists most ardently desire, they earnest supplications for relief from their regulaconceive that nothing can conduce more to the in. tions, that have already involved this continent in terest of both, than the colonists free enjoyment a' xi ty, confusion and distress. We most sincere. of their rights and liberties, and an affectionate in. ly recognize our allegiance to the crown, and ac. tercourse between Great Britain and them. But knowledg. all due subordination to the parliament your memorialists (not waving their claim to these of Great Britain, and shall always retain the most rights, of which, with the most becoming venera. grateful sense of their assistance and approbation; it tion and defe, unce to the wisdom and jus:ice of your is from and under the English constitution we de. lordships, they apprehend, they cannot reasonably rive all our civil and religious rights and liberties; be deprived) humbly represent, that from the pe- we glory in being subjects of the best of kings, culiar circumstances of these colonies, the duties having been born under the most perfect form of imposed by the aforesaid act, and several other government. But it is with the most ineffable and late acts of parliament, are extremely grievous and humiliating sorrow that we find ourselves of late, burthensome; and the payment of the several duties deprived of the right of granting our own proper, will very soon, for yant of specie, become absolute. ty for his majesty's service, to which our lives and ly impracticable; and that the restrictions on rade fortunes are entirely devoted, and to which, on his by the said acts, will not only distress the colonies, royal requisitions, we have been ready to contribute but must be extremely detrimental to the trade to the utmost of our abilities. and true interest of Great Britain.
We have also the misfortune to find, that all the Your memorialists, therefore, impressed with a penalties and forfeitures mentioned in the stamp just sense of the unfortunate circumstances of the act, and divers late acts of trade extending to the colonies, the impending destructive consequences plantations, are, at the election of the informers, which must necessarily ensue from the execution recoverable in any court of admiralty in America. of these acts, and animated with the warmest sen. This, as the newly erected court of admiralty has timents of filial affection for their mother country, a general jurisdiction over all British America, rén. most earnestly and humbly entreat your lordships ders bis majesty's subjects in these colonies, liable will be pleased to hear their council in support of to be carried at an immense expense from one end this memorial, and take the premises into your of the continent to the other. It always gives us most serious consideration, and that your lordships great pain to see a manifest distinction made there. will also be thereupon pleased to pursue, such in between the subjects of our mother country and measures for restoring the just rights and liberties the colonies, in that the like penalties and forfei. of the colonies, and preserving them forever invio. tures resoverable there only in his majesty's courts late, for redressing their present, and preventing of record!, are made cognizable here by a court of ad.
miralty. By this means we seem to be, in effect, un slaw, and the regulations of tra le and commerce,
sembling that of the mother country, as by his Your petitioners further shew, that the remote majesty's royal predecessors was thought convenisituation and other circumstances of the colonies, ent; and these legislatures seem to have been wise. render it impracticable tbat they should be repre. ly and graciously established, that the subjects in sented but in their respective subordinate legisla. the colonies might, under the due administration tures, and they humbly conceive that the parliament thereof, enjoy the happy fruits of the British govern. adhering strictly to the principle of the constitution, ment, which in their present circumstances they bave never hitherto taxed any but those who were cannot be so fully and clearly availed of any other therein actually represented for this reason, we
way. humbly apprehend, they never have taxed Ireland, nor any other of the subjects without the realm.- Under these forms of government we and our an. But were it ever so clear, that the colonies migt in cestors have been born or settled, and have bad law be reasonably represented in the honorable our lives, liberties and properties protected; the house of commons, yet we conceive that very good people here as every where else, retain a great reasons from inconvenience, from the principles of fondness of their old customs and usages, and we true policy, and from the spirit of the British con. trust that his majesty's servce, and the interest of stitution, may be adduced to shew, that it would be the nation, so far from being obstructed, have for the real interest of Great Britain, as well as her been vastly promoted by the provincial legisla. colonies, that the late regulations should be rescind. tures. ed, and the several acts of parliament imposing du. That we esteem our connection with and depen. ties and taxes on the colonies, and extending the dence on Great Britain, as one of our greatest bless. jurisdiction of the conrts of admiralty here beyond ings; and apprehend the latter will be sufficiently their ancient limits, should be repealed.
secure, wben it is considered that the inhabitants We shall not attempt a minute detail of all the in the colonies have the most unbounded affection reasons which the wisdom of the honorable house for his majesty's person, family and government, as may suggest, on this occasion, but would bumbly well as for the taother country, and that their subsubmit the followig particulars to their considera-ordination to the parliament is universally ackror. tion.
ledged. That money is already very scarce in these colo. We, therefore, most humbly intreat that the hon. nies, and is still decreasing by the necessary expor-orable house would be pleased to hear our council tation of specie from the continent for the discharg- in support of this petition, and take our distressed ing of our debts to British merchants, that an im- and deplorable case into their serious consideration, mensely heavy debt is yet due from the colonies for and that the acts and clauses of acts so greviously British manufactures, and that they are still heav. restraining our trade and commerce, imposing do. ily burthened with taxes to discharge the arrear. ties and taxes on our property, and extending the ages due for aids granted by them in the late war; jurisdiction of the court of admiralty beyond its that the balance of trade will ever be much against ancient limits, may be repealed; or that the honor. the colonies, and in favor of Great Britain, whilst able house would otherwise relieve your petition. we consume ber manufactures; the demand of which ers as in your great wisdom and goodness shall seem nust ever increase in proportion to the number of rete. inhabitants settled here, with the means of purchas- And your petitioners shall ever pray &c. ing them. We therefore humbly conceive it to be the interest of Great Britrin to increase rather than
Then the congress adjourned until to-mortor diminish those means, as the profit of all the trade morning, 10 o'clock. of the colonies ultimately centre there to pay for her manufactures, as we are not allowed to pur.
Thursday, Oct. 24th, 1765, .1. Jl.–The congress chase elswhere, and by the consumption of which,at met according to adjournment. the advanced prices the British taxes oblige the makers and venders to set on them, we eventually
congress took into consideration the manner contribute very largely to the revenues of the in which their several petitions should be preferred crown.
and solicited in Great Britain, and thereupon came That, from the nature of American buisness, the muitiplicity of suits and papers used in matters of
to the following determination, ziz: small value, in a country where freeholds are so mi It is recommended by the congress to the sereral nutely divided, and property so frequently transferred, a stamp duty must be ever very burthensome colonies to appoint special agents for soliciting reand unequal.
lief from their present grievances, and to unite their That it is extremely improbable that the honora. utmost interest and endeavors for that purpose. ble house of commons should at all times be tho. roughly acquainted with our condition, and all facts
Voted unanimously, that the clerk of this conrequisite to a just and equal taxation of the colo-gress sign the minutes of their proceedings, and denies. It is also humbly submitted whether there be not
liver a copy for the use of each colony and proa material distinction, in reason and sound policy at
vince. least, between the necessary exercise of parliamen.
By order of the congress, tary jurisdiction in general acts, and the common
JOHX COTTOx, clerk.
A copy of the proceedings of the province of New-patch of the ordinary buisness of the province; and Jlampshire, as transmitted to the congress.
I doubt not the representatives of this province
will then, in their legislative capacity, take under Province of S In the house of representatives, consideration the grievances so justly complained New Hampshire, 2 June 29th, 1765.
of, and transmit their sense of the same Great Mr. Speaker laid before the house a letter from Britain, in such way as may seem best calculated the honorable speaker of the honorable representa. to obtain redress, and so as to convince the sister tives of the province of the Massachusetts Bay, to colonies of their inviolable attachment to the com. the speaker of this assembly, proposing a meeting mon cause. of committees from the several assemblies of the
I am, sir, your most obedient and most humble British colonies on the continent, at New York, to
servant, consider of a general, united, dutiful, loyal and hum.
ALEX. WYLLY. ble representation of our committees, and for im. To Samuel White, esqr. speaker of the ploring his majesty and tbe parliament for relief;
house of representatives of Massachu. which being read,
setts Bay, in New-England. Resolved, Tbat, notwithstanding we are sensible that such a representation ought to be made, and The two foregoing letters, are true copies from approve of the proposed method for obtaining the original. thereof, yet the present situation of our governmental affairs, will not permit us to appoint a com
JOHN COTTON, clerk. mittee to attend such meeting; but shall be ready to join in any address, to his majesty and the parliament we may be honored with the knowledge of,
NEW JERSEY. probable to answer the proposed end.
The following instructions, from the legislature A. CLARKSOX, clerk.
of this state to its delegates in congress, 1777, will A copy of a letter received from Georgis, during be perused with pleasure by all who cherish the the sitting of the congress:
principles and revere the wortbies of the revolu. Savannah, in Georgia, September 6th, 1765. SIR-Your letter dated in June last, acquainting
tion. We have copied them, by permission of the me that the house of representatives of your pro- secretary of state, from the journals of the joint vince, had unanimously agreed to propose a meet-meeting.
[Trenton True American, ing at thecity of New.York, of cominittees from the houses of representatives of the several British co. The council and assembly of the state of New Jersey. lonies on this continent, on the first Tuesday in Oc. tober next, to consult together on the present cir.
in joint meeting, cumstances of the colonies, and the difficulties to To the hon. John Witherspoon, Abraham Clark, which they are and must be reduced by the oppera- Jonathan Elmer, Nathaniel Scudder and Elias tion of the acts of parliament, for laying duties and taxes on the colonies, and to consider of an bumble
Boudinot, esquires, and each and every of you: representation of their condition to his majesty and
We have called you to the important and inte the parliament, and to implore relief, came to hand at an unlucky season, it being in the recess of the resting service of representing this state in the general assembly of this province. Nevertheless, congress of the United States of North America. immediately upon the receipt of your letter, I dis. A higher proof cannot be given of the confidence patched expresses to the several representatives of ihis province, acquainting them with the purport we repose in your abilities and integrity; and we thereof, and requesting them to meet at this place rest assured your best endeavors will, at all times, · without delay,
be exerted to promote the freedom, independence. And according they met here on Monday last, to the number of sixteen, being a large majority of the and happiness of the whole union, particularly to representatives of this province; the whole consist. that part to which you stand in more immediate ing of twenty-five persons, but his excellency our
relation. governor, being applied to, did not think it expedi. ent to call them together on the occasion; wbich is Numerous and diversified as the objects of you: the reason of not sending a committee as proposed attention will be, we attempt not to point out either by your house, for you may be assured, no representatives on this continent can more sincerely concur the line or the extent of your mission. Keep in in the measures proposed, tban do the representa constant view the cause of your delegation, and let tives of the province now met together; neither all your conduct be directed to the general good can any people, as individuals more warmly espouse the common cause of the colonies, than do the peo- and the prosperity of your country. We cannot, howple of this province.
ever, omit the following particulars, suggested by The gentlemen now present, request it as a favor, the present posture of affairs, and to which we re. you'll be pleased to send me a copy of such repre. sentation as may be agreed upon by the several quire you carefully to attend. committees at New York, and acquaint me bow, and in what manner the same is to be laid before the
1. We hope you will habitually bear in mind that king and parliament; whether by any person partic. the success of the great cause in which the United ularly authorized for that purpose, or by the colony States are engaged, depends upon the favor and agents! The general assembly of this province stands prorogued to the 224 day of October next, blessing of Almighty God, and, therefore, you will wbich is the time it generally meets for the dis neglect nothing which is competent to the assem. bly of the states, for promoting viety and good motion, well qualified in point of capacity, and of unrals among the people at large. But, especially, we suspected attachment to the liberties of America. desire that you may give attention to this circum- We need not urge the reasons for calling your stance in the government of the army, taking care attention to this object, they are daily before your that such of the articles of war as forbid profane. eyes. ness, riot and debauchery, be observed and enforc.
5. We recommend the immediate completing of ed with all due strictness and severity. This, we the establishment for wounded and disabled solapprehend, is absolutely necessary for the encou- diers and seamen, by extending it to the militia ia ragement and maintenance of good discipline, and the continental service, and making some provisioa will be a means of recruiting the army with men of for the widows and children of those who fall in credit and principle-an object ardently to be battle, or die in the service, whether in the regu. wished, but not to be expected, if the warmest lar or militia troops. The necessity of a law, in this friends of their country should be deterred from as well as the several states in the union, grounded sending their sons and connections into the service, upon such establishment, requires that it be attendlest they should be tainted with impious and im- ed to as speedily as possible. moral notions, and contract vicious habits.
6. You are to take the earliest opportunity of bar2. We have no doubt that, as guardians of the ing some effectual mode adopted for negociating state of New.Jersey, you will be particularly atten- the exchange of citizens and civil prisoners, no adetive to its interests: but we also expect you will quate provisions being, as we conceive, made for be watchful to guard against every thing which will this end in the cartel now subsisting. Numbers of be burtful to the general union, or injurious to the civil officers, inbabitants and subjects of this state, common interests of the United States. Extinguish, in captivity, and, we doubt not, the case is simile by all means in your power, the least appearance in other states, where the operations of war have of jealousy in its earliest rise. Discountenance all extended, not being taken in arms, and, therefore, local and partial reflections in every instance, and not within the description of prisoners of war, are reprove, by your example, and suppress, as far as languishing in gaols and chains, under the power your authority extends, party feuds and factions, be of the enemy, without the means or hope of relief. the offenders who they may.
As their sulerings are in consequence of their zes! 3. Let the wants of the soldiery be amply supplied and activity in the common cause, they are entitle} and due provision made for their health and com- to the most vigorous exertions of their country in fort; and, as we think this can be done, so we wish their behalf. it always may, in such manner as to guard the civil 7. The great irregularities and abuses which have rights of the people against military encroachment, been, and continue to be, committed in this state, and the arbitrary oppression of officers of the army, and, probably, in others where the army bath bees, or of persons employed in the commissary's, quar- or now is, by the impressing horses, teams and car. ter
master's or hospital departments. We contem- riages, and taking provisions, forage and fuel for plate with concern, the slighest appearance of the troops on march or in camp, and in delaying, such an evil, and wish you to take proper pains to neglecting, or totally refusing, upon the application prevent it. This state is forwardedly disposed to of the inhabitants, with their receipts or certifi. use every exertion in behalf of their troops, and, as cates, to those whose duty it is to make satisfacfar as can reasonably be expected, of the army in tion, have given rise to such universal uneasiness general; but we desire, when a requisition for this and complaint, that it cannot have escaped your effect is necessary, it may be seasonably made, notice. The ill consequences of such a grievance, without waiting till the very hour of necessity, not only to individuals, but to the cause in general, when it is impossible to take due and legal means are so obvious, we need only remind you of it, and of complying with it so as to answer any good pur. desire you would use your endeavors to procure a pose.
speedy remedy. 4. We desire you may be cautious of multiplying 8. We wish you to consider whether it may not be offices, or the number of the officers in the several advisable, and even necessary, that congress digest continental departments, and thereby unnecessarily and recommend to the several states, some general increasing the public expense. Especially, you will plan for a treason law, lest inconveniences and dir. use your utmost influence that the departments be ficulties should arise from such laws being drawn filled with men of probity, principle, and discre.lin different forms and settled on different princi.