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Antium was formerly famous for the temple of Fortune at stood in it. All agree there were two Fortunes woripped here, which Suetonius calls the Fortunæ Antiates, ad Martial, the Sorores Antii. Some are of opinion, that y these two goddesses were meant the two Nemeses, one of hich rewarded good men, as the other punished the wicked. abretti and others are apt to believe, that by the two Fornes were only meant in general the goddess who sent proserity, or she who sent afflictions to mankind, and produce their behalf an ancient monument found in this very place, d superscribed Fortuna Felici, which, indeed, may favour he opinion as well as the other, and shows, at least, they e not mistaken in the general sense of their division. I o not know whether anybody has taken notice, that this uble function of the goddess gives a considerable light and auty to the ode which Horace has addressed to her. The hole poem is a prayer to Fortune, that she would prosper esar's arms, and confound his enemies, so that each of the ddesses has her task assigned in the poet's prayer; and we ay observe the invocation is divided between the two ities, the first line relating indifferently to either. That nich I have marked speaks to the goddess of Prosperity, or, you please, to the Nemesis of the good, and the other to e goddess of Adversity, or to the Nemesis of the wicked.
O Diva gratum quæ regis Antium,
Or with a wondrous fall
To bring the haughty lower,
And turn proud triumphs to a funeral, &c.
If we take the first interpretation of the two Fortunes for e double Nemesis, the compliment to Cæsar is the greater, d the fifth stanza clearer than the commentators usually ke it, for the clavi trabales, cunei, uncus, liquidumquæ mbum, were actually used in the punishment of criminals. Our next stage brought us to the mouth of the Tiber, into ich we entered with some danger, the sea being generally y rough in these parts, where the river rushes into it. Le season of the year, the muddiness of the stream, with
the many green trees hanging over it, put me in mind of the delightful image that Virgil has given us when Æneas took the first view of it.
Atque hic Æneas ingentem ex æquore lucum
EN. lib. vii.
The Trojan from the main beheld a wood,
Glide through the gloomy shade, and leave the main. DRYDen.
It is impossible to learn from the ruins of the port of Ostia, what its figure was when it stood whole and entire. I shall, therefore, set down the medal that I have before mentioned, which represents it as it was formerly.
It is worth while to compare Juvenal's description of this port with the figure it makes on the coin.
Tandem intrat positas inclusa per æquora moles,
Juv. Sat. 12.
At last within the mighty mole she gets,
The seas may very properly be said to be enclosed (inclusa) between the two semicircular moles that almost surround them. The Colossus, with something like a lighted torch in its hand, is probably the Pharos in the second line. The two moles that we must suppose are joined to the land behind the Pharos, are very poetically described by the
-Porrectaque brachia, rursus
Quæ pelago occurrunt medio, longèque relinquunt
s they retire from one another in the compass they make, ill their two ends almost meet a second time in the midst of the waters, where the figure of Neptune sits. The poet's reflection on the haven is very just, since there are few natural ports better land-locked, and closed on all sides, han this seems to have been. The figure of Neptune has a udder by him, to mark the convenience of the harbour for navigation, as he is represented himself at the entrance of it, so show it stood in the sea. The dolphin distinguishes him rom a river god, and figures out his dominion over the seas. He holds the same fish in his hand on other medals. What t means we may learn from the Greek epigram on the figure of a Cupid, that had a dolphin in one hand, and a flower in he other.
Ουδὲ μάτην παλάμαις κατέχει δελφῖνα καὶ ἄνθος,
A proper emblem graces either hand,
In one he holds the sea, in one the land.
Half a day more brought us to Rome, through a road that s commonly visited by travellers.
It is generally observed, that modern Rome stands higher han the ancient; some have computed it about fourteen or ifteen feet, taking one place with another. The reason given for it is, that the present city stands upon the ruins of the former; and indeed I have often observed, that where any considerable pile of building stood anciently, one still finds rising ground, or a little kind of hill, which was doubtless made up out of the fragments and rubbish of the ruined ediice. But besides this particular cause, we may assign another hat has very much contributed to the raising the situation of several parts of Rome: it being certain the great quantiies of earth, that have been washed off from the hills by the iolence of showers, have had no small share in it. This any ne may be sensible of, who observes how far several buildngs that stand near the roots of mountains, are sunk deeper n the earth than those that have been on the tops of hills,
open plains; for which reason the present face of Rome is much more even and level than it was formerly; the same cause that has raised the lower grounds having contributed to sink those that were higher.
There are in Rome two sets of antiquities, the Christian and the heathen. The former, though of a fresher date, are so embroiled with fable and legend, that one receives but little satisfaction from searching into them. The other give a great deal of pleasure to such as have met with them before in ancient authors; for a man who is in Rome can scarce see an object that does not call to mind a piece of a Latin poet or historian. Among the remains of old Rome, the grandeur of the commonwealth shows itself chiefly in works that were either necessary or convenient, such as temples, highways, aqueducts, walls, and bridges of the city. On the contrary, the magnificence of Rome under the emperors, is seen principally in such works as were rather for ostentation or luxury, than any real usefulness or necessity, as in baths, amphitheatres, circuses, obelisks, triumphal pillars, arches, and mausoleums; for what they added to the aqueducts was rather to supply their baths and naumachias, and to embellish the city with fountains, than out of any real necessity there was for them. These several remains have been so copiously described by abundance of travellers and other writers, particularly by those concerned in the learned collection of Grævius, that it is very difficult to make any new discoveries on so beaten a subject. There is, however, so much to be observed in so spacious a field of antiquities, that it is almost impossible to survey them without taking new hints, and raising different reflections, according as a man's natural turn of thoughts, or the course of his studies, direct him.
No part of the antiquities of Rome pleased me so much as the ancient statues, of which there is still an incredible variety. The workmanship is often the most exquisite of anything in its kind. A man would wonder how it were possible for so much life to enter into marble, as may be discovered in some of the best of them; and even in the meanest, one has the satisfaction of seeing the faces, postures, airs, and dress of those that have lived so many ages before us. There is a strange resemblance between the figures of the several heathen deities, and the descriptions that the Latin poets have given us of them; but as the first may be
oked upon as the ancienter of the two, I question not but e Roman poets were the copiers of the Greek statuaries. ough on other occasions we often find the statuaries took eir subjects from the poets. The Laocoon is too known instance among many others that are to be met with at me. In the villa Aldabrandina are the figures of an old d young man, engaged together at the Castus, who are obably the Dares and Entellus of Virgil; where by the y one may observe the make of the ancient Cæstus, that only consisted of so many large thongs about the hand, thout anything like a piece of lead at the end of them, as me writers of antiquities have falsely imagined.
I question not but many passages in the old poets hint at veral parts of sculpture, that were in vogue in the author's ne, though they are now never thought of, and that theree such passages lose much of their beauty in the eye of a odern reader, who does not look upon them in the same ht with the author's contemporaries. I shall only menn two or three out of Juvenal, that his commentators have t taken notice of. The first runs thus,
Multa pudicitiæ veteris vestigia forsan,
Aut aliqua extiterint, et sub Jove, sed Jove nondum
Some thin remains of chastity appeared
Ev'n under Jove, but Jove without a beard.
Et longum invalidi collum cervicibus æquat
Vid. Ov. de Fastis, lib. iii. Ecl. 71.
ludes t stood
And w statues
and ar beauti