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United States will make swifter progress in arts EXPENSE OF THE AMERICAN CONTIXESTAL ARMY; and arms, and in all that adorns and dignifies hu.

STAFF-(STERLING MONEY.] man society, than any people or nation ever yet

per diein.

1. S. d. bave done.

? Washington, (for tuble )

0 0 The tyrants of Britain, and the abject slaves 4 Aids-de-camp, 4s. 6d. Each 18 0 whom they can bire, are all the enemies we have

1 Adjulant gensr-1,


1 Quarter muster general, 12 to encounter; the rest of the world will be our

1 Assistant quarter master friends. As we wish to injure no people, other general,

4 6 nations will naturally be our friends, some from

1 Pay master general, 13 6

7 interest, and others, whose interest is no ways con.

o Majors brigade, 4s. 60.

Secretary to commander cerned, froin motives of humanity. As America

in chief

9 6 is so very extensive, capable of supporting so ma

Directors of hospitals, 18

8 06 ny millions of inhabitants, more than she has at

4 Surgeons, 6s.

1 4 present; and as the virtuous part of mankind love

1 Apothecary,

6 freedom, they will transplant themselves from the 2 Maies, and 1 clerk, 33. 9 slavish dominions of Europe, to this land of liber.

1 Commissary general, 12

2 Major generals under ty, whereby the industry, the virtue, and the wis.

commander in chief, dom of the world will centre in these free and

24s. 9d.

2 9 6 independent states. Such being our field of hope,

4. Ail.de camps, 4s. 6d. 18

6 Brigadier generals, 18s. such our prospect of happiness, not only for our.


5 12 6 selves, but for millions of others, by what name 1 Engineer,

9 shail we call that folly which would abate your ar.

4 Sub-engineers, 43. Od 18

4 Major generals, com. dor, and discourage your efforts, to maintain the

manding separate entire independence of America?

Armies, 49s, 6d.

9 18

8 aid-de-camps, 45. 6d. 1 16 The following was thought to be a fretty accurate 8 Niajors brigade, 4s. 6d.

1 16

19 state of the provincial forces in May, 1776.

4 Secretaries, 4s. 98.

4 Deputy adjutant geneIn Canada, 9000 continental troops; commanded

rals, 95. 4 ').

1 17 6 by major general Sullivan, and brigadiers Arnold 4 Deputy quarter master and Wlædkle. The generals Schuyler and Wooster

generals, 6s.

1 4

4 Deputy commissary geare at Albany, with a body of militia, number not

nerals, 6.

1 4 exactly known.

8 Sub-engineers, 4s. Bd. 1 16

9 Brigadier generals, 18s. At New York, 12,000 continental, troops 11,000


8 8 5

41 17 0 militia, and the Jersey brigade consisting of 3300

60 REGIMENTS. commanded by general Washington, major gene 60 Colonels, 13s. 60. 40 10 - rals Putnam, and Gates, and brigadiers Heath, au Lieutenant colonels, 9s. 27 Green, lord Sterling, Waterbury, and Mercer.

60 M jors, 6s.


540 C.ptains, 4s. 60. 12 10 In Jersey and Pennsylvania, a flying camp of 10,0001080 Lieutenants, 3s. 162

54 Sh “n, commanded by brigadiers Miffin, Deau, and 2160 Serjeants, 13. 3d.

540 Ensigns, 2s.

135 Jounson.

2160 Corporals, ls. Id. 117

540 Drums, 1s. 1d. and 540 In Virginia, 8000 continental troops. In North

fifes, Is. Id.

58 10 Carolina 4000 ditto. South Carolina 1000 ditto. 30600 Privates, 1s.


(Chaplains, surgeone, Commanded by major general Lee, brigadiers and surgeon's mates, Armstrong, Howe, Moore, and Lewis.

not included)

2263 10

2313 86

Ai Boston, 2000 continental troops, commanded by major general Ward, and brigadier general Spencer.

By this account there were 36,000 continental troops, and 24,300 militia, ready for, and in the field; but there are 20,000 more of the militia, the stations of which are not exactly known. In all above 80,000 men.

FIXING CAMP. 14 Colonels, 13s. 60.

9 9 14 Lieutenant colonels, 9s. 6 6 14 Majors, 6s.

4 4 128 Captains, 4s. 6d.


28 16 256 Lieutenants, 39.

33 8

87 30

Cirried over.

2409 11 7

*Including Thompson, who is prisoner.




per diem.

of the ininute.men were inade, and they were Brought over.

2400 11 6

140,000. [.Aimon's. 128 Ensigns, 2s.

12 16 512 Serjeants, 1s. 3d. 32

A PROCLAMATION. 512 Corporals, ls. 1d. 27 14 8 256 Drums and fifes, 1s. 1d. '13 7 4

By his ercellency general Ilushington, general and 8692 Privates, Is

434 12

commander in chi f of the army of the United Stata 520 10 0

of North America.

Whereas a bombardment and attack upon the 5 Colonels, 13s. 60.

3 7 6 5 Lieutenant colonels, Is. 2

city of New York by our cruel and inveterate ene. 5 Majors, 6s.

1 10

my may be hourly expected: and as there are great 42 Captains, 48, 6d.


numbers of women, children, and infirm persons 84 Lieutenants, 3s.

12 12 42 Ensigns, 2s.

4 4

yet remaining in the city, whose continuance will 169 Sergeants, 1s. 3d. 10 10

rather be prejudicial than advantageous to the ar168 Corporals, ls. Id.

92 81 Drums and fites, Is. Id. 4 11

my, and their persons exposed to great danger and 2836 Privates, Is.

142 16

hazard: I do therefore recuinmend it to all per. 200 66

sons, as they value their own safety and preservaMILITIA (in pay.)

tion, to remove with all expedition out of the said 44 Colonels, 135. 6d. 29 14 44 Lieutenant colonels, 9s. 19 16

town at ibis critical period-trusting that with the 44 Nisjors, 6s.

13 4

blessing of Heaven upon the American arms they 400 Captains, 4s, 6d.

90 800 Lieutenants, 3s.

may soon return to it in perfect security. And I

120 400 Ensigns, 2s.


do enjoin and require all the officers and soidiers 1600 Serjeapis, 1s. 3d. 100

in the army under my command, to forward and 1600 Corporals, ls, ld. 86 13 4

assist all such persons in their compliance with 800 Drums and fifes, ls. 1d. 43 6 8 27000 Privates Is.


this recommendation. 1892 14

Given under my hand, at head-quarters, Nex 5014 12 York, August 17, 1776.

GEORGE WASHINGTGX. 1 lb. fresh-beef, or lib. salt. fisla; i 1b. pork, or 20 oz. salt.

In convention of the representatives of the state of beef; 1 lb. bread, flour, 1 pint milk, 1 quart cider or spruce

New York, held at Harlem, Aug. 17, 1776. beer, per diem euch-3 lb. can.

Resolved, That the women and children, and dles, 8 1b. hard soap, per week

infirm persons in the city of New York, be imme for 100 men-3 pints pease, 1 pint Indian meai, 6 oz. butter,

diately removed from the said city, agreeable to per man a week. This is about

general Washington's request of this house, in his 10d. sterling ration per day.

letter of this date. Rations, on an average 3 per

ROBERT BENSON, Sec. day, for general and other officers, 4898 at 2s. 60. 612 5 0 Non-commissioned officers,

MASSACHUSETTS. and privates, 80,248, at 10d. S343 13 4

-3955 18 4

Watertown, April 26, 1775. 8970 10 4

TO THE INHABITANTS OF GREAT BRITAIS. Clothing for continental ar.

ēriends and fellow subjects, my, Hying camp, and Jersey brigade, 49,248, 2d. per day.

410 8 Hostilities are at length commenced in this colo

ny, by the troops under command of general Gage; Daily expenses.

9380 18 4 Nothing of the navy con.

and it being of the greatest importance, thai sa tingencies, or army extraordi.

early, true, and authentic account of this inhumas naries, are included.

proceeding should be known to you, the congress These accounts of the American armies were

of this colony have transmitted the same; and far

want of a session of the hon. continental congress, taken about the latter end of May, 1776. But when the congress were informed, that foreigners

think it proper to address you on this alarming oc

casion. had been hired, and that general Howe intended coming to New York (from Halifax) they ordered By the clearest depositions, relative to this the number of the continental iroops to be increas- transaction, it will appear, that, on the night precd, to seventy thousand. At the same time, returns'ceding the 19th of April, instant, a body of the


armed men,

king's troops, under command of colonel Smith,, for the justice of our cause, “we determine to die, were secretly landled at Cambridge, with an ap or be free.” parent design to take or destroy the military and

We cannot think that the honor, wisdom, and other stores, provided for the defence of this co-valor of Britons, will suffer them to be longer inlony, and deposited ai Concord; that some inhabi.

active spectators of measures, in which they them. tants of the colony, on the night aforesaid, whilst selves are so deeply interested; measures pursued travelling pe ceably on the road between Boston in opposition to the solemn protests of many noble and Concord, were seized and greatly abused by lords, and expressed sense of conspicuous com

who appeared to be officers of gene.mons, whose knowledge and virtue have long cha. ral Gage's army; that the town of Lexington, by racterized them as some of the greatest men in the these means, was alarmed, and a company of the nation; measures, executing contrary to the inter. inhabitants mustered on the occasion;* that the re est, petitions, and resolves of many large, respectgular troops, on their way to Concord, marched in. able counties, cities, and boroughs, in Great Brito the said town of Lexington, and the said com tain; measures highly incompatible with justice, pany, on their approach, began to disperse; that but still pursued with a specious pretence of easnotwithstanding this, the regulars rushed on with ing the nation of its burthens; measures which, if great violence, and first began hostilities, by firing successful, must end in the ruin and slavery of Brion the said Lexington company, whereby, they tain, as well as the persecuted American colonies. killed eight, and wounded several others; that the regulars continued their fire until those of the said

We sincerely hope, that the Great Sovereign of

the Universe, wbo hath so often appeared for the company, who were neither killed nor wounded, bad made their escape; that colonel Smith, with English nation, will support you in every rational the detachment, then marched to Concord, where

and manly exertion with these colonies, for saving

it from ruin, and that, in constitutional connec. a number of provincials were again fired on by the

tion with our mother country, we shall soon be al. troops, two of them killed and several wounded, before any of the provincials fired on them; and together a free and happy people.

Signed by order, that these hostile measures of the troops produced

JOS. WARREN, president, an engagement that lasted through the day, in which many of the provincials, and more of the re. gular troops, were killed and wounded.

Watertown, May 5, 1775. To give a particular account of the ravages of Whereas, his excellency, general Gage, since his the troops, as they retreated from Concord to arrival in this colony, hath conducted, as an instru. Charles Town, would be very difficult, if not im- ment in the bands of an arbitrary ministry, to en. practicable; let it suffice to say, that a great num. slave this people; and a detachment of the troops ber of the houses on the road were plundered, and under his command, has of late been, by him, or. rendered unfit for use; several were burnt; women dered to the town of Concord, to distroy the pub. in child.bed were driven by the soldiery naked into lic stores, deposited in that place for the use of the streels; old men, peaceably in their houses, the colony: And whereas, by this clandestine and were shot dead, and such scenes exhibited, as perfidous measure, a number of respectable inbawould disgrace the annals of the most uncivilized bitants of this colony, without any provocation giv. Dations.

en by them, have been illegally, wantonly, and in.

humanly slaughtered by his troops: These, brethren, are marks of ministerial ven. geance against this colony, for refusing, with her Therefore, resolved, that the said general Gage sister colonies, a submission to slavery; but they bath, by these and many other means, utterly dishave not yet detached us from our royal sovereign, qualified himself to serve this colony as a governor, we profess to be his loyal and dutiful subjects; and and in every other capacity; and that no obedience so hardly dealt with as we bave been, are still rea.ought, in future, to be paid by the several towns dy, with our lives and fortunes, to defend his per. and districts in this colony, to his writs, for calling Bon, family, crown and dignity; nevertheless, to an assembly, or to his proclamations, or any other the persecution and tyranny of his cruel ministry, of his acts or doings; but tbat, on the other hand, we will not tamely submit; appealing to Heaven he ought to be considered and guarded against, as

an unnatural and inveterate enemy to the country. There were 100 provincials, and 900 regulars.

JOSEPH WARREN, president P.T.



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Waterlown, Nov. 20. destruction might come upon our frontiers, have

been almost miraculously defeated; that our laAlthough, in consequence of the annatural, cru- natural enemies, instead of ravaging the country el, and barbarous measures, adopted and pursued with uncontroled sw are confined within such by the British administration, great and distressing narrow limits, to their owr. mortification and discalamilies are brought upon our distressed coun. tress, environed by an American army, brave and try, and in this colony in particular; we feel the determined;—that such a band of union, founded dreadful effects of a civil war, by which, America upon the best principles, unites the American cois stained with the blood of her valiant sons, who lonies,-that our rights and privileges, both civil have bravely fallen in the laudable defence of our and religious, are so far preserved to us, not with. rights and privileges; our cupital, once the seat of standing all the attempts of our barbarous enemies justice, opulence and virtue, is unjustly vyrested to deprive us of them. from its proper owners, who are obliged to flee

And to offer up humble and fervent prayers to from the iron hand of tyranny, or held in the

Almighty God, for the whole British empire; es. unrelenting arms of oppression; our seaports great.

pecially for the uniteil American colonies:--That He ly distressed, and towns burnt by the foes who would bless our civil rulers, and lead them into have acted the part of barbarous incendiaries.wise and prudent measures, at this dark and difiAnd, although the wise and Holy Governor of the cult day; that lle would endow our general court world has, in his righteous Providence, sent droughts with all that wisdom which is profitable to direct; into this colony, and wasting sickness into many that He would graciously smile upon our endeavors of our towns, yet we have the greatest reason to to restore peace, preserve our rights and pritiadore and praise the Supreme Disposer of events, leges, and hand them down to posterity; that Be who deals infinitely better with us than we deserve; would give wisdom to the American congress

, and amidst all bis judgments, hath remembered equal to their important station; that He would dimercy, by causing the voice of health aguin to be rect the generals, and the American armies, wherheard amongst us; instead of famine, affording to ever employed, and give them success and victory: an ungrateful people a competency of the neces that He would preserve and strengthen the barmosaries and comforts of life; in remarkably preserv. ny of the united colonies; that He would pour out ing and protecting our troops, when in apparent his spirit upon all orders of men, through the land

, danger, while our enemies, with all their boasted bring us to a hearty repentance and reformation; skill and strength, have met with loso, disappoint-purify and sanctify all His churches; that he would ment, and defeat;-—and, in the course of his goud make ours, Emanuel's land; that He would spread Providence, the Father of all Mercies, hath be the knowledge of the Redeemer through the whole stowed upon us many other favors, which call for earth, and fill the world with his glory. our grateful acknowledgments:

And all servile labor is forbidden on said day. Therefore-We have thought fit, with the advice Given under our hands, at the council chamber, of the council and house of representatives, to sp.

in Watertown, the fourth day of November, in point Thursday, the 23d of November, instant, to be the year of our Lord, one thousand seven bunobserved as a day of public thanksgiving, through

dred and seventy-five. out this colony; hereby calling upon ministers

By their honors command, and people, to meet for religious worship on the

PEREZ MORTON, Dep. Sec. said day, and devoutly io offer up their unfeigned

James Otis,

Benjamin Lincoln Walter Spooner,

Michael Farley, praises 10 Almighty God, the source and benevo.

Caleb Cushing,

Joseph Palmer, lent bestower of all good, for his affording the ne- Josepb Whitcomb, Samuel Piolten,

Jedidixb Foster, Jabez Fisher, cessary means of subsistence, though our com.

James Prescott,

Moses Gill,
merce has been prevented, and the supplies from Eldad Taylor,
the fishery denied us;-that such a measure of

bealth is enjoyed among us; that the lives of our
oficers and soldiers have been so remarkably pre. The following test passed the assembly of Masse-
served, while our enemies have fallen before them;

chusetts in 1776. that the vigorous efforts, which have been used to “We the subscribers do each of us severally excite the savage vengeance of the wilderness, for ourselves profess, testify and declare, before and rouse the Indians to arms, that an unavoidable God and the world, that we verily believe that

Benjamin Wilite.

the war, resistance and opposition in which the, should have given the good people of this colony United American Colonies are now engaged against a very just and general alarm; your subsequent the fleets and armies of Great Britain, is on the proceedings in fortifying the town of Boston, and part of the said colonies, just and necessary; and other military preparations, greatly increased their we do hereby severally promise, covenant and apprebensions for the safety of their friends and engage to and with every person of this colony, brethren; they could not be unconcerned spectawho has or shall subscribe this declaration, or ano-tors of their suff-rings, in that which they esteem. ther of the same tenor and words, that we will not,ed the common cause of this country; but the late during the said war, directly or indirectly, in any hostile and secret inroads of some of the troops ways aid, abet, or assist any of the naval or land under your command, into the heart of the coun forces of the king of Great Britain, or any employ-try, and the violences they have committed, liave ed by him, or supply them with any kind of pro- driven them alınost into a state of desperation. They visions, military or naval stors, or hold any corres feel now not only for their friends, but for them. pondence with, or communicate any intelligence selves, and their dearest interests and connections. to any of the officers, soldiers or mariners belong We wish not to exaggerate; we are not sure of ev. ing to the said army or navy, or enlist or procure ery part of our information; but, by the best intel. any others to enlist into the land or sea service of ligence that we have yet been able to obtain, the Great Britain, or take up or hear arms against this late transaction was a most unprovoked attack up. or either of the United Colonies, or undertaking on the lives and property of his majesty's subjects; to pilot any of the vessels belonging to the said and it is represented to us, that such outrages have navy, or any other way aid or assist them; but on been committed, as would disgrace even barbathe contrary, according to our best power and rians, and much more Britons, so highly famed for abilities, will defend by arms the United American humanity, as well as bravery. It is feared, there. Colonies, and every part thereof, against every fore, that we are devoted to destruction, and that hostile attempt of the fleets and armies in the ser. you have it in command and intention, to ravage vice of Great Britain, or any of them, according to and desolate the country. If this is not the case, the requirements and directions of the laws of this permit us to ask, why have these outrages been colony, that now or may hereafter be provided for committed? Why is the town of Boston now shut, the regulation of the militia thereof."

up? And to what end are all the hostile prepara

tions that are daily making, and why do we contiCopy of a letter to his ercelleney ral Gage, from nually hear of fresh destination of troops for his

the hon. Jonathan Trumbull, esq. governor of the country? The people of this colony, you may rely colony of. Connecticut, in behulf of the general as. upon it, abhor the idea of taking arms against the sembly of said coluny, dated

troops of their soveriegn, and dread nothing so

much as the horrors of civil war; but, at the same HARTFORD, April 28, 1775.

time, we beg leave to assure your excellency, that SIR-Tbe alarming situation of public affairs in

as they apprehend themselves justified by the prin. this country, and the late unfortunate transactions in the province of Massachusetts Bay, have induced ciples of self defence, so they are most firmly re

solved to defend their rights and privileges to the the general assembly of this colony, now sitting

last extremity; nor will they be restrained from in this place, to appoint a committee of their body to wait upon your exceilency, and to desire me, tack is made upon them. Be so good, therefore,

giving aid to their brethren, if any unjustifiable at. in their name, to write to you relative to these

as to explain yourself upon this most important very interesting maiters.

subject, as far as is consistent with your duty to The inhabitants of this colony are intimately our common sovereign. Is there no way to preconnected with the people of your province, and vent this unhappy dispute from coming to exireesteem themselves bound, by the strongest ties of mities? Is there no alternative but aosolute sub. friendship, as well as of common interest, to regard mission, or the desolations of war? By that hu. with attention, whatever concerns them. You will manity which constitutes so amiable a part of your not, therefore, be surprised, that your first arrival character; for the bonor of our sovereign, and by at Boston, with a body of his Majesty's troops, for the glory of the British empire, we entreat you to the declared purpose of carrying into execution prevent it, if it be possible; surely, it is to be hoped certain acts of parliament, which, in their appre. that the temperate wisdom of the empire miglit, hension, were unconstitutional and oppressive, leyen yet, find expedienis to restore peace, that so

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