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attract by such inducements as these list of honours, is made a bishop or a any men of eminent ability"? judge." We agree with Mr. Wadding
But is this statement correct? We ton that this would be strange; but have not ventured to push our inquiries we wish that the subject should be into the high regions of Downing- seen in its true light, and that some street, or to approach the august just idea of the value of Government abodes of secretaries of state, but we appointments should be given, before bave ascertained the fact as regards any decision is come to as to the quathe incomes of a set of modest clerks lifications to be looked for in the men in an humble Government office in the who are to fill them. city.
There are many appointments under We will take the junior class of this the Crown, not held' necessarily by office as it existed about twenty years members of the Government, varying since, because the clerks then in it in value from £1000 to £2000 a year. have none of them now exceeded the Such are the places of chairmen of twenty-seven years named by Sir boards ; commissioners at the cusJames. This class then consisted of toms, excise, audit, and poor - law eight persons, and we find those eight officers ; permanent and under secre. now circumstanced as follows:
taries in the high Government offices;
secretaries and assistant-secretaries at A-Dismissed.
the Post Office, and such like departB-£900 per annum; 23 years service.
ments, and various other servants of C_Dead; income at time of death, £650. D-£500 per annum; 21 years' service.
the Crown, who hold what may be E-£760 per annum; 20 years' service.
called staff appointments. Such situaF-£700 per annum; 20 years' service.
tions are at present but seldom allowed G-- £650 per annum ; 19 years' service. to be the reward of official merit. H-Dismissed.
They are filled by men who are sé
tected either on account of some pecuThis does not show the average in- liar talent they have shown, or, as is come of the men in question, but it much oftener the case, on account of does show that the rate of pay bas some political support which they have been much higher than that given by given - sometimes, indeed, by sheer Sir James Stephen, as he declares that favouritism, We earnestly hope that, a clerk would rise to £550, only after in future, civil servants chosen from twenty-seven years' service - much the ranks of the service, and none but higher, at least, in the cases of those civil servants, may be held as eligible whose services in the office have been for such appointments. We cannot retained. The average income of the doubt that men fitting can be foundofficers alluded to above probably ex. indeed that the men most fitting will ceeded £300 after twenty years' ser- be so found. Moreover, it may be asvice, and it will have reached £430 by sumed as certain, that the knowledge the time they have served twenty-seven that such a prospect is héld out by the years.
service, will in itself create a body of It is by no means our intention to men fitting for the purpose. In this assert that an average income of even manner the civil service may be put £430 per annum for the first and best on something like a par with other twenty-seven years of a man's working professions; some of the promising days, with the hope of rising to a maxi. and gifted, if not of the most ambitious mum of £900 or £1,000 at some pe- spirits of the age, may be tempted into riod of life between fifty and sixty; is its ranks. There will, it is true, be a prospect which will attract the most no judgeships, no bishoprics, to reward ambitious, the most promising, and its brighter ornaments; but there will the most gifted. Ambition, high ta- be places sufficiently good to be atlents, and mental gifts are better paid tractive to genius; there will be situafor in Great Britain. "A strange am- tions to be acquired, such as men of bition," says Mr. Waddington, p. 385, talent do covet; and the certainty of a " for à double first-class man to aspire moderate income very early in life will to be a subordinate for life . . . and atone for the loss of the higher hopes thus to attain, if greatly favoured by which the Church and the Bar afford. fortune, the dignity of chief clerk, There has of late been a great deal possibly on the very day upon which of controversy respecting the funds his friend, who stood by his side on the out of which the pensions of superannuated clerks are to be paid. It has practically feasible than that given to been allowed that the sums deducted us by the reporters and Mr. Jowett. for this purpose from the salaries of Mr. Bromley says (pp. 52, 53), the officers in the civil service are more - There are many men in the revenue than sufficient; and as the truth of departments, and in the lower class of this assertion has not been controverted offices, who are far more valuable pubby Government, although the ques- lic servants than many men in the tion of pensions has been under dis- higher class of offices; yet they have cussion, it may be presumed that the ho power of distinguishing themselves, allegation is correct. If so, the junior there being no prizes to contend for. clerks in the service have very strong ... The civil service has much of ground of complaint. This deduction such talent lying waste, and going to is, we believe, only paid by clerks ap- decay: The public interest suffers, pointed since 1831, when a new act of and the public become discontented.” parliament on the subject came into Again he says - “ The service operation. We can acknowledge the must be made more attractive for su. justice of calling on men in the civil perior talent, by throwing open the service to provide themselves for the prizes to the service at large." wants of their old age, as men in other In all this we fully agree, as we do business must do. We quite agree as to
in the recommendation which Mr. the expediency of making such deduc. Bromley makes as to the junior class tion obligatory, and thus forcing those of Government servants.
* His (Mr. who may die in harness, or who may Jowett's) second class of candidates leave the service, to contribute to the . . should be excluded altogether general fund. The deductions are not from the category of public servants, much felt if paid as a matter of course, by being placed on day pay instead of but if optional, would not be generally being paid by salary.” agreed to; and, as a rule, would not Sir James Stephen holds a very poor be paid by those who would most re- opinion of the civil service generally. quire assistance in old age. In these He thinks that the men now employed respects, we think that the Govern. are below mediocrity, and that nothing ment has shown a wise discretion ; but beyond mediocrity can be expected, or there can be no doubt the amount of is even wanted.
* In all seriousness," deduction should not exceed by a sin. he says, “ I think that the man whose gle pound the sum required for the name stood balf way down the examispecified purpose.
The measure has nation-list of merit, would probably not yet come into full operation, and make a better clerk than he whose it may have been hitherto impossible name stood first.” We do not quite to calculate accurately the precise per agree with him in this, and we think centage of salary which may be re- that he must have been unfortunate in quired for the assigned purpose; but the clerks that he has had under his if there be a doubt on the subject, the control. If he errs, however, he errs benefit of it should be given to the on the safer side, and is not so wide of clerks. The Crown should, under no the mark as are Sir Charles Trevelyan circumstances, allow itself to make and Sir Stafford Northcote, when they money by deductions from the wages talk of the ambitious and the gifted of its servants. When the matter was as the natural candidates for Govern. first mooted, we fully expected to have ment offices. seen it shown that the five per cent now Dullness, according to Sir James charged was not more than sufficient Stephen, is the lot of the civil service. for the required object; but as this has Alas! is not dullness, that, at least, not been done, we hope soon to hear which Sir James Stephen calls dullness, that the per centage has been reduced. the lot of the world at large ? Sir
Before we close our remarks, we James has probably lived much among would wish to call attention to some of men of talent, and feels acutely the the opinions given by civil servants, presence of bores ; but we believe that in the volume before us. Judging he would be forced to admit, that vine merely from what we have here print- men out of ten are bores to him. ed, we doubt whether Mr. Bromley, " The members of what I have deSir James Stephen, Mr. Hawes, and scribed as the third class,” he is still Mr. Arbuthnot, would not, between speaking of the shortcomings of clerks, them, have drawn out a plan more p. 74, “usually entered the office at A very
the age of eighteen or nineteen, com- self to a gallant defence of the civil ing directly from school, bringing with service, as it at present exists; and, them no greater store of information considering the nature of the attack or maturity of mind than usually be- made, we think the line of defence longs to a boy of the fifth form, at very fair. He is a gentleman who Eton, Westminster, or Rugby. What has been long in office, and who has they so brought they never afterwards the interests of the service and of the increased by any private study.” May servants equally at heart; and having not the same thing be said of most himself risen to high position is entiother professions? Do officers in the tled to a hearing. “I cannot refrain," army study after they have received he says, pp. 412, 413, “from imtheir commissions? Do doctors study pressing upon your lordships the fact, anything but physic, lawyers any
that the real practical eduthing but law ? The rule of life is cation of an official man must be withthat men, when once placed at workin the office.” Again, he says "In do work in that state of life to which all the public departments there is a God bas called them, but do not care vast amount of mere routine work, to burden themselves with other toil. which yet requires attention, ability, There are of course exceptions. The and above all, integrity. men with whom Sir James has loved large majority of public servants must to associate have no doubt been found be engaged in such occupation, and
Such men in all profes- few can emerge from it to superior sions will rise to the top. That they situations." should be allowed to do so in the civil These appear to be truths which service is acknowledged by all, and have escaped the notice of the reportthat they have hitherto not been al- ers and Mr. Jowett. In looking for lowed to do so is the great evil which men of finished education, they have is now to be remedied.
forgotten how much must be learned To one observation of Sir James by the young lad after his appointStephen's we beg to call particular at- ment; and in looking for ambition tention. He is speaking of the patron- and genius, they have forgotten how age of the great Government officers, very little fitting work there is for the
“ It is said indeed that they employment of these high gifts. regard it as a burden, not as an advan. And now one word as to Mr. Chad. tage. I can only answer, that I never wick. This gentleman's name has yet served under any Secretary of State long been familiar to us in some deWho did not at least appear to attach partment of the civil service, and from a very high interest indeed to the his own statements it appears that he power of giving such places to his de- has had much to do. He has passed pendents and his friends.” We think through his bands, he tells us, the apthat this is a blow fairly given to what plications of between 1,000 and 2,000 we cannot but call the humbug of pre- candidates for staff appointments; and tending that patronage is not desir- he has been employed in regulating the able. We all know that it is in a great expenditure of between £500,000 and measure for the sake of patronage £600,000 per annum! besides much that the toils of office are endured ; business connected with local (?) disthat it is the most valued appanage of
missals !! but he does not appear at high places; that it contributes more present to be employed in the service. than any actual power to the lofty po- We should like to know whether he sition of the man who dispenses it; has himself encountered dismissal ; and that it is, in fact, the greatest privi- if so, whether “ local” or otherwise. lege of our greatest men. Ministers Though not so employed, he was in. know that the spirit of the age requires vited, among others, to give the Gothat this great privilege should be cur. vernment the benefit of his experience, tailed, and therefore the subordinates and he has taken advantage of the of ministers, with euphonistic phraseo- invitation. We observe that Mr. logy, speak of patronage as a burden Bromley occupies seven pages of this difficult to be borne! We are glad to book; Sir James Stephen, nine; Mr. see such cobwebs swept away by one Mill, six ; Major Graham, two; the so well entitled to give an opinion on present Chancellor of the Exchequer, the matter as Sir James Stephen. seventeen ; Sir Thomas Redington,
Mr. Arbuthnot chiefly confines him- fifteen ; Mr. Rowland Hill, four; Mr.
Murdock, five; Mr. Wood, eleven ; present them in no worse guise than Mr. Merivale, seven ; Mr. Hawes, six- that in which they appear in his own teen; and Mr. Waddington is able to text. confine all bis wit, all bis bitterness,
" Commerce and private enterprise, where and all his quotations, within twelve.
combinations for service are required, owe Mr. Chadwick, however, trails himself
their efficieucy to the extent to which are ruthlessly through ninety-four mortal shared the results of success with the agency pages of the most difficult composition wliich has most contributed to their producthat ever was subjected to the under. tion as the efficient enterprise of war is due standing of an unfortunate critic. to its practical trcatment as paid work by - If Mr. Chadwick had come forward prize money and reward."-p. 212. with any plan of his own, the details of which required lengthy expression, Mr. Hawes gives us, at the end of we should perbaps have no fair right bis paper, a set of imperfect sentences to complain of the quantity of his re- such as candidates for clerkships at his marks, though we might not like the offices have to put into good English, quality of his scheme; but such is not as one of their preliminary tasks. the case.
As far as we have been Would he allow us to recommend to able to ascertain his meaning, he is him the above sentence ? only intent on giving to the public the result of his own personal experiences,
" If to the several proposed arrangements and in recommending that the Govern.
for engaging in the reorganisation of the ser ment generally should adopt in all its
vice, the direct interests of the majority of offices those nieasures of reform which
persons already employed, and in particular, he adopted with so much satisfaction
if to the right of a fair and impartial piensa to himself when employed in the Poor
ing to all proposals of improvement i
in praga Law Office, and under the Sewerage
tice, were added a rule for giving to the
officer who has prepared them in a practical Commission. He is always telling us what under certain circumstances he,
shape, and who appears to be otherwise duly
qualified, a fair share in their execution, Mr. Chadwick, did; but he tells these powerful stimuli will be given for the adthings in language so atrociously un- vance of the service to its due position." 23 grammatical, so singularly confused, so utterly unintelligible, that it is often impossible to divine the meaning of his
That, we fear, may be thought too paragraphs.
difficult for any of Mr. Haves' pupils; We will give a few morsels taken but if we may be allowed to boli the quite at random : 15
bran out of it, we presume it means
that Mr. Chadwick has a claim, after Notwithstanding I have presented the
writing such a paper as this, to be jointwo Boards entrusted with an independent
ed with Sir Charles Trevelyan and Mr. power of appointment and discipline, with Jowett in carrying out the reform of which I have been connected, as exomplify. the civil service. ing an advance upon the common condition We have remarked in the course of of the service, I should nevertheless include this article, that the amount of erudithem as falling short of what is practicable tion required by the reporters for men under systematised arrangements on a larger entering Government offices was, in our scale."--p. 169. “ The specialities of the civil service, when
opinion, too high; we have also sugclosely examined, will be found to furnish
gested that it may be difficult to find as cogent reasons for their aggregation un
candidates who will, at so early an der general supervision for the advancment age, have a sound knowledge of the of the specialities themselves. Thus to take rules of English composition : never the specialities of any department in its ac- theless we sincerely hope, and think countantship,"-p. 174.
we have a right to expect, that hence
forth no one, however young, will be We protest that we preserve exactly admitted into the service so abomiMr. Chadwick's punetuation, that we nably deficient in this respect as is Mr. give nothing but full sentences, and Chadwick.
NORTH ABOUT, OR NOTES OF A YACHT CRUISE FROM FORTH TO CLYDE.
Not a season passes by without sec- noble Ward Hill of Hoy, on whose ing numbers of yachts leaving our summit, according to tradition, an enshores to explore the Fiords of Nor. chanted carbuncle is sometimes seen way, the blue and tideless Mediter- shining at midnight - the adjacent ranean, or the sunny isles of the Gre- coast of Scotland, fissured by caves eian Archipelago. The flag of an and indented by arms of the sea, English yacht has waved in the noble above which rise the towering peaks bay of San Francisco, in the bar. of Ben Hope and Ben Laoghal bours of Sydney and Hobart Town, tbe bold headland of Cape Wrath, on the waters of the Hudson, and with its lofty light gleaming over the even on the muddy Mississippi, where wild Atlantic. Then, turning southit sweeps past the crescent city of ward, the beautiful Loch Laxford, and New Orleans. A fondness for no- the coast range of mountains, upri. velty and adventure, a craving for valled in varied and fantastic outline, excitement, a love of the beautiful, stretching for fifty miles from Loch or all these combined, have led our Laxford to Loch Ewe. Of wood yachtsmen to despise distance and dan. there is but little, and that almost all ger, and to roam far and wide over natural; but then, in autumn, how the pathless ocean, in order to gratify exquisite is the colouring, and how their favourite tastes, or to vary the the mountain slopes glow with the monotony of home life. It is, how. mingled hues of the purple heather, ever, somewhat strange, that whilst the grey rock, the verdant grass, long voyages are undertaken to dis. and the rich golden brown of the tant lands, the most picturesque bracken. scenery on our own shores that of South of Loch Ewe, the scenery of the north-western Highlands of Scot- the Scottish coast and of the western land, equal in beauty and variety to islands is better known, and more in any in the world - should be compa- the beaten track of tourists and ratively neglected. It is true, indeed, yachtsmen ; but, during a three weeks' that the seas are stormy, the currents cruise in the finest season of the year, rapid, and the navigation intricate; we did not meet with a single yacht that in some places supplies are diffi. between the Moray Firth and Loch cult to be found, and that the chance Ewe. of being storm-staid in a Highland In the summer of 185-, we set sail loch for a week or a fortnight, sur- from Granton Harbour in a cutter rounded by sterile mountains half yacht of thirty-five tons, manned by veiled in grey mist, and out of sight a sailing-master and three stout hands, of human habitation, affords rather a having been occupied for some hours dreary prospect; but, with a stout previously in getting below and stowvessel, a good sailing-master, and a ing away an amount of stores which provident steward, the former class of seemed, when piled up, upon the dangers may be easily avoided ; and, deck, as if they would have served by making the cruise during the pro- for a voyage to Australia. We have per season of the year (the months of no intention of inflicting upon our June, July, and August), there is readers any unbroken narrative, connot much chance of suffering from tinued from day to day, during the the latter contingency. Upon the six weeks that our cruise lasted; still other hand, how rich are the stores less do we deem it necessary to garof grandeur and beauty, how great nish our story with nautical details as the variety of pleasure which such a to what amount of sail we carried, cruise discloses. The Orkney islands, how often we hove the lead or the log, some barren and rocky, others green the exact direction of the wind, or and smiling, divided by long reaches the precise number of fathoms in which of sea, and full of excellent harbours, we anchored. Our object is simply such as that of Stromness, with its to give some account of the most inquaint old town, in full view of the teresting places we visited, and the