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- as modified by the larynx, - escaping through this partial opening of the lips, and, at the same time, in a very slight degree, through the nostrils. This sound has not, from its nature, much independent energy ; neither does it admit of prolongation. But it becomes forcible and impassioned, to some extent, by increasing the pressure of the lips, and exploding the sound, somewhat in the manner of m and b, when rendered intense.
The “ subtonic," v, is articulated by the sound of the voice being modified by bringing the upper fore-teeth close upon the ridge of the under lip, and, at the same time, slightly raising the upper lip, so as to prevent its interfering with the contact of the upper fore-teeth and the lower lip. A murmuring resonance, bordering on aspiration, is thus produced in the head and chest, by the partial escape of breath between the teeth and the lip. This element, - as mentioned before,
– has, on this account, been sometimes denominated “ labio-dental," - from its dependence on both these organs.
The “atonic," f, is executed as v, with the difference, only, arising from a closer compression of the teeth and the lip, a more forcible expulsion of the breath, and an aspirated or whispering character, in the sound. This element, also, is sometimes denominated “ labio-dental,” being formed as the preceding.
II. "Dental” Sounds. These are all modified, - as their name imports, - by the aid of the teeth. But, like many other articulate sounds, they are founded on, and implý, an action of the tongue ; although this circumstance is not indicated in the designation of such elements.
7. C-ea-se ;
8. Z-one; Compound of 1. and 5. Compound of 2. and 6. 9. J-oy;
10. Ch-ur-ch. The “subtonic," d is articulated by a partial vocal murmur, modi fied by pressing the tip of the tongue, with great energy, against the interior ridge of gum, immediately over the upper fore-teeth. This pressure is but an instantaneous effort; yet it evidently comes to a maximum, just before the explosion from which it takes its peculiar character, is executed. This explosion necessarily produces the 66 vocule,” e, as in err.
The " atonic" t, is executed in a similar manner, excepting the absence of vocal murmur, an intense percussive pressure of the tongue, and an aspirated explosion, which takes place in the act of withdrawing the tongue from the gum.
The “atonic," th, as in thin, is executed by a forcible " aspiration,” modified by a slight horizontal parting of the lips, and a forcible pressure of the end of the tongue against the upper fore-teeth.
The “subtonic," TH, as in thine, is executed by a similar position of the organs, but a vocalized emission of the breath, forming a gentle
The “subtonic,” z, as in azure, is formed by a partially voca] sound, modified by gently raising the whole fore-part of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth, and allowing the breath to escape, between it and the teeth.
The “atonic,” sh, is formed in a similar manner, as regards the position of the organs, but with more pressure, and by means of
aspiration,” not“ vocality,” in the emission of the breath.
The “ atonic" sound of s, or the soft sound of c, as in the word cease, is articulated by pressing, with intense force, the tip of the tongue against the interior gum, immediately over the fore-teeth. Through the extremely small aperture thus formed, aided by the horizontal parting of the lips, and the cutting effect of the edges of the teeth, the sibilation, or hiss, is formed, which gives the peculiar character of this element.
The “ subtonic," Z, as in zone, is formed by nearly the same position of the organs, as the preceding element, but with very slight pressure, and by means of “ vocalized,” not“ aspirated," sound.
III. “ Palatic" Sounds. These are so termed from their depending on the palate, for their distinctive character. They are enumerated as follows: 1. C,“hard,” and K, as in C-a-ke; 2. G, as in G-a-g; 3. Y,
as in Y-e. The “atonic,"c,“ hard," or k, is executed by opening the mouth, retracting, and curving the tongue with great force, and exploding an aspiration against the palate.
The “subtonic,” g, as in gag, is formed by similar movements and positions of the organs, but less forcible, and by means of " cality," instead of “ aspiration.”
The “subtonic,” y, is articulated by a similar process, still less forcible, and by means of “ expulsion,” not“ explosion,” as regards the character of the function and the sound.
IV. “Aspirated" Element.
H, as in H-e. This sound is formed by a forcible emission of the breath, in the style of a whisper, and a moderate opening of all the organs of speech.
V. "Nasal” Sounds. 1. N, as in N-u-n; 2. Ng, as in Si-ng; or N, as in I-n-k.
The “subtonic,” n, is articulated by a vocalized breathing through the nose; the lips parted freely; and the end of the tongue pressing vigorously against the interior ridge of gum, immediately above the upper fore-teeth.
The “subtonic,” ng, is formed by a vocalized breathing, directed against the nasal passage and the back part of the veil of the palate, and by a retracted and elevated position of the lower part of the tongue, which partly shuts the nasal passage, and causes it, at the same moment, to become resonant.
VI. "Lingual" Sounds. These elements are so called from their special dependence on the action of the tongue. They are the following:
1. L, as in L-u-ll ; 2. R, as in R-ap; 3. R, as in Fa-r. These are all “ subtonic" elements.
The first is formed by a moderate opening of the mouth, and the utterance of a vocalized sound, modified by raising the tongue towards the roof of the mouth, and pressing the end of it, very gently, against the interior ridge of gum, immediately above the upper fore-teeth.
The “subtonic,” r, as in rap, is an element formed by vivid and energetic vibration of the tip of the tongue, against the interior ridge of gum, immediately over the upper fore-teeth, forming a partially vocalized sound, clear and forcible, but very brief. It should never extend to a prolonged trill, or roll. This element is sometimes designated as “ initial ”
1, from its occurring at or near the beginning of words and syllables; and sometimes “ hard,” or “rough, r, from its comparative force, as contrasted with r at the end of a word, which is always soft in sound. This element follows but never precedes a consonant; thus, Pray, brass, crape, green, dread, tread, scream, spread, &c.
The “ subtonic,” r, as in far, is a softer sound, of longer duration, modified by a slight and gentle vibration of the whole fore-part of the tongue, retracted, and rising towards the roof of the mouth, but not actually touching it. The just observance of the true character of this and the preceding element, is, as was mentioned before, a point of great moment in enunciation, and decides its style, as regards taste and culture. The designation of “ soft,” or “ smooth,'' r, is sometimes given to the “ final” r; as it is a more delicate and liquid sound, than the “hard,” or “ initial,” r. This element occurs at the end of words, and before, but never after, a consonant; thus, War, star, fair, ire, ear, oar, farm, barn, card, harp, part, mercy, servant, person, &c.
Note. — It is one of the great inconveniences of our language, that we have so few letters or characters, by which to designate its sounds; and it is not less a defect in it, that we have the same element sometimes represented by a great variety of letters, and combinations of letters. Thus, the element a, in ale, is heard also in aid, lay, weigh, survey, &c. A, in arm, is heard, also, in aunt. A, in all, is heard, in awe, laud, &c.
A, in what, was, wash, &c., is used to represent the same sound with o, as in on, or not. A, as in rare, is heard, also, in air, prayer, &c.
E, as in eve, occurs, also, in the sound of ee in eel; ea, in eat ; ie, in field; ei, in seize.
E, in end, occurs in the form of ea, in head.
Y, except its peculiar sound in ye, is but a repetition of i, long or short; thus rhyme, hymn, &c.
0, in old, is repeated in oak, course, own, &c.
00, in ooze, and oo, in foot, recur in the sounds of o, in move; u, in true ;,.., in wolf; u, in pull; ui, in fruit, &c.
The diphthongal sound oi, as in oil, is heard, always, in oy. The sound of u, in use, occurs also in the form of iew in view, eau, in beauty.
The diphthong ou, in our, is repeated in the sound of ow in down, &c.
F, as a sound, recurs in the form of ph and gh; as in phrase, laugh, &c.
Ī, and g “ soft,” are, on the other hand, but combinations of the sounds of d, and of z, as in azure.
Ch, in church, are but repetitions of the sound of t and sh.
The sound of sh is found also in the words, nation, gracious, ocean, &c.
C, “ soft,” is identical with s.
S, is, in multitudes of instances, but a repetition of z, as, for example, in houses, diseases, &c.
The sound of k is repeated in the form of c,“ hard ;" ch, as in chorus; and
9, N, in ink, is identical with
ng. X, in either form, is but a repetition, in sound, of ks or gz; thus, ox, example, &c.
It is unnecessary, however, to enlarge on these inconsistencies in the forms of our language. It is sufficient, perhaps, for our present purpose, to suggest the fact, that the orthography of words may sometimes afford no guidance to orthoëpy, but, rather, may apparently mislead.
The car should, in all cases, be trained to the utmost exactness and precision, in detecting and seizing the true element of sound, independently of the form or combination of letters, by which it may be represented.
as in queen.
to be practised in the same style as the exercises on syllables, — each component element kept perfectly clear and distinct.
I. Tonic Elements. — Simple Sounds. One error, often made in the following class of words, is to pronounce them nearly as if written oall, &c. Sometimes, we hear the coarse error of dividing the sound of a, in such words, into two parts thus O-ŭll, fo-ŭll, &c. To a cultivated ear, this sound is peculiarly displeasing, as associated with low and slovenly habit
1. A, as in A-11.
Water 2. A, as in A-rm. The two current errors in this class of sounds, are, Ist, - as in the local usage of New England, — flattening it down to a in an ; as in the custom of the Middle States, making it as broad as a in all. The former style causes the pronunciation of “ fărm,” “părt,” 66 făther;" the latter, that of “ faworm, pawrt,'
" " fawther.” Harm Bar Mart Balm
3. A, as in A-n. Common errors : 1, a flattened down to e, in end, nearly ; thus, • Dence, pess,
the local usage of the Middle States ; — 2d, á made as broad as a, in arm; thus, “ Dânce,” (as if darnce,)“ pâss,”
the customary fault of New England. Add Band Mass Last Slant Dance had hand pass mast chant lance mad land
grass past grant glance
4. E, as in E-ve. There is seldom any error made in the enunciation of such words as the following, except the slight one arising from not distinguishing between the longer sound of ee before a “ subtonic,” as in feel, and the shorter, before an“ atonic,” as in feet.
The explosive force of the organic action, in executing an " atonic," compresses the preceding vowel : the gentle and gradual sliding of the ee into a “subtonic," allows it a longer duration. Theme Feel Heed | Week
Feet Deep 5. 00, as in Oo-ze; 00, as in L-oo-k. The sound of this element, needs attention to the same distinction as in case of the ee.
element, it is prolonged, before an “atonic," it is shortened. The difference is exemplified, for the former, in tool,- for the latter, in took. Cool Boom Moon | Hook Hoop Boot
Exceptions. Good, wood, stood, which have the oo short, though before a “subtonic.”
6. E, as in E-rr. The just, not overdone, distinction between urn and earn, is the object to be kept in view, in practising on the following words. This class of sounds is so liable to mispronunciation, that it needs close and repeated attention. See remarks on the “ tonic" element, e in err, - in the discussion of elementary sounds.