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Bethany. For in that she hath poured this ointment on Matt. xxvi.12.

my body, she did it for my burial.
she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the Mark xiv. 8.

Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this Gos- Mark xiv. 9.
pel shall be preached throughout the whole world,
this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for
a memorial of her.

Much people of the Jews therefore knew that John xii. O. he was there : and they came not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead.

But the Chief Priests consulted that they John xii. 10. might put Lazarus also to death ;

Because that by reason of him many of the John xii. 11. Jews went away and believed on Jesus.

MATT. xxvi. ver. 6. part of ver. 7, 8. and ver. 9, 10, 11, 13. c Mark xiv. 3. 6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, John xi. 1.

7 There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box—and poured it on his head

8-they had indignation, saying
9 For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor.

10 When Jesus understood it, he said unto them, Why trouble ye the

woman? for she hath wrought a good work upon me. d Deut. xv.11. 11 . For ye have the poor always with you ; but me ye have not always.

13 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her.

JOHN xii. part of ver. 7. and ver. 8.
7 Then said Jesus
8 For the poor always ye have with you ; but me ye have not always.

Near Jeruba. lem.


Christ prepares to enter Jerusalem.
MATT. xxi. 1-8. MARK xi. 1–8. LUKE xix. 29-36.

JOHN xii. 12-19.
And it came to pass,

Luke xix. 29.
On the next day,

John xii. 12. when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were Matt. xxi. I. come, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Beth- Luke xix. 29. any, at the mount called the mount of Olives, much people that were come to the feast, when John xii. 12 they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,

Took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to John xii. 13.


Mark xi. 1.
Mark xi. 2.

meet him, and cried, Hosanna; Blessed is the King Near Jerusa.

of Israel, that cometh in the name of the Lord : Matt. xxi. 1. then sent Jesus

forth two of his disciples,

And saith unto them, Go your way into the vil-
lage over against you : and as soon as ye be en-

tered into it,
Matt. xxi. 2. straightway ye shall find an ass tied,
Luke xix. 30. and a colt tied
Matt. xxi. 2. with her,
Luke xix. 30. whereon yet never man sat: loose him, and bring

him hither. Matt. xxi. 2. unto me.

And if any man say ought unto you,
Luke xix. 31. Why do ye loose him? thus shall ye say unto him,

Because the Lord hạth need of him :
and straightway he will send him hither.

All this was done, that it might be fulfilled,

which was spoken by the prophet, saying, John xli. 14. as it is written,

Fear not, daughter of Sion:

Matt. xxi. 3.

Mark xi. 3.

Matt. xxi. 4.


John xii. 15.

Zech, ix. 9.


ON ZECHARIAH IX. 9. This prediction of Zechariah, four hundred years before the event, announced to the people of Israel, that the king of Jerusalem, contrary to the universal custom of his own, and of every other nation, should enter into his royal city, without any outward pomp and splendour ; that he should ride upon the humblest of animals ; himself the meekest and lowliest of men, yet the Saviour of his people, and, as such, be received by them with the loudest rejoicings and acclamations. We are assured, by the Prophet Malachi also, that the Messiah should certainly visit the second temple at Jerusalem. Let me now, then, appeal to the Jew who

eives the Old Testament, and entreat him to search the records of the history of his fathers, and there find if any Prophet, Priest, or King, or Ruler of Israel, before the destruction of the second temple, ever entered into Jerusalem, as Jesus of Nazareth is here represented to have done ; and which of all these rulers of Israel united so many of their ancient prophecies in his own person. Of all the long train of Persian, Grecian, Roman, or Jewish rulers, to whom can we apply the prophecy of Zechariah, and assert that he rode into Jerusalem humble, royal, and a Saviour, visiting and appearing in their temple ? Ezra was in their city when the prophecy was delivered (a). The successor of the Persian conqueror was reposing in his palace. Nehemiah went up to Jerusalem, attended by the captains and cavalry of the king of Persia, (Nehem. ii. 9.) When he arose privately in the night, he was accompanied by few only of his train, and though he

(a) Vide on the date of this prophecy, &c. &c. Arrangement of the Old Testament, vol. ii. p. 857, and the references in the note.

Near Jerusalem.

*Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King Matt, xxi. 5. TIesa . Ixii. 11. cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass,

and a colt the foal of an ass.

Zech. ix. 9.

rode, it was not in the manner described by the prophet (b); and of this his second entrance nothing is recorded (c).

Did the governors of Syria, under the Persian sovereigns of Judæa, visit Jerusalem in such lowly state ? Was the prophecy fulfilled in Bagoses, when he espoused the cause of the usurper of the high priesthood, and imposed a fine upon the priests for every offering that was brought to the temple ? Did any Persian emperor ever enter Jerusalem; or can it be supposed that the prophet alluded to any officer who bore an inferior title (a)? If it be imagined that Zechariah predicted the conquest of the Grecian conqueror, when, meeting the high priest Jaddua, he venerated, amidst the astonishment of his attendants, the name of Jehovah, glittering on his tiara (e) ; let it remembered that Alexander was at the head of his army, neither meek, nor poor, nor humble (). Do the pages of history unfold any similar event, which occurred in the lives of either of the Ptolemies? whether of Lagus, who entered the city on the sabbath, as an enemy and a conqueror, and took away many thousands of the people as his prisoners? or of Philadelphus, who reversed the decree, and restored them to their own country? or of Ptolemy Philopater, who marked the wretched Jews with the ivy-leaf, in honour of Bacchus, and sacrilegiously attempted to enter the sanctuary? can we trace a similitude between these men and the King of Israel, at whose coming the daughter of Zion was invited to rejoice greatly?

Let us turn our attention to another dynasty, and search among them also for this meek and humble Saviour, and King of Israel. Did Antiochus the great protect the people? It is true that they welcomed, with acclamations, his army

.רכב על חמור ועל־עיר בן־אתנות ,dicted King of Zechariah was to enter the city

(6) na 397 *X VX annan-DX 3 ay 7x Nehem. ii. 12, whereas the pre

, -. (c) Vide Arrangement of the Old Testament, vol. ii. p. 893.

(d) Sub præsidibus alii minorum ordinum magistratus fuere ; qui aliquando D'iv principes, Ezra ix. 1, 2. alias O'nin, nobiles, magnates, patricii, Neh. iv. 14. nonnunquam et nix 'YV principes patrum, seu familiarum, dicuntur, Ezra viii. 29. A quibus distincti fuisse videntur, quos D'apr seniores, aliquando et D'D secundarios sive subalternos judices, sacra historia nuncupat. Quibus quandoque jungitur civium omnium cætus 57700 abop congregatio magna. Quorum ordinum diserta mentio Neh. v. 7. contendi cum Dinin nobilibus, et cum D'had secundariis judicibus, Junius vertit antistitibus, et indixi illorum caussa 25972 nbnp congregationem magnam, Ezra x. 8. memoratur S'ap707 Boyun nyy senatus principum et seniorum, deinde abran hop congregatio deportatæ multitudinis. Sub auspiciis ducis seu præsidis provincialis erat Hierosolymis secundarius quidam præfectus, seu legatus ipsius præsidis, ex tribu Benjaminis: ut colligi potest ex Neh. xi. 9. Ibi enim dum enumerantur Benjaminitæ Hierosolymis habitantes, laudatur Juda filius Senuæ nyn by nova Secundarius supra civitatem.—Witsius Historia Ilierosol. Exerc. Sacræ, p. 11, sect. 23. (e) Alexander enim, ut vidit e longinquo candidatum populum, et sacerdotes in amictu byssino, pontificemque in stola hyacinthina auro distincta, tiaram in capite gestantem cum præfixa lamina aurea insculpta nomine Jehovæ, solus ad eum accedens, nomen illud adoravit, ac salutavit Pontificem. Judæis uno ore Alexandrum consalutantibus, et in orbem cingentibus, Syriæ Reges et reliqui obstupuerunt, vix credentes regem mentis esse compotem.--Witsius ubi sup. sect. 25, p. 562, 12mo, edit.

(1) Josephus Ant. b. xi. ch. viii.

John xii. 16.

These things understood not his disciples at the Near Jerusafirst : but when Jesus was glorified, then remem


and their elephants ; but where do we read that this king entered Jerusalem on
a colt, the foal of an ass ? Did Seleucus Philopater fulfil the prediction, when
he sent Heliodorus to plunder the temple : or was his brother, the cruel oppres-
sor, the savage murderer, and the foulest idolater, of all the enemies of Israel,
more meek and humble, when he profaned the temple, and slaughtered the peo-
ple on the sabbath ? If we look to the history of the Maccabean family, we may
still proceed in vain to find one among them whose characteristics, as a leader of
Israel, correspond with this prediction of the prophet. Mattathias excited the
people to resistance in defence of their religion. Judas entered Jerusalem in
, triumph, purified the temple, and dedicated it again to the worship of Jehovah ;
as a religious and devout man, he perhaps might be called meek and humble ;
but where is it recorded that he entered into Jerusalem sitting upon a colt, the
foal of an ass ? Shall we apply the prediction to the idolatrous Bacchides, who
captured the holy city, and murdered the zealous Maccabee? or to any of the
sons of the Asmonæan family; whether it be the pious Simon, his warlike son,
or to the weak and profligate Aristobulus, who first assumed the diadem, and sur-
named himself the king of the Jews; or to his fierce and cruel brother Alexander
Jannæus! If it is possible not to turn in disgust from the unnatural contests of
this man's sons, we might enquire if either of these were the meek and holy King
of Israel, before or after the Romans entered Jerusalem on the sabbath, and
assisted the royal Jew to slaughter his countrymen on that holy day? Pompey,
who spared the gold of the temple, ană Crassus who followed him, and despoiled
it: Gabinius, and Cæsar, and Antipater, with all the mingled tribe of Parthian,
Roman, and Jewish contenders, who next crowd the scene, may be considered
as alike falling short of the description of the prophet. We are now brought to
the days of Herod the king, the contemporary of Jesus of Nazareth, the tributary
dependent on Rome, the fierce, implacable, and haughty murderer of his wife,
his people, and his children? Is this the portrait of the expected king of Israel ?
Was the destroyer of Mariamne, the flatterer of Augustus, the slaughterer of the
innocents at Bethlehem, was he the meek and humble Saviour, who was to ride
into the city among the acclamations of the people? Was Herod the king, who
died amidst the deep and indignant curses of a suffering people? was he who was
smitten of God, hateful to his own family, and abhorred by his subjects, was
this the king for whom Zion was to rejoice, and the daughter of Jerusalem to be
glad ? Surely neither this man, nor his tyrannical son, nor his family of te-
trarchs, nor the corrupt and sanguinary governors from imperial Rome, can ap-
pear as candidates for the title of the true King of Israel, Jesus of Nazareth.
None but the Prophet of Galilee, who worked miracles, who fulfilled every pro-
phecy, who was so poor that he had not where to lay his head; so humble, that
he washed the feet of his disciples, whom the people more than once endeavoured
to make their king; and who was now received among them with acclamations
and hosannas, none but He accomplished this prediction of Zecharias, and
entered into Jerusalem, "just and having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an
ass, and upon a colt, the foal of an ass.”

Brethren of Israel, you acknowledge the miracles of Christ, although you im

Near Jerusa. bered they that these things were written of him, John xii. 16.

and that they had done these things unto him ".


pute them to magic(g). Your fathers bore witness to his blameless life, and to
the union in his person of many of the characteristics of your expected Messiah.
Whenever your promised Shiloh shall appear, he must manifest himself in the
same manner as Jesus of Nazareth has already done ; he must appear in the se,
cond temple, and accomplish in his own person all the predictions of your ancient
prophets. That this prophecy of Zechariah related to the King Messiah, you are
presented with proofs, not from the writings of the Evangelists, (whom we indeed
believe, like your ancient prophets, to be inspired,) but from the writings of your
own Talmudists (h). For of none other can it be said, out of all the rulers or
conquerors of Jerusalem, from the building of the second temple after the Baby-
lonian captivity, to its overthrow by Titus; of none other can it be said, that he
entered into the holy city, riding upon an ass, amidst the acclamations of the
multitude, and the hosannas of the children.
40 If the theological student will refer to the original of Zech, ix. 9, he will ob-

a passive participle, Grotius would render it salvatus, and expresses his surprise
that this should have escaped the attention of the commentators. Drusius, his
contemporary, who was a much more learned man, has anticipated this remark,
and replied to it. He also observes, that the word yura is used as an epithet;
but his rule of interpretation, as applied to this form of speaking, is, that where
a passive participle is thus taken, it implies action (i).

Sebastian Schmidt renders the words, justus, et servatus ille; and in the margin of our authorized translation, "saving himself.”

is נושע As the word ,צדיק ונושע serve that the expected King of Israel is called

-lmpos אי אפשר לפוררו אלא על מלך המשיח ,by Munster, in the Critici Sacri

(8) See the Toldoth Jesu, in Wagenseil's Tela Ignea. (h) R. S. quoted

, , sibile est ut interpreteris de alio quam de Messiah. So Clarius—and Grotius quotes also Abenezra and Rabbi Saadia Gaon, as referring this passage to the Messiah. Eidem Messiæ qui asino vectus est et humilem se exhibuit, singularem in ipsa humilitate magnificentiam tribuunt. Sohar Numer. fol. 83. col. 332. ubi mystice commentantur ad verba Deut. xxii. 10. Non arabis cum bove, et

. , Messias dominaturus est. Et hoc quod scriptum est Zachar. ix. 9. Pauper et insidens asino. Huc pertinet illud R. Josephi in Sanhedrim, fol. 98. 2. Veniet Messias, et ego dignus habebor, qui sub umbra stercoris asini ejus sedeam, &c. &c.-Schoetgen, Hor. Heb. vol. ii. p. 543. Brescith Rabba ad Genes. xlii. 2. apud Raymundum Martini, part iii. distinct. iii. 16. 1. Una tho kava

cui insidens Rex ,דזמין מלכא משיהא למשלט עליה asino simul. Ille est asinus

Quando Messias Hierosolymam veniet ad redimendum לירושלים להושיע ישראל

Israelitas tunc ligat asinum suum, eique insidet, et Hierosolymam venit, 27700 "ya yaxy ut semet ipsum in humilitate gerat, q. d. Zach. ix. 9. pauper et insidens asino. See Schoetgen, Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. ii. p. 59. De Messiah, lib. ii. continens loca veteris testamenti quæ Judæi antiquiores potissimum de Messiah interpretati sunt. Schoetgen, vol. ii. p. 64. Schir Naschirim rabba, fol. 7. 3. ad verba Cantic. 1. Sohar. Levit. fol. 28. col. 112. Schoetgen, vol. ii. p. 219, Dr. Gill's references to the Talmudical writers on the application of this passage to our Lord, are-T. Bab. Sanhedrim, fol. 98. and 99. 1. Bereshith Rabba, fol. 66. 2. and 85. 3. Midrash Koheleth, fol. 63. 2. Zohar. in Genes. fol. 127. 3. and in Num. fol. 83. 4. and in Deut. fol. 117. 1. and 118. 3. Raza Mehimna in Zohar. in Lev. fol. 38. 3. and in Num. fol. 97. 2. Modern Testimonies. Sarchi in Isa. xxvi. 6. Baal Haturiin in Exod. fol. 88. 2. Abarbinel. Mashmia Jeshua, fol. 15. 4. (i) Vide Drusius' and Grotius' Annotations in Zech. ix. 9. Critici Sacri, vol. v.

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