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telligent Antiquary. In this attention alabaster, and painted to resemble to the drapery of Ecclesiastics, or the life, and the armour or habiliment armour of military meu, the real form then in use. Those of bronze or lais much neglected'; yet the outline is ten gilt + are in every respect supegenerally more correct than the rude- rior as works of art, with the single ness of the Gothic ages, with respect 'exception of the recumbent statue of to classical art, might lead us to ex. Edward Il. on his tomb at Gloucespect *. To elucidate a general view ter #, which was erected by his illugby particular instances of the progress trious son about the year 1334; the of sculpture, as applied to sepulchral precise date of that of John of Elmonuments, in Englaod, the inquiry tham in Westminster Abbey, which must commence with the 13th cen- is nearly similar in material and plan. tury, because the architectural sta- Artists had been procured from Italy tues, neither in point of number, au- by Ware, Abbot of Westminster, thenticity, por excellence, before that the reign of Edward I. to some of period, are deserving of particular whom the two last mentioned may be notice. It is likewise certain, that fairly attributed. Pietro Cavallini their best artists were employed on was a paioter, and it is improbable the representations of the dead. No that he established a school of sculpaccuracy either of form or feature ture in England. The canopy, comwas required in the imaginary Saints posed of a series of tabernacle work, with which their shrines were deco- rising to a pyramid, nearly resembles rated ; and they are therefore usually those of the monuments of the Scainferior to sepulchral figures, both as ligeri, Lords of Verona, now remainto design and finishing:--Carter has ing in an open street of that city, of engraven several which will not be the same age, and which are ably deconsidered as unequal. The first, in lineated and described in the 13th vochronological order, of the Royal effi- lume of the Archæologia. By means gies is that of King John, in the Ca- of a mask of wax or plaster taken from thedral of Worcester, though doubts the face immediately after death, the are entertained of its having been most accurate likeness of our Mo. finished soon after he died. It is narchs may be still seen on their (as others are, erected in this age) of tombs, several of which have been
* Philippa Duchess of York, 1431, at Westminster; Alice Duchess of Suffolk, at Ewelme, Oxfordshire ; and Elin or Clifford Lady Percy at Beverley, in Yorkshire; are among the most beautiful in the fifteenth century. There is a peculiarity in the effigies of John Beaufort Duke of Somerset and his Lady, in Winborne Minster; and of Sir Robert Goushil, and the Duchess of Norfolk, at Hoveringham, co. Notts..; both of whom are represented as holding their wives by the right hand, and of the above-mentioned æra. The same attitude occurs in very splendid brass engraven figures of Thomas Lord Camois and his Lady, inlaid in a slab of marble, at Trotton, in Sussex. Such memorials cannot be with strict propriety enumerated as specimens of Sculpture (though Mr. Gough's authority in having introduced them among bis specimens might sanction it); being composed by Jines only intagliated upon plates of brass. They were invented in Flanders, and sent to England, chiefly from Ghent; and are found to abound principally in those Counties which supplied the Flemings with wool. See many engravings in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, and Lysons's Magna Britannia.
† Henry III. is said to have had a figure of Catherine his daughter, who died in 1257, cast in silver; and Leland (Itin. vol. VI. p. 98.) speaks of a statue, in silver, of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester, and the head of Henry V. on his monument at Westminster was of that metal, which circumstance occasioned its being stolen. Mr. Stothard, Junior, in his most valuable work (now in course of publication) has discovered, by a process of most laborious investigation, that many of the effigies carved in alabaster of the date of the thirteenth century were beautifully painted and ornamented with gilding particularly describing embroidery in Mosaic patterns as applied to belts and fringes, concealed under washes of lime.
# Upon this tomb, as a superstructure, is placed a rich canopy of tabernacle work, similar to that erected for Charles V. of France and Jane de Bourbon, in the Cathedral of St. Denis, about 1380. Le Noir designates this kind of ornament, by the word “ Couronnement.”
§ The mask taken from the face of Henry VII. after his death, by Torrigiano, is preserved among the curiosities at Strawberry-hill.
engraven engraven on a large scale in Gough's indeed, a masterly performance, and Sepulchral Monuments, a work splen. bas every appearance of baving been did and valuable in every point of originally modelled from pature g. view. It appears by contracts which From the commencement of the have been preserved, that the table 13th to the close of the 15th century, or architectural part was furnished it will be evident, upon a compariby master-masons, and the figures by son of the plates in Montfaucon and coppersmiths, and that the artist or other French Antiquaries with those modeller is very rarely named *. Two in Dart's Westminster, and Gough's the most remarkable instances of more extended and excellent Work, such agreements are that made by that through every æra, a very K. Richard Il. for the tomb now re- scrupulous imitation of French demaining in Westminster Abbey; and sigo and costuine prevailed in this another by the executors of Richard country; and, before the Revolution, Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, in his that France contained the prototype sepulchral chapelt. We have no do- of every fine monument of the Go. cuments to prove that many foreign thic ages, which we now see in our sculptors were established in England; own Cathedral Churches. and it is more than probable, that at We can claim few dative artists, first the bronze figures were cast in who arrived at excellence, by name; France or Flanders. In 1439, Tho. and though, doubtless, many were mas Porchalion, a founder io brass, is initiated into the mechanical parts of mentioned, as having contracted to sculpture, none are recorded as bemake the effigies of Isabella Countessing either very eminent, or capable of Warwick-"all nakyd with her bair of original design ; yet to the mecha-, cast backward.”-There is scarcely a pical process they appear to have Cathedral in England, in which a ti- been as competent as great mandal gure of a man emaciated by ex- ingeouity could make them, with treme sickness, or taked immediately out the aid of genius. . Upon the reafter death, does not occur, usually of vival of the Arts in Italy and France, ecclesiastics, and placed with another and as our national intercourse, espefigure of the same prelate, as a con- cially with the Papal See, increased trast to bis pride, in pontificals. The during the reigns of Henry VII. and art of the sculptor is more apparent in VIII. a new style of sepulchral sculpthe first mentioned, because mucb ana- ture was introduced into England, for tomical accuracy was required, and which none of the sculptors, already shown. One of the earliest which I established were in any degree quarecollect, of a warrior so contrasted, lified. Florentine artists were engagis that of John Earl of Arundel I, ed, and the sumptuous mausoleum in slain in the French wars, under the bronze erected by Henry VII. was Duke of Bedford. It remains in the entrusted to the skill and design of sepulchral chapel of that noble family Pietro Torrigiano, who left Engat Arundel, and is finely sculptured in land in 1519, after the completion of white marble. The dead figure is, bis work. Benedetto da Rovezzano
* About 1520, Thomas Duke of Norfolk directs by his Will 1321. 6s. 8d. for making a tomb before the high altar at Thetford, as devised by Clerk, Master of the King's Works at Cambridge, and Wassall, free mason of Bury."
+ Rymer Fæd. and Dugdale's Warwickshire.--Gough (Introd. to 2d vol. Sepulcbral Monuments, p. cxv.) observes, that in the contract for the tomb of Richard II. " the marbler, founder, and coppersmith are all Englishmen;" and that “the Beauchamp Monument at Warwick was the sole work of our own countrymen.” The last ecclesiastic figure I recollect, is of J. Bush, wbo had been Abbot, and afterwards Bishop of Bristol, and was placed in that Cathedral after the Reformation.
I Engraved in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, and in Stothard's Monumental Effigies.
One of the most modern of these emaciated figures is that of Sir Lionel Țan. field, in the Church at Burford, co. Oxon. It is of wbite marble, and exquisitely carved, in 1625. In the next century, the idea of personifying Deatb, by the figure of a skeleton in action, originated in France, and was introduced into Eng. land by Roubiliac.
EXPEDITION TO THE NORTH POLE.
either accompanied or followed him; chissel. Foreigners were employed but it is certain, that he remained in by the master-masons in England for this country more than ten years the fabrication of tombs in earlier after that period *.
Notwithstand- times, and the solitary name only of iny, it appears from an authentic an English sculptor (Epiphanius Évedocument, that a plan of a tomb sham) who lived in the reign of James for King Henry VII. with the effi- I. has been rescued from oblivion. gies of himself and Queen, had been Yours, &c.
心,,, contracted for, to be executed entirely by pative arlists. The influ. ence therefore of Cardioal Wolsey
be may account for the introduction of
of the Maritime expeditions Italians, whose designs might super- now eotered upon to the North, they sede the antient Gothic style of sculp- will all ultimately, it is hoped, be fature. As the plan of the Sacelluin, vourable to some important discowhich now iucloses the tomb, is purely veries: and where the object of the architectural, it is probable that the Navigators is scientific, they must effigies and table only were the work have gone out with the universal of Torrigiano, though included in the good wishes of their countryinen. It agreement, still extant, and dated in is, however,worthy of observation, that 1516. Upon the sides of the tomb, Capt. James Burney, who accompanied instead of quaterfoils, arms, and coc. Captain Cook on his two last voyages nizances, are seriptural subjects, in round the world, has given his opinion relievo, within wreaths, a mode of several years ago, in the Philosophical desigo then totally new in England t. Transactions, that the most NorthHenry VII. likewise, agreed with easterly point of Asia known, and the Torrigiano for a monument
most North-westerly of America, were fourth larger than that already made, joined: the presumption therefore is, " for 15001.” which was never com- that the navigation inust fall several pleted by him, but the design proba degrees short of the Pole. bly transferred to Benedetto da Ro
We propose presenting to our Read. A total departure from the
ers the observations of ihe intelligent Gothic taste was effected by these Captain on this curious subject; deartists, which they superseded by their livered, as it will be seen, long bem
fore these maritime expeditions were This slight historical sketch may, in contemplation. with Mr. Urban's approbation, he continued to the present æra, confin. Memoir on the Geography of the North
Eastern Part of Asia, and on the ing the application of Sculpture in
Question whether Asia and America tirely to Sepulchral subjects. We
are contiguous, or are separated by the have, I think, do evidence that, in
Sea. By Cupt. James Burney, F.R.S. the centuries antecedent to the Re
Read before the Royal Society, formation, we can hoast of any pa
Dec, 11, 1817. tive sculptor, or any Englishman, who “ A belief has prevailed for nearly a could design or complete more than century, that the separation of America the mechanical process of the art, and Asia has been demonstrated by an either iu the foundery or with the actual navigation performed; and it is
* In 1524, Cardinal Wolsey began a monument for himself at Windsor, upon a plan no less sumptuous than that of Henry VII. Benedetto da Rovezzano, a statuary of Florence, continued to work on it till 1529, and had then received 4250 ducats. Antonio Cavellari is mentioned as guilder in the same instrument. The effigies of the Cardinal was finished, but the other parts were intended to be applied by Henry VIII. as a monument for himself. During the Civil War, the bronze was broken in pieces, and sold by order of Parliament for 6001. Walpole attributes the bronze figure of Henry VIII. at Gorhambury to this artist.
of “ Indenture for an intended tomb for King Henry VII. with Lawrence Ymber, Carver; Humphry Walker, Founder; and Nicholas Ewen, Coppersmith and Gilder.” Harleian MSS. The whole was to cost 12572. Torrigiano, or Torrisany, as be is called, contracted for 10001. but it is supposed, tbat the screen was not in. cluded. The monument of Margaret Countess of Richmond is likewise attributed to bim.
distinctly distinctly'so admitted in the charts. It whom has been given the denomination is proposed to shew in this memoir, in of Tartars, inhabit the North-eastern the first place, tbat there does not exist extremity of Asia, concerning which a satisfactory proof of such a separation ; Kossak officer, named Atlassow, reportand secondly, that, from peculiarities ed, that between the Kolyma and the which have been observed, there is cause Anadir were two great promontories, to suppose tbe fact to be otherwise ; that which he affirmed could not both be is to say, that Asia and America are con- doubled by any vessel, because the West tiguous, and parts of one and the same coast of the first is barred in the sumcontinent. This is not an opinion newly mer by floating ice, and in winter the sea formed, but one which many years ago there is frozen; but at the second, the was impressed on other persons as well sea is clear, without ice.” as on myself, by circumstances wit. Scheuchzer, the translator of nessed when in the sea to the North of Kæmpfer's History of Japan, in an inBering's Strait with Captain Cook, in troduction to his translation, cites some his last voyage.
remarks which had been published con« America, from its first discovery by cerning the Tartars, wherein it was said, the people of Europe, was regarded by the inhabitants of Siberia who live near them as a land wholly distinct from their the river Lena, and along the coast of own native continent, till the failure of the Icy ocean, in their commerce with many attempts to discover a Northern Kamtschatka, commonly go with their passage to India at length suggested the ships round a Suetoi Noss [or sacred possibility that the Old and New World cape), to avoid the Tschelatzki and (as they were then called) formed but Tschuktzki, two fierce and barbarous one continent. The solution of this nations possessed of the North-east point problem, so far as regards a North- of Siberia.' On this vague authority eastern navigation to India, has been Scheuchzer concludes, that Asia is not more naturally the business of the Rus- contiguous to America. sians than of any other people, as well “- When Mr. Muller first went into on account of the greater facilities pos- Siberia, no credited tradition appears to sessed by them for prosecuting the Dis- have been there current of the Northcovery, as for the superior benefit they east extremity of Asia having been sailed would derive from a practicable naviga- round. Charts which were made in Sition round their coasts to the Tartarian beria by people inbabiting the coasts of and Indian sea, should such be found. the Icy sea showed uncertainty, and
6. The memorable voyage of Semoen what is to be considered only as an exDeschnew and his companions in 1648, pression of a belief of a great Northby which the Russians first discovered the eastern promontory; for at that part sea East of Kamtschatka (for before that the coast was not defined by any outline, time the river Anadir was supposed to run but left without limitation; whereas into the Icy sea) is the principal cir- a more Southern promontory, supposed cumstance which has been admitted as the second from the Kolyma, was clearly proof of a complete separation of Asia delineated in the charts witbout any inand America. It is important to re- dication of doubt ; and this last-menmark, that this admission is not so old tioned promontory, it is evident, was as the expedition on which it is founded, the cape which was afterwards seen by by nearly a century; for no certainty of Bering, and to which Captain Cook an absolute navigation having been per- gave the name of Cape East, on account formed round a North-eastern promon- of its being the most Eastern land known tory and extremity of Asia was pretended of Asia. In the instructions which were till after the year 1736, when it was in- given by the Czar Peter the Great for ferred by Professor Muller, from some Captain Bering's voyage, the question original writings found at that time in whether Asia and America were contiSiberia, concerning Deschnew's Voyage. guous or separate was regarded as undeBaron de Strahlenberg, wbo had lived termined ; and some Tschuktzki people, many years in Siberia, and whose de- with whom Bering had communication, scription of that country is of earlier informed him that 'their countrymen, date than Muller's publication, says who traded with the Russians on the of the expedition of 1648, that some river Kolyma, always went thither by Russians departed from the river Lena land with their merchandize on sledges, in boats towards the East, and by that drawn by rein-deer, and that they had route discovered Kamtschatka. But it never made the voyage by sea.' was not understood to have been by a “Mr. Muller has acknowledged that, clear navigation round the N. E. of from the perusal of the papers found Asia; for, in a description subsequently concerning the voyage of Deschnew, he written, he says, ' a class of people, to adopted a belief which did not before
prevail, and he regarded it as a second the Czar Peter the Great sent direca discovery. Yet Mr. Muller's own ac. tions to the Governor of Iakutzk to col. count fell very short of warranting a lect information concerning the discocertainty of the manner in which Desch- veries which bad been made. In connew arrived at the Eastern Sea; and sequence of this order, several examithere is an irregularity in it, which is nations and depositions were taken; and perplexing
• Deschnew in the few authentic particulars which are relating his adventures speaks only in- known of the voyage of Deschnew were cidentally of what happened to him by thereby preserved. The most remark
We find no event mentioned till able of the depositions which are cited he bad reached the great cape of the by Mr. Muller, next to what relates to Tschuktzki. His relation, says Mr. the expedition of Deschnew, is one Muller,' begins at this cape. It lies which was made by a person named between the North and North-east, and Nikiphor Malgin, who stated that 'a turns circular towards the river Anadir. merchant named Taras Staduchin, did Opposite to the Cape are two islands, many years before relate to him, the on which were seen men through whose deponent, that be had sailed with ninety lips were run pieces of the teeth of the men in a Kotsche from the river Kolyma sea-horse. With a favourable wind one towards the great cape of the Tschuktzmight sail from here to the Anadir in ki: that not being able to double it, three days and three nights.' .
they had crossed over on foot to the other “ The cape or promontory which is side, where they built other vessels. here described' is evidently the Cape The small breadth of the isthmus at the East in Bering's Strait; and in a sub- part where they crossed, is noticed as sequent part of the account, Descbnew the most remarkable circumstance in is represented to have said that this this deposition. They afterwards proNoss on whicb the vessel of Ankudi. ceeded along the coast round the Kamts
(one of his companions) was chatka Peninsula, till they came to the wrecked, was not the first promontory Penschinska gulf; and, in the short acthat had occurred, to which they had count which is given of this navigation, given the name of Swiætoi Noss.' The is found, expressed in an obseure manword Swiætoi signifies sacred, and is a ner, the first notice obtained by the name suitable to a promontory which Russians of the Kurilski islands. could not be doubled. And this cor- “ This is a clearly described passage. responds with the Siberian charts before Besides the expedition of Deschnew, noticed *.
and this of Taras Staduchin, only one “ It is necessary here to explain by other instance is mentioned of any veswhat means the navigators in the Icy sel having gone by sea from the Kolyma sea were enabled to arrive with their ves- round the Tschuktzki coast; and this sels at a second promontory, without hav- last mentioned case rests on the authoing sailed round the first. On account of rity of an unauthenticated tradition, the frequency of being inclosed in the purporting that some man bad gone in Icy sea, by the drift ice, it was custo- a vessel not larger than a skiff, from the mary to construct vessels in a manner Kolyma to Kamtschatka; and no other that admitted of their being with ease particular is spoken of in the report. taken to pieces ; by which they could be “ This was the state of the informa. carried across the ice to the outer edge, tion obtained concerning the Northand there be put together again. The eastern extremity of Asia, at the time of planks were fastened and kept to the Captain Bering's voyage. The Asiatic timbers only by leat bern straps, in lieu side only of Bering's Strait was discoverof nails or pegs. The construction of ed in that voyage, and the coast of Asia the vessels in which Deschnew and his being there found to take a Western dicompanions went is not specified. Mr. rection, it had the effect of giving an Muller calls them Kotsches. Ba- impression, equal to demonstration, of ron Strahlenberg says they departed a total separation of Asia and America. Eastward from the river Lena in their And after that time, and not before, boats.
Descbnew was believed to have per"11 the beginning of the 18th century, formed the whole of his voyage from the
Kolyma to the Anadir by sea. * It may be objected to this inference, Many reports had circulated in Si. that another cape in the ley sea, al- beria of the existence of Northern lands though it has been sailed round, bears in the Icy sea ; but persons sent purnevertheless the name of Swiætoi Noss; posely to examine, had not found laud, but it may naturally te imagined that which much discredited the reports. A the name was given before the difficulty chart in which a Northern land was had been surmounted.
marked was however published at Pe.