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Cicero gives us an instance of the Climax in the following passage. « Nor did he (Milo) « commit himself only to the people, but also « to the fenate; nor to the senate only, but to “ the public forces and arms; nor to these only, “ but to his power, with whom the senate had o intrusted all the commonwealth, the flower “ of Italy, and all the arms of the Roman peo

ple *.

“ All the actions of men,” says Archbishop TillotSON, “ which are not natural, but proc ceed from deliberation and choice, have some

thing of difficulty in them, when we begin to

practise them; because at first we are rude and « unexercised that way, but after we have praco tised them a while, they become more easy; “ and when they are easy, we begin to take plea« sure in them; and when they please us, we do " them frequently, and think we cannot repeat “ them too often ; and by frequency of acts, a

thing grows into an habit; and a confirmed «« habit is a second kind of nature : and fo far " as any thing is natural, so far it is necessary,

6 and

το κλιμακωθον καλεμενον χημα-Εςι δε εδεν αλλ' η πλεοναζa. σα Αναρροφη. Οιον, 8κ ειπον μεν ταυλα, ουκ εγραψα δε, υ" εγαψα μεν, εκ επρεσβεσα δε, εδ' επεισθεσα μεν, ουκ επεισαδε. HERMOGEN. de Ideis, lib. i.

* Neque vero fe populo folum, fed etiam fenatui commi. fit ; neque fenatui modo, fed etiam publicis præfidiis & armis; neque his tantum, verum etiam ejus potestati, cui senatus to. tam rempublicam, omnem Italiæ pubem, cuncta populi Ro. mani arma commiferat. Crcer, pro Milon. 23.

« and we can hardly do otherwise; nay, we do • it many times when we do not think of it +. "

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§ 3. Inftances of this Figure occur in the facred Writings : Hofea ii. 21. And it fhall come s to pass in that day, I will hear, faith the Lord, se the heavens, and they shall hear the earth, and

the earth shall hear the corn, and the wine, and s the oil, and they shall hear JEZREEL.“ So Rom. v. 3. $ Tribulation works patience, and

patience experience, and experience hope ; $$ and hope makes not ashamed.ss And Rom. viii, 29, 30.

ss For whom God did foreknow, * them also he did predestinate ; and whom he s did predestinate, them he also called; and $$ whom he called, them he also justified; and s whom he justified, them he also glorified.ss In like manner, Rom. x. 14, 15. How then ss Ihall they call on him, on whom they have not ss believed ? and how fhall they believe on him, ss of whom they have not heard ? and how shall

they hear without a Preacher ? and how shall ss they preach, except they are sent ?** We may also recite for our purpose 2 Peter i. 5. • And s besides this giving all diligence, add to your s faith virtue; and to virtue, knowledge ; and ss to knowledge, temperance; and to temperance,

patience; and to patience, godliness, and to godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness, charity.Ss

+ TILLOTSON'S Sermons, vol. ji. p. 32. O&avo edition.

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$ 4. But besides the Climax, which is regular and perfect, according to the definition we have given, there is what I may call a kind of freer Climax, that may be frequently observed in good Writers, in which the sense rises by degrees, though not according to the exact form and order in which we have described this Figure ; of which we may take the following in{tances.

Cicero somewhere says, “ It is a great fault “ to lay a freeman of Rome in bonds, worse to

scourge him, and still worse to take away his

life, but what shall I say of crucifying him *?" And again ; “ It is a miserable thing to be thrust si out of our possessions, more miserable to be « thrust out of them by injustice: it is a bitter

thing to be cheated by any person, more bitter “ to be cheated by a neighbour: it is a calamity

to be stript of our goods, more calainitous to “ be stript of them with disgrace: it is shameful “ to be beaten by an equal or a superior, but it “ is more shameful to be thus used by an infec rior: it is dreadful to have ourselves and our " all delivered into the hands of another, but “ it is more dreadful if that person is our enemy t."


• Facinus eft vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, prope parricidium necare ; quid dicam in crucem collere?

+ Miserum est exturbari fortunis omnibus; miserius eft, injuria. Acerbum eft ab aliquo circumveniri ; acerbius à propinquo. Calamitofum eft bonis everti ; calamitofus cum


There appears evidently a Gradation in thefe celebrated lines of HORACE ;

He who does rectitude pursue,
To all his resolutions true,
On the firm bafis of his soul
Can all oppofing force controll;
His citizens tumultuous rage
Urging him headlong to engage
In some foul scheme; the tyrant's ire
Insisting on some wild desire;
Th'impetuous hurricanes that sweep
In terror o'er th' afflicted deep;
And the red arm of angry Jove
That darts the thunder from above.
Should the strong bonds that earth and sky
In peace unites asunder Ay,
His foul would smile, secure from fears,
Amidst the ruins of the spheres *.

" What is every year,” says Mr Pope to Bishop ATTERBURY, “ of a wise man's life, but “ a censure or critic on the past? Those, whose

6 date

dedecore. Indignum est à pari vinci, aut superiore; indig. nias ab inferiore, atque humiliore. Luctuosum eft tradi al. teri cum bonis; luctuosius inimico. CICER. pro Quint. $31.

* Juftum & tenacem propofiti virum
Non civium ardor prava jubentium,

Non vultus inftantis tyranni

Mente quatit folida; neque aufter,
Dux inquieti turbidus Adria,
Nec fulminantis magna Jovis manus.

Si fractus illabatur orbis
Impavidum ferient ruinæ.

Horat. Od. lib, iï. od.

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« date is the shortest, live long enough to laugh « at one half of it: the boy despises the infant, “ the man the boy, the Philosopher both, and “ the Christian all +."

I shall add to these examples a passage from
Dr Akenside, of which it may be said,

That ev'ry step does higher rise,
Like goodly mountains, till they reach the skies,

Or rather infinitely beyond them.

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The high-born soul
Disdains to rest her heav'n-aspiring wing
Beneath its native quarry. Tir'd of earth,
And this diurnal scene, she springs aloft
Thro' fields of air ; pursues the flying storm;
Rides on the volley'd lightning thro' the heav'ns :
Or yok'd with whirlwinds, and the northern blaft,
Sweeps the long tract of day. Then high she foars
The blue profound ; and, hov'ring round the sun,
Beholds him pouring his redundant stream
Of light; beholds his unrelenting sway
Bend the reluctant planets to absolve
The fated rounds of time. Thence far effus'd,
She darts her swiftness up the long career
Of devious comets ; thro' its burning signs
Exulting measures the perennial wheel
Of nature, and looks back on all the stars,
Whose blended light, as with a milky zone,
Invests the orient. Now amaz'd the views
Th’empyreal waste, where happy spirits hold,
Beyond this concave heav'n, their calm abode;


4 Pope's Letters, vol. ii. page 97. O&avo edicion.

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