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been slain, and these are the proofs of it, alas! alas! [Then Gâya Kâsyapa, with 200 followers, proceeds to the place where Buddha was, and they also are converted]. [In each case when the Kun. dikâs and other utensils were cast into the river, strange noises proceeded from them as they floated down the stream and sank].

Thus Buddha and these 1,000 disciples dwelt for some short time longer in the village of Uravilva, and then gradually going onwards to the city of Gaya, they took up their abode at the top of the Elephant-head Mount, where he taught them the mysteries of spiritual manifestations (miraculous powers) exercised by the body, the mouth, and the mind (word, thought, deed). [Here follows a list of the magical exhibitions : Ist. Of the body, making it ascend and descend at pleasure, making fire and water proceed from it, etc. 2nd. Of the mouth, showing them how to discrimi. nate, argue, and determine. 3rd. Of the mind, showing them how they ought to regard and conclude respecting all mundane existence, with a view to reject all these things as unreal, and so to rise to that which alone is real]. And thus those thousand men became perfect Rahats.

The Story of Upâsana.

§ 2. At this time, these three Kâsyapas had a sister whose son was called Upâsana, a Brahmachari adorned with a spiral head-dress. This youth was dwelling in a mountain called Asuraganga, in company with 250 other disciples, all of them preparing themselves to become Rishis. These, having heard what had happened to the three brothers, were filled with astonishment and alarm, and then Upâsana addressing them said, Most wonderful! to think, my friends, that those who have for so many thousand years been worshippers of the Fire Spirit, should at this time suddenly become Shamans! It is my duty on their account to go direct to the spot where they dwell and remonstrate with them on this indecorous proceeding of theirs."

Then going to the spot, behold! he saw the three brothers with shaven heads, and wearing the kashầya garments of a Shaman. On seeing which, he addressed them in the following Gâthas :

« Oh Reverend Sirs ! who have worshipped for a hundred years the fire, in its pure essence !

“And have practised austerities and self-mortification in dependence on that alone.

“How is it that to-day ye have deserted this ancient religion of yours,

“And cast it off, even as a serpent wriggles out of its old skin ?”

To this, the three brothers answered simply, “We have, as you say, cast away our old habiliments, even as a snake shifts its skin !” Then Upâsana, having heard this, inquired further, “ Wherein resides the superior excellency of the system you have adopted ?”

[Then the three brothers explained the system of Buddha, on which Upâsana and his followers resolve to become his disciples, and are received, on condition of laying aside their deer-skin doub. lets and their fire vessels, and vessels for holding blood. Afterwards, on hearing a discourse on the three miraculous powers of body, word, and thought, these also became Rahats.]

And now it came to pass that, in the presence of these 1,250 disciples, the world-honoured one related their previous history as follows:

“I remember in years gone by in this continent of Jambudwipa, there were a thousand merchants, amongst whom were three brothers, one of whom in his turn took upon him the office of chief merchant. The names of these three were as follows, Uravilva, Nadi, and Gaya. The first had 500 merchants in his charge, the second 300, and the third 200. Now, on one occasion, these merchants undertook a voyage of great importance, and embarked with a very rich cargo, proposing to return with one of still greater worth. Having sacrificed to the sea-spirit, they set sail, and were soon borne by a storm into mid-ocean, where they were becalmed.”

[Kionen XLII contains 6,232 words, and cost 3.116 taels.]

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At length, having completed their voyage, and possessed themselves of a very valuable freight, they set out on their return homewards. And it so happened on their mid-passage that they saw a Stûpa, erected to the memory of Kâsyapa, in ruins and fall. ing to pieces. Then the senior of the three merchant princes ad. dressed the others as follows:

“ You know, my comrades, that I am always ready to risk my life in these ventures of ours, and now we seem to have had a very successful voyage and are returning home in safety, let us not forget then that it is our duty to do something, not only for our own benefit, but for the good of those who shall come after us; let us not forget the burthen of the old saying which wise men have handed down to us, A man by good fortune obtains much profit, Obtaining this he becomes idle and listless, From this he is careless about his religious duties, And from this he gradually sinks lower, till he goes to hell.”

And so the senior merchant proposed that out of the abundance of their wealth they should devote some portion to the restoration of the sacred Stûpa, containing the relics of Kâsyapa. So they severally contributed according to their means, and restored the building to its original beauty and perfection, and then they put up the following prayer: “Oh! would that we in ages to come may have the privilege of hearing the words of Buddha, the successor of this Kâsyapa, and so may receive the benefit of his preaching !"

Know ye then that at the present time these three Kâsyapas and their followers are the thousand merchants and their chiefs. And according to the proportion of money contributed by each of those chiefs towards the restoration of that Stûpa, so is the excellency of these three brothers in point of disciples and priority of conversion,

§ 3. Again, in relation to this subject, the world-honoured related the following story. I remember in years gone by there was a country called Videha [this means not graceful body,Ch. Ed.] in which was a Kshatriya monarch, called Anghada [this means to give parts of his body”). He was a regularly anointed (baptised) king, and possessed of wealth and means in abundance, but he was a heretic. Now it came to pass on a certain night, being the 15th of the month, when the moon was full and bright, that this king summoned all his great ministers to his presence. The first was

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called Vijaya (pi-che ye) [Various Excellences, Ch. Ed.] The second Sumana [Excellent thought, Ch. ed.] The third Arvata (beforespoken, Ch. Ed.] These three chief ministers having come into the king's presence he said to them, “ Tell me, my ministers, what is your opinion; what other plan except the enjoyment of the society of my courtesans is there, by which I may be kept awake during this night?”

Then one answered and said, “ My Lord King ! engage your attention about the subjugation of your enemies, plan some method of attack by your army by which the countries yet unsubdued may be brought under the yoke.” The second answered and said, “My Lord King! it seems to me that all your enemies being subdued, you may now amuse yourself with music, dancing, and the other pleasures of sense which are usual under such circumstances, and so keep yourself awake.” The third said, “I advise my Lord King to send for some Shaman or Brahman, and let him discourse before you on the merits of religion.” The king, adopting this last suggestion, further inquired, and “where shall I meet with such a man?”

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The king is then informed of an ascetic, living in the Deer Park, called Kâsyapa and surnamed the naked, who convinces the king of the unreality and folly of all positive assertions respecting the relation of things one with another—such as “father and son,” “king and subject,” “present and past.” This sceptical view is supported by the ministers, who refer to their former births, and declare that there has been no influence exerted by these on their present condition. The king hereupon returns home, gives up the anxieties of government to his three ministers, and retires himself to a house of pleasure (beautiful-colour) in the neighbour

1 This is evidently the same as Purana Kâsyapa, vid. M. B. 291, and Fa kone ki, p. 149.

hood, and there abandons himself to a life of ease and unchecked indulgence. At length there comes to this palace, a certain damsel called “thought-joy" (manahpriti ?); her body adorned with the most beautiful clothing, and her neck with the costliest jewels. Coming into the presence of the king, he asks whether the beauties of the garden had attracted her hither? She begs permission to speak to the king without restraint; and on permission being given, she utters the following words:

- My reverend king (father-king) I ask your charity:
I would bestow on all the Shamans and Brahmans,
On the 15th day of the coming moon,
A gift-I ask you then to give me 1000 golden pieces !"

To whom the king replied:
“ Illustrious maiden! listen now and understand !
I have just learned this fact from an ancient sage,
That, notwithstanding all the wealth we give, or wish to give,
All things are vain-and bear no fruit of good or ill.
Why then has such a thought possessed your heart,
'Tis but the foolish talk of a mad world, this ‘giving alms;'
For all things present, past, and future, are but nought.
Listen, oh foolish girl! to what I say,
The words of Kâsyapa are true and cannot change,
There is no bond that joins the works of man to any conse-

quence. What people say about good, bad, and so on, Men and angels, spirits, demons, ghosts, all this is nought, And so the words “sire,''mother,' «friends,' 'relatives,” all are nought!"

etc., etc., etc.

1 Called “ Rucha” in the Southern ac. M.B. 192.

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