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tive.) In an affirmative manner ; on the
those that were under him ceremonies and sacrifices.
Wisdon. positive side ; not negatively.
A melancholy tear afflicts my eye, The reason of man hath no such restraint:
And my heart Labours with a sudden sigh. Prior. concluding not only affirmatively, but negatively; not only attirming, there is no magni
2. The passive to be afficted, has often af tude beyond the last heavens, but also denying,
before the causal noun; by is likewise there is any vacuity within them. Brown. proper. AFFI'RMER. n. s. [from atom.] The per The mother was so afflicted at the loss of a fine son that affirms.
boy, who was her only son, that she died for
grief of it. If by the word virtue, the affirmer intends our
Addison's Spectator: whole duty to God and man; and the denier AFFLICTEDNESS. n. s. [from afflicted.] by the word virtue, means only courage, or, at
The state of affliction, or of being af. most, our duty toward our neighbour, without ficted ; sorrowfulness; grief. including, in the idea of it, the duty which we Affli'CTER. 7. s. [from aflict.] The perowe to God.
son that afficts. TO AFFI'x. v. a. [offigo, ath.rum, Lat.]
AFFLICTION. ». s. [afflictio, Lat.] 1. To unite to the end, or a posteriori ; to
1. The cause of pain or sorrow; calamity. subjoin.
To the flesh, as the apostle himself grantech, He that has settled in his mind determined
all affliction is naturally grievous; therefore naideas, with names affixed to them, will be able ture, which causeth fear, teacheth to pray against to discern their differences one from another.
We'll bring you to one that you have cozened If men constantly affixed applause and dis
of money; I think to repay that money will be grace where they ought, the principle of shame
a biting afliction.
Sbakspeare. would have a very good influence on publick
2. The state of sorrowfulness ; misery : conduct; though on secret villanies it lays no restraint. Rogers' Sermons. opposed toj:y or prosperity.
Besides, you know, 2. To connect consequentially.
Prosperity's the very bond of love, The docurine of irresistibility of grace, in
Whose fresh complexion, and whose heart toworking whatsoever it works, if it be acknow
gether, ledged, there is nothing to be affixt to gratitude. Hammond's Fundamentals.
Affliction alters. Shakspeare's Winter's Tale.
Where shall we find the man that bears 3. Simply to fasten or fix. Obsolete.
affliction, Her modest eyes, abasted to behold
Great and majestic in his griefs, like Cato? So many gazers as on her do stare,
Addison's Cato, Upon the lowly ground affixed are. Spenser. Some virtues are only seen in affliction, and Affi'x. ni's. 1.7is. Lotfixum, Lat.]
some in prosperity.
Addison's Spectator. Something united to the end of a word: AFFLICTIVE. adj. [from afflict.]' That a terın of grammar.
causes affliction ; painful ; tormenting. In the Hebrew language, the noun has its They found martyrdom a duty dressed up in. effixa, to denote the pronouns possessive or re
deed with all that was terrible and afflictive to Luise. Clarke's Latin Grammar. human nature, yet not at all the less a duty.
South AFFI'XION. n. 4. (from atir.)
Nor can they find 1. The act of affixing.
Where to retire themselves, or where appease 2. The state of being affixed. Dica,
Th'affictive keen desire of food, expos'd AFFLA’TION. n. s. [affio, afflatum, Lat.]
To winds, and storms, and jaws of savage death, The act of breathing upo
On the spacious' land and liquid main AFFLA'TUS. n. s. (Lat.] Communication Spreads slow disease, and darts affictive pain, of the power of prophecy.
Prior, The poet writing against his genius, will be A'FFLUENCE. n. s. [offluence, Fr. aflike a prophet without his aftatus. Spence. A'FFLUENCY.) Auentia, Lat.] TO AFFLICT. v. a. [offizo, afflictum, 1. The act of flowing to any place; con. Lat.)
course. It is almost always used figura. 1. To put to pain; to grieve ; to torment.
tively. It teacheth us how God thought fit to plague I shall not relate the affluence of young nobles and aflict them; it doth not appoint in what
from hence into Spain, after the voice of our form and manner we ought to punish the sin of
prince being there had been noised.
Wotton. idolatry in others.
2. Exuberance of riches; stream of wealth; O coward conscience, how dost thou aflict me! The lights burn bluc—Is it not dead midnight?
plenty. Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling fesh.
Those degrees of fortune, which give fulness Sbakspeare's Ricbard 111. and affluence to one station, may be want and Give noe over thy mind to heaviness, and penury in another.
Rogers. Alict not thyself in thine own counsel. Ecclus. Let joy or ease, let affluence or content, A father aplicted with untimely mourning,
And the gay conscience of a life well spent, when he hath made an image of his child soon
Calm ev'ry thought, inspirit ev'ry grace. Pope. taken away, now honoured him as a Cod, A'FFLUENT. adj. (affluent, Fr. affiuens, which was then a dead man, and delivered to
I. Flowing to any part.
of the subject, which by that law were disafe These parts are no more than foundation-piles forested.
Sir John Davies on Ireland. of the ensuing body; which are afterwards to be AFPorEsTA'TION. n. s. [from offorest.) increased and raised to a greater bulk, by the The charter de Foresta, was to reform the enaffluent blood that is transmitted out of the mo croachments made in the time of Richard 1. and ther's body.
Harvey on Consumptions. Henry 11. who had made new afforestations, and 2. Abundant; exuberant ; wealthy. much extended the rigour of the forest law's. I see thee, Lord and end of my desire,
Hale. Loaded and blest with all the afluent store, TO AFFRANCHISE. v. a. (affrancber, Fr.] Which human vows at smoking shrines implore. - To make free.
Prior. A'FFLUENTNESS. n. s. [from affluenı.]
TO AFFRA'Y. v. a. [effrayer, or offrigera The quality of being affluent.
Fr. which Menage derives from fragor;
Dici. A'FFLUX. n. š. [affiuxus, Lat.]
perhaps it comes from frigus.] To 1. The act of flowing to some place; af
fright; to terrify; to strike with fear. fluence.
Not in use. 2. That which flows to another place.
The same to wight he never would disclose,
But when as monsters huge he would dismay, The cause hereof cannot be a supply by procreations: ergo, it must be by new affluxes to
Or daunt unequal armies of his foes, !
Or when the flying heavens he would affray.
Fairy Queen. The infant grows bigger out of the wornb, by Affra'y, or AFFRA’YMENT. v.s. (from agglutinating one afflux of blood to another.
the verb. ] Harvey on Consumptions. An animal that must lie still, receives the
I. A tumultuous assault of one or more efflux of colder or warmer, clean or foul water, persons upon others : a law term. A as it happens to come to it.
Locke. battle : in this sense it is written fraf. AFFLU'XION. n. s. [«fuxio, Lat.]
2. Tumult; confusion. Out of ase. 1. The act of flowing to a particular Let the night be calin and quietsome, place.
Without tempestuous storms or sad afray. 2. That which flows from one place to an
AFFRI'CTION. 1. s. [liffictio, Lat.] The An inflammation either simple, consisting of
act of rubbing one thing upon another. an hot and sanguineous affluxion, or else deno
I have divers times abserved, in wearing silver. minable from other humours, according unto the
hilted swords, that, if they rubbed upon my predominancy of melancholy, phlegm, or choler. cloaths, if they were of a light-coloured cloth, Brown's Vulgar Errours.
the affriction would quickly blacken them; and, TO AFFO'RD. v. a. [fourrer, affourrager,
congruously hereunto, I have found pens blacked
almost all over, when I had a while carried them French.)
about me in a silver case.
Boylen 1. To yield or produce; as, the soil affords To AFFRIGHT.v. a. (See FRIGHT.)
grain; ibe trees afford fruits. This seems I. To affect with fear; to terrify. It
to be the primitive signification. generally implies a sudden impression 2. To grant, or confer any thing: gene of fear. rally in a good sense, and sometimes in
Thy name afrights me, in whose sound is a bad, but less properly.
Sbakspeare's Henry VI. So soon as Maurmon there arriv'd, the door Godlike his courage seein'd, whom nor delight To him did open, and aforded way. Fairy Q. Could soften, nor the face of death affrigbt. This is the consolation of all good men, unto
Waller. whoin his ubiquity, affordeth continual comfort He, when his country (threaten'd with aların) and security; and this is the affliction of hell, to Requires his courage and his conqu’ring arm,, whom it affordeth despair and remediless cala Shall, more than once, the Punic bands
affright: Brown's Vulgar Errours. 3. To be able to sell. It is used always 2. It is used in the passive, sometimes with reference to some certain price; with at before the thing feared. as, I can offord this for less iban ibe
Thou shalt not be affrighted at them: for the
Lord thy God is among you. Oiber,
Deuteronomy. They fill their magazines in times of the 3. Sometimes with the particle wiib before greatest plenty, that so they may affor: cheaper, the thing feared. and increase the public revenue at a small ex
As one affright Addison on Italy. With hellish fiends, or furies nad uproar, 4. To be able to bear expences; as,
Fairy Queen. traders can afford more finery in peace thun AFFRIGKT, . s. [from the verb.]
1. Terrour; fear. This word is chiefly The same errours run through all families, poetical. where there is wealth enough to afford that their
As the moon, cloached with cloudy night, suns may be good for nothing.
Does shew to him that walks in fear and sad To AFFOʻRĒST. V, 6. (affercs:are, Lal.]
Spenser's Fairy Queens To turn ground into forest.
Wide was his parish, not contracted close It appeareth, by Charta de Foresta, that he In streets, but here and there a straggling house; offerested many woods and wastes, to tie grievance
Yet still he was at hand, without request,
pence to its members.
He then uprose.
To serve the sick, to succour the distress'd; 1. Open opposition ; encounter: a sense Tempting, on foot, alone, without afright,
not frequent, though regularly deducible The dangers of a dark tempestuous night. Dryd.
from the derivation. 7. The cause of fear; a terrible object; Fearless of danger, like a petty god dreadful appearance.
I walk'd about, admir'd of all, and dreaded I see che gods
On hostile ground, none daring my affront. Upbraid our suff'rings, and would humble them
Samson Agonistes. By sending these affrights, while we are here, 2. Insult offered to the face ; contemptu. That we might laugh at their ridiculous fear.
ous or rude treatment; contumely. Ben Jonson's Catiline. The war at hand appears with more effright,
He would often maintain Plantianus, in doing And rises ev'ry moment to the sight. Dryden.
affronts to his son.
You have done enough, for you design d iny AFFRIGHTFUL. adj. [from atfrigbı.] Full
chains : of affright or terrour; terrible ; dread The grace is vanish’d, but th' affront remains. ful.
Dryden's Aurengzebe. There is an absence of all that is destructive He that is found reasonable in one ching, is 07 affrigbtful to human nature. Decay of Piety. concluded to be so in all; and to think or say AFFRICHTMENT. n. s. [from ajiigoo.]
otherwise, is thought so unjust an afront, and 1. The impression of fear; terrour.
so senseless a censure, that nobody ventures to
do it. She awaked with the affrightment of a dream.
There is nothing which we receive with so Passionate words or blows from the tutor, fill
much reluctance advice :
: we look upon the the child's mind with terrour and affrigbement;
man who gives it us, as offering an affront ta which immediately takes it wholly up, and
our understanding, and treating us like children leaves no room for other impression. Locke.
Addison's Spectator 2. The state of fearfulness.
3. Outrage; act of contempt, in a more Whether those that, under any anguish of
general sense. mind, return to a frightments or doubcings, hare
Oft have they violated not been hypocrites.
Hammond. The temple, oft the law, with foul affronts, T, AFFRONT. v. a. (affronter, Fr. that Abominations rather.
Paradise Regained is, ad frontem stare ; ad frontem conin 4. Disgrace ; shame. This sense is rather muliam allidere, to insult a man to his
peculiar to the Scottish dialect. face.]
Antonius attacked the pirates of Crete, and 1. To meet face to face; to encounter.
by his too great presumption, was defeated ;
upon the sense of which affront he died withe This seems the genuine and original
Arbuthnot on Coins, sense of the word, which was formerly AFFROʻNTER. *.'s. [from atjions.] The indifferent to good or ill.
person that affronts. We have closely sent for Hamlet hither,
AFFRO'NTING. part. adi. (from offronı.] That he, as 't were by accident, may here Afroat Ophelia. Sbakspeare's Hamlet.
That has the quality of affronting ; conThe seditious, the next day, affronted the
tumelious. king's forces at the entrance of a highway ;
Among words which signify the same principal whom when they found both ready and resolute
ideas, some are clean and decent, others unto fight, they desired enterparlance. Hayward.
clean: some are kind, others are affronting and 2. To meet, in an hostile manner, front to
reproachful, because of the secondary idea which
custom has affixed to them, front.
To AFFU'SE. v. His holy rites and solemn feasts profan'd,
the [«ffundo, affusum, And with their darkness durst affror:t his light.
Lat.) To pour one thing upon an
Paradise Lost. other. 3. To offer an open insult ; to offend
I poured acid liquors, to try if they contained avowedly. With respect to this sense,
any volatile salt or spirit, which would probably
have discovered itself, by making an ebullitioa it is observed by Cervantes, that, if a
with the affused liquor. man strikes another on the back, and AFFU'SION. ». s. [ffusio, Lat.] The act
Boyle. then runs away, the person so struck is
of pouring one thing upon another. injured, but not astronied; an affront al
Upon the affusion of a tincture of galls, it imways implying a justification of the act. mediately became as black as ink. Grmo. Did not this fatal war affront thy coast ? TO AFFY'. v.a. [iffier, Fr. effidare muYet sattest thou an idle looker-on. Fairfax. lieren, Bracton.] To betroth in order to
But harm precedes not sin, only our foe, Tempting, affronts us with his foul estecm
marriage. Of our integrity.
Wedded be thou to the hags of hell, I would learn the cause, why Torrismond,
For daring to affy a mighty lord Within my palace-walls, within my hearing,
Unto the daughter
of a worthless king. Shaksp. Almost within my sight, afronts a prince,
TO AFFY'. v. N. To put confidence in ; Who shortly shall command him. Dryden. to put trust in; to confide. Not in
This brings to inind Faustina's fondness for the gladiator, and is interpreted as satire. But how
Marcus Andronicus, so I do afy can one imagine, that the Fathers would have
In thy uprightness and integrity, dared to affront the wife of Aurelius ? Addia. That I will here dismiss my loving friends. AFFRONT. *.s. [from the verb.)
Sbukspeare's Titus dndronicus.
AFI'ELD. adv. [from a and field. See Æmilia, run you to the citadel,
And tell my lord and lady what hath hap'd;
Will you go on afore? Shakspeare's "Orbellos What time the grey fly winds her sultry horn,
3. In front; in the forepart. Bate'ning our flocks with the fresh dews of night. Approaching nigh, he reared high afore
Milton. His body monstrous, horrible, and vast. Fairy Q. Afield I went, amid the morning dew, AFO'R EGOING. parnicip. adj. [from afure To milk my kine, for so should housewives do. and going.] Going before.
Gay. AFOREHAND. adv. (from afore and band.] Afla't. adv. (from a and flut. See
1. By a previous provision. FLAT.] Level with the ground.
Many of the particular subjects of discourse you would have many new roots of are occasional, and such as cannot afereband be fruit-trees, take a low tree, and bow it, and lay
reduced to any certain account. Gov. of Tongue. all his branches aflat upon the ground, and cast 2. Provided ; prepared ; previously fitted. earth upon them; and every twig will take root. For it will be said, that in the former times,
Bacon's Natural History. whereof we have spoken, Spain was not so AFLO'AT. adv. (from a and float. See
mighty as now it is; and England, on the other FLOAT.] Floating ; born up in the side, was more aforeband in all matters of power. water; not sinking: in a figurative Bacon's Considerations on War with Spain. sense, within view ; in motion.
AFO'R EMENTIONED. auj. (from ufuri and There is a tide in the affairs of men,
mentiond.] Mentioned before. Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; Among the nine other parts, five are not in a Omitted, all the voyage of their life
condition to give alms or relief to those afore Is bound in shallow's and in miseries.
mentioned; being very near reduced themselves On such a full sea are we now afloat;
to the saine miserable condition. Addison. And we must take the current when it serves, AFO'R EN AMED. aj. [from afore and Or lose our ventures.
named.] Named before. Take any passion of the soul of man, while it
Imitate something of circular form, in which, is predominant and afloat, and, just in the critical height of it, nick' it with some lucky or un
as in all other aforenemed proportions, you shall
help yourself by the diameter. lucky word, and you may as certainly over
Tule it to your own purpose, as a spark of fire, AFO'R ESAID. adj. [from afore and said.] - falling upon gunpowder, will infallibly blow it
Said before. up. :
South. It need not go for repetition, if we resume There are generally several hundred loads of again that which we said in the aforesaid experitimber afloat; for they cut above twenty-tive
Bacon's Natural History. leagues up the river, and other rivers bring in AFOʻRETIME, adv. [from afore and time.] their contributions.
Addison. In time past. Aro'ot. adv. [from a and foot.]
O thou that art waxen old in wickedness, 1. On foot; not on horseback.
now thy sins which 'thou hast committed afore He thought it best to return, for that day, to
time are come to light.
Susanna. a village not far off; and, dispatching his horse AFRA'ID. pail. uity. [from the verb obraz : in some sort the next day early, to come afoot it should therefore properly be written thither.
Sbakspeare, with t] 2. In action; as, a design is ofon.
1. Struck with fear ; terrified ; fearful. I pr’ythee, when thou seest that act afoot, Ev'r with the very comment of thy soul
So persecute them with thy tempest, and
Psalms. Observe mine uncle.
make them afraid with thy storm.
Shakspeare. 3. In motion.
2. It has the particle of before the object Of Albany's and Cornwall's pow’rs you heard
There, loathing life, and yet of death afraid, "Tis said they are afoot.
In anguish of her spirit thus she pray'd. Drydens
If, while this wearied flesh draws fleeting Aro'r E. prep. [from a and fore. See Re
Not satisfy'd with life, afraid of death, 1. Not behind; as, he held the shield
It hap'ly be thy will, that I should know afore. Not in use.
Glimpse of delight, or pause from anxious woe; 2. Before ; nearer in place to any thing ;
From now, froin instant now, great Sire, dispel
Prior. as, he stood afore him. 3. Sooner in time.
AFRE'SH. adv. [from a and fresh. See If your diligence be not speedy, I shall be there FRESH.] Anew: again, after interafore you. Sbaksp.are's King Lear.
mission. AFO'Re, adu.
The Germans serving upon great horses, and 1. În time foregone or past.
charged with heavy armour, received great hurt Whosoever should make light of any thing
liclit skirmishes; the Turks, with their light afore spoken or written, out of his own house
horses, easily shunning their charge, and again, a tree should be taken, and he thereon be hanged.
at their pleasure, charging them afresh, when Esdras.
they saw the heavy horses almost weary, If he never drank winc ofore, it will
When once we have attained these ideas, to remove his fit. Studspeare's Tempest. 2. First in the way.
they may be excited afresb by the use of words.
AFRO'ST. adv. (from a and front.) in
'Tis true, some doctors in a scantier spaces : front; in direct opposition to the face.
I mean, in each apart, contract the place: These four came all afront, and mainly thrust
Some, who to greater length extend the line, Shekspeare's Henry iv.
The church's after-acceptation join. Dryden. A'FTER. prep. (æften, Sax.)
A'FTERAGES: n. s. [from after and uges.] 1. Following in place. After is commonly
Successive times; posterity. Of this applied to words of motion; as, he came
word I have found no singular; but see afier, and stood bebind him. It is op
not why it might not be said, This will
be done in some afterage. posed to be fire What says lord Warwick, shall we after
Not the whole, land, which the Chusites them?
should or might, in future time, conquer; see- After them! nay, before them, if we can.
ing, in afterages, they became lords of many
nations. Shakspeare's Henry vi.
Raleigh's History of the World. 2. In pursuit of.
Nor to philosophers is praise deny d, After whom is the king of Israel come out?
Whose wise instructionsafterages guide. Denham.
What an opinion will ofterages entertain of After whom dost thou pursue? After a dead dog,
their religion, who bid fair for a gibbet, to bring after a flea.
in a superstition, which their forefathers perished 3. Behind. This is not a common use. in flames to keep out?
Addison. Sometimes I placed a third prism after a se A'FTER-ALL. When all has been taken cond, and sometimes also a fourth after a third,
into the view ; when there remains no. by all which the image might be often refracted sideways.
thing more to be added ; at last ; in 4. Posterior in time.
fine ; in conclusion; upon the whole ; Good after ill, and after pain delight;
at the most. · Alternate, like the scenes of day
and night. They have given no good proof in asserting
Dryden's Fables. this extravagant principle; for which, after all, We shall examine the ways of conveyance of they have no ground or colour, but a passage or the sovereignty of Adam to princes that were to two of scripture, miserably perverted, in opporeign after him.
Locke. sition to many express texts. Atterbury 5. According to.
But, after all, if they have any merit, it is He that thinketh Spain our over-match, is no
to be attributed to some good old authors, whose good mint-man, but takes greatness of kingdoms works I study. Pope on Pastoral Poetry. according to bulk and currency, and not ofter AFTERBIRTH, 7. s. [from after and their intrinsic value.
berib.] The membrane in which the 6. In imitation of.
birth was involved, which is brought There are, among the old Romans statues, several of Venus, in different postures and ha
away after; the secundine. bits; as there are many particular figures of her
The exorbitancies or degenerations, whether made after the same design. Addison's Italy.
from a hurt in labour, or from part of the afterThis allusion is after the oriental manner :
birth left behind, produce such virulent discent thus, in the Psalms, how frequently are persons
pers of the blood, as make it cast out a tumour.
Wiscman's Surgery; compared to cedars.
Pope's Odyssey AFTER, adv.
A'FTERCLAP, n. s. [from afier and ciap.] 1. In succeeding time. It is used of time
Unexpected events happening after an mentioned as succeeding some other. So
affair is supposed to be at an end. we cannot say, I shall be happy after,
For the next morrow's mead, they closely
went, but hereafier ; but we say, I was first
Por fear of efterclaps to prevent. Hulberd's Tale. made miserable by the loss, but was
It is commonly taken in an ill sense.
A'FTERÇOST. n. s. [from after and cost.] Far be it from me, to justify the cruelties which were at first used towards them, which
The latter charges; the expence.
inkad their reward soon after.
curred after the original plan is exeThose, who from the pit of hell cuted. Roaming to seek their prey on earth, durst fix - You must take care to carry off the lande Their seats long after next the seat of God, floods and streams, before you attempt draining;
Paradise Lost. lest your aftercost and labour prove unsuccessful. 2. Following another.
Moriimer's Husbandry; Let go thy hold, when a great wheel runs A'FTERCROP. n. 1. (from afier and irop down a hill, lest it break thy neck with follow The second crop or harvest of the same ing ir; but the great one that goes upward, let
year. lim draw thee after. Sbakspeari's King Lear. AFTER is compounded with many words,
Aftercrops I think neither good for the land,
nor yet the hay good for the cattle. Mortimer. but almost always in its genuine and A'FTER.DINNER. n. s. [from aflır and primitive signification : some, which oc dinner.) The hour passing just after curred, will follow, by which others
dinner, which is generally allowed to may be explained.
indulgence and amusement. AFTER-ACCEPTATION. n. s. [from after
Thou hast nor youth nor age, and acceptation.) A sense afterward, not But, as it were, an after-dinner's sleep, at first admitted.
Dreaming on both.
Stakspeare. VOL. I.