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Jerusalem. and communed with the Chief Priests and captains, Luke xxii: 4.
how he might betray him unto them.
must be decided by the meaning of the words which are thought to connect them as three several events which took place at the same time. The two first verses of Matt. xxvi. ought to have concluded the preceding chapter. The expression which ends ver. 2, is the sentence which completed our Saviour's predictions concerning Jerusalem, and the illustrative parables which followed them. From narrating the discourse of our Lord, the Evangelist proceeds to his actions, using the word Tóre, a word of very indefinite signification, which may not improperly be translated, “ about that time.” He relates the fact, that about the time when our Lord finished his predictions, the Chief Priests ouvnxOnoav assembled together.” He then somewhat abruptly proceeds to give an account of the cause of our Saviour's betrayal by Judas to this assembly of the Priests, which he imputes to our Lord's reproof of his Apostle's disguised covetousness. In ver. 14, the Evangelist introduces the effect of this reproof by the same word Tóre ; and it seems intended to imply, not that Judas went that moment to the Priests, but that he went about that time, or as soon as possible, to the council of the Chief Priests; and by introducing the consequence of our Lord's reproof thus abruptly, St. Matthew seems to hint that the assembly of Priests, to whom Judas applied, was now sitting at the very time when our Lord had finished his predictions. Bishop Barrington, apud Bowyer, would insert Matt. xxvi. 6—13, as a parenthesis.
But Bishop Marsh observes, with reference to the argument from the word TÓTE, that even if this be insufficient to prove that Michaelis is mistaken, yet we cannot explain away what is said by St. Mark-ήν δε το πάσχα, και τα άζυμα perà dúo nuépas, &c. &c. who, as well as St. Matthew, represents the assembly of Priests as meeting three days before the Passover. In reply to which it may be answered, that it is acknowledged a meeting of the Priests was then held; but the question is, whether the anointing took place at that time: and here we are again brought to the word Tóte, Matt. xxvi. 14, and to an expression in St. Mark xiv. 13, which does not even allude to the exact period at which the betrayal took place. Iέδας-απήλθε προς τους Αρχιερείς, &c. The Evangelist appears to relate the reproval at Bethany as the cause of the treason of Judas, without referring to the time that this offence should be committed.
Tótem-non proprie videtur adverbium esse, sed accusativus neutrius generis, elliptice positus, ut plene dicatur tepi Tóre od mépos xpóvov, id quod colligi potest ex loco Lysie, orat. vi. cap. 2. ου θαυμασόν, εί τότε τας μορίας εξέκοπτον, εν ω εδέ τα ημέτερα αυτών φυλάττειν εδυνάμεθα. It is true it is generally used in the New Testament adverbially, but as frequently in its general, as it is in its more definite signification. The word occurs one hundred and fifty-six times in the New Testament; and if we refer to any passages taken in their consecutive order, we shall find that this preceding remark is correct. Thus we meet it in Matt. ji. 7. ii. 16. ii. 17. iii. 5. In the two first and last of these it is used in the more general sense, and many would interpret the third passage in the same way; and so it must be interpreted in the great majority of the passages in which it occurs. If we refer to the Septuagint, which is generally supposed to use the Greek words, in precisely the same sense as the
Matt. xxvi. 16.
And said unto them, What will ye give me, and Jerusalem,
I will deliver him unto you?
promised to give him money.
And from that time he sought opportunity to
betray him. Mark xiv. 11. And he sought how he might conveniently betray
him. Luke xxii. 6. And he promised, and sought opportunity to
betray him unto them * in the absence of the Or, without multitude.
MATT. xxvi. ver. 14. 14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the Chief Priests.
MARK xiv. 10. 10 And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went
LUKE xxii. ver. 5. 5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money.
Mark xiv, 12.
of his Disciples to prepare the Passover.
And the first day of unleavened bread, when they + killed the Passover, his disciples
+ Or, sacri. Matt. xxvi.17. came to Jesus, Mark xiv. 12. [and] said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go
prepare that thou mayest eat the Passover? Mark xiv. 13. And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, Luke xxii. 8. Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the
Passover, that we may eat.
And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare ?
And [he] saith unto them, Go ye into the city, Luke xxii. 10. and behold, when ye are entered into the city,
there shall Mark xiv. 13. meet you a man, bearing a pitcher of water : fol
low him, Luke xxii. 10. into the house where he entereth in.
Luke xxii. 9.
Mark xiv. 13.
New Testament, we shall find that the remark of Michaelis is amply justified. Thus the Septuagint render the Hebrew x70 nya, Isaiah xx. 2. by the word τότε. .
And wheresoever be shall go in, say ye to the Mark xiv. 14..
Luke xxii. 11.
And he will shew you a large upper room, fur- Mark xiv. 15. nished and prepared : there make ready for us.
And his disciples went forth, and came into the Mark xiv. 16. city, and did as Jesus had appointed them,
Matt. xxvi.19. and found as he had said unto thein: and they Mark xiv. 16. made ready the Passover.
MATT. xxvi. part of ver. 17, 18, 19. 17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples-saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the Passover?
18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith 19 - the disciples—and they made ready the Passover.
LUKE xxii. ver. 7. part of ver. 8, 10, 11. and ver. 12, 13. 7 Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the Passover must be killed. 8 And he sent
10 And he said unto them—a man meet you, bearing a pitcber of water ; follow him
11 And ye shall say unto the good man of the house, The Master saithWhere is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the Passover with my disciples!
12 And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready.
13 And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the Passover.
Christ partakes of his last Passover .
JOHN xiii. 1.
d Mat. xxvi. 2.
34 ON THE QUESTION, WHETHER OUR LORD ATE THE PASSOVER IMMEDIATELY
BEFORE THE INSTITUTION OF THE EUCHARIST. Before we enter upon the discussion of the difficult question, whether our Lord ate the last passover with his disciples, before the institution of the holy Eucharist, it will be useful to consider the manner in which the Jews were accustomed to commemorate their deliverance from Egypt, by the celebration of the passover. Lightfoot has collected a variety of passages from Maimonides and the Jewish writers, describing the manner in which this feast was observed. In reference to the reclining attitude in which the Evangelists represent our Lord Jolin xiii. I. : Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should Jerusalem.
depart out of this world unto the Father, having
at the last supper, he has collected, among others, the following illustrative pas. sages :-30°Ty San NS 5xivv «zy box. Pisach, cap. x. hal. 1. And again, R. Levi saith, “ It is the manner of slaves to eat standing; but now let them eat lying along, that it may be known that they are gone out of bondage to liberty."—“We are obliged," says Maimonides, “ to lie down when we eat, that we may eat after the manner of kings and nobles."
Lightfoot then proceeds to give an account of the manner in which the paschal supper was conducted. It began, 1st, with presenting a cup of wine mingled with water to each assembled guest, over which the master of the family, or some one deputed for that purpose, pronounces a benediction : “ Blessed be He that created the fruit of the vine ;” and then he repeats the consecration of the day; that is, they give thanks, and drink up the wine. 2dly, They washed their hands, after which the table was crowned with two cakes of unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and the paschal lamb roasted whole; which three things were appointed by the law. To these were added the remains of the Chagigah, or peace offerings of the preceding day, and other meats, with the sour sauce, called noun, or charoseth, which was thick, and intended to represent the bricks their ancestors made in Egypt. Then the person presiding takes a small piece of lettuce, which he eats, and those with him, blessing God for the fruits of the earth; and afterwards a piece of unleavened bread, dipped in the bitter herbs. 3dly, All the dishes were removed from the table, and the children were instructed in the nature and intention of the feast, the signification of the bitter herbs, unleavened bread, &c. generally from Exod. xii. 25, 26. and Deut. xxvi. 5-11; and this explanation was called the Hagannah, 1 Cor. xi. 36. 4thly, After this preparation the supper was again set before them, when each person lifted up in his hands, first the bitter herbs, and then the unleavened bread, and joined in declaring that they ate them in commemoration of the bondage, and great deliverance of their fathers in Egypt; and ended by calling on all to sing praises to God, in the 113th to the 114th Psalm, and having blessed the Lord, they drank off the second cup. 5thly, The hands are again washed, and the master of the house, or the officiating person, takes the two unleavened cakes, breaks one, and places that which is broken on the other. He then blesses it; and putting some bread and bitter herbs together, they dip them in the same sauce, and again bless God. After the same manner they first give thanks over the flesh of the Chagigah of the fourteenth day, and partake of it; and then over the lamb, and eat of it: after which they may lengthen out the supper, and partake of what they please, taking care only to conclude with a small piece of the paschal lamb; as much, at least, as an olive : after which they were not allowed to take any more food that night. 6thly, They again wash their hands, and the master of the family says the blessing of the meat, over the third cup of wine, which they then drank; and this cup was commonly called “the cup of blessing," *73727 XDJX, to which allusion is made 1 Cor. X. 16. A fourth cup of wine is mingled, over which they continue the Hallel, (or hymn of five Psalms,) beginning where they left off, at the 115th to the 118th Psalm ; and finish with a prayer. After the destruction of Jerusalem, a small piece of unleavened bread was substituted as the Aphicomen, or last morsel, instead of the paschal lamb;
Jerusalem, loved his own which were in the world, he loved John xiii. I.
them unto the end.
for which purpose a piece of the broken cake was reserved under a napkin ; probably because there was no temple in which the appointed victim could be sacrificed. It is impossible for us now to ascertain, whether our Saviour made use of this fourth cup or not; we are only informed, by the Evangelists, that our Lord and his disciples sang a hymn (Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26.) before they went to the Mount of Olives.
We are now brought to the consideration of that most difficult and perplexing question, “ Whether our Lord ate of this passover with his disciples, on the evening preceding his crucifixion.” The Evangelists, in relating this part of our Saviour's life, use some expressions which at first sight appear contradictory to each other. St. John, for instance, seems to differ from the other three, as to the time that the Jews partook of the pass over, and supposes that they did not eat it on the same evening as our Saviour and his disciples; while they all agree that the night of the day in which Christ ate the passover (or what is called the passover) was Thursday. Our Lord is further said to command his disciples to prepare for eating the passover, and that he had earnestly desired to eat this passover with them. Yet we read, that on the day after that on which our Lord and his disciples had thus celebrated the passover, the Jews refused to go into the judgment-hall, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the pass over. Now it was appointed by the law, that all the people should eat of the passover on the same day. There appears therefore to be some contradiction or difficulty, which requires explanation; and the particular attention of the har. monizers and commentators has been consequently directed to this point.
The latest theologians who have devoted the greatest attention to this subject, are Dr. Clarke, in his Treatise on the Eucharist, and Mr. Benson, in his work on the Chronology of the Life of our Lord. They have so thoroughly investigated the subject, that little more will be necessary than to take advantage of their labours.
Four opinions have been advanced by various theologians, the last of which seems to be most consistent with the accounts of the Evangelists, and to reconcile all the difficulties and apparent contradictions.
The first is, that Christ did not eat the passover on the last year of his ministry.
The second, that he did eat it that year, and at the same time with the Jews.
The third, that he did eat a passover; but one of his own institution, very different from that eaten by the Jews.
The fourth, that he did eat the passover that year, but not at the same time with the Jews.
The arguments in support of these four different opinions, are clearly and briefly summed up by Dr. A. Clarke, in his Introduction to his Discourse on the Encharist. In favour of the first opinion, that Christ did not eat the passover, it is observed, “ The Jews ate their passover on the next day."
St. John does not call the supper which Christ ate with his disciples a passover supper, but, on the contrary, says it was before the feast of the passover—pò rñs éopris toũ táoxa, by which Dr. Wall thinks he means the day before the passover, or, as we should say, the passover eve.