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form a due sense of the general privileges of man Every species of provision, brought to my camp, kind. To the eyes and ears of the temperate part will be paid for at an equitable rate, and in solid of the public, and the breasts of suffering thou coin. sands, in the provinces, be the melancholy appeal,
In consciousness of christianity, my royal maswhether the present unnatural rebeHion has no rer's clemency, and the honor of soldiers! ip, I have been made a foundation for the completest system awelt upon this invitation, and wished for more of tyranny that ever God, in his dispieasure, suffer
more persuasive terms to give it impression. And ed for a time to be exercised over a froward and
let not people be led to disregard it, by considerstubborn generation.
ing their distance from the inmediate situation of Arbitrary imprisonment, confiscation of property, my camp. Thave båt to give stretch to the Indian persecution, and torture, unprecedented in the in- forces under my direction—and they amount to quisition of the Romish church, are among the pal thousands—to overtake the hardened enemies of pable enormities that verify the affirmative. These Great Britain and America. I consider them the are inflicted, by assemblies and committees, who same, wherever they inay lurk. dare to profess themselves friends to liberty,
If, notwithstanding these endeavors, and sincere upon the most quiet subjects, without distinc. inclinations to effect them, the phrenzy of hostili. tion of age or sex, for the sole crime, often for
ty should remain, I trust I shall stand acquitted the sole suspicion, of having adhered in principle in the eyes of God and men in denouncing and to the government under which they were horn, executing the vengeance of the state against the and to which, by every tie, divine and human, they wilful outcasts. The messengers of justice and of öwe allegiance. To consummate these schocking wrath await them in the field: and devastation, faproceedings, the profanation of religion is added mine, and every concomitant horror, that a relucto the most profligate prostitution of common rea
tant, but indispensable prosecution of military du. son, the consciences of men are set at nought; and ty must occasion, will bar the way to their return. multitudes are compelled not only to bear arms, but
JOHN BURGOYNE. also to swear subjection to an usurpation they ab. Camp, at Ticonderoga, July 2, 1777. hor.
By order of his excellency the lieut. general. Animated lay these considerations at the head
Robert Kingstox, secretary. of troops in the full powers of health, discipline, and valour-determined to strike where necessary To John Burgoyne, esq. lieutenant general of his -and anxious to spare where possible-1, by these
majesty's armies, in America, colonel of the presents, invite and exhort all persons, in all places
queen's regiment of light dragoons, governor of where the progress of this army may point-and Fort William in North Britain, one of the repre. by the blessing of God I will extend it far-o
sentatives of the commons of Great Britain, and maintain such a conduct as may justify me in pro
commanding an army and fret employed on an tecting their lands, habitations, and families. The
expedition from Canada, &c. &c. intention of this address is to hold forth security, Most high, most mighły, mose puissant, and sublime not depredation to the country. To those, whom
general! spirit and principle may induce to partake the glo. When the forces under your command arrived at cious task of redeeming their countrymen from Quebec in order to act in concert and upon a comdungeons, and re-establishing the blessings of legal mon principle with the numerus fleets and armies government, I offer encouragement and employ which already display in every quarter of America, ment; and, upon the first intelligence of their asso. the justice and mercy of your king, we, the repciation, I will find means to assist their undertak. tiles of America, were struck with unusual trepidaings. The domestic, the industrious, the infirm, tion and astonislıment. But what words can exand even the timid inhabitants, I am desirous to press the plenitude of our horror, when the colonel protect, provided they remain quietly a: their of the queen’s regiment of light dragoons advanced houses; that they do not suffer their cattle to be towards Ticonderoga. The mountains shook be. removed, nor their corn or forage to be secreted fore thee, and the trees of the forest bowed their or destroyed; that they do not break up their lofy heads--the vast lakes of the north were chilbridges or roads; nor by any other act, directly or led at thy presence, and the mighty cataracis stop. indirectly, endeavor to obstruct the operations of ped their tremendous career, and were suspended the king's troops, or supply or assist those of the in awe at thy approach. Judge, then, Oh! ineffable enemy.
governor of Fort Williara in North Brian, wisat
must have been the terror, dismay, and despair freuency, and the vonor of sol·liership, we tankihat overspread this paltry continent of America, fully accept. The blood of the slain, the cries of and us, its wretched inhabitants. Da-k and dreary injured virgins and innocent children, and the never indred, was the prospect before us, till, like the ceasing sighs and groans of siarving wretches, now fun in the horizon, your most gracious, sublime, languishing in the jails and prison ships of New and irresistible proclamation, opened the doors of York, call on us in vain; whilst your sublime pro. mercy, and snatched us, as it were, from the jaws clamation is sunded in our ears. Forgive us, o of annihilation.
our country! Forgive us, dear posterity! Forgive
us, all ye foreign powers, who are ansiously watchWe foolishly thought, blind as we were, that ing our conduct in this inportant struggle, if we your gracious master's feets and arries were
yield implicitly to the persuasive tongue of the come to destroy us and our liberties; but we are
most elegant colonel of her majesty's regiment of bappy in hearing from you and who can doub:
light dragoons. what you assert?) that they were called forth for the sole purpose of restoring the rights of the con. Porbeai', then, thou magnanimous lieutenant ge. stilution, to a froward and stubborn generation.
general! Forbear to denou ce vengeance against
us-Forbear to give a stretch to those restorers of And is it for this, Oh! sublime lieu'enant general, constitutional rights, the Indian forces under your that you have given yourself the trouble to cross direction.-Let not the messengers of jus.ace and the wide Atlantic, and with incredible fatigue tra. wrath await us in the field, and devastaiion, and verse uncultivated wills? And we ungratefully every concomitant horror, bar our return to whe refuse the proffered blessing?–To restore the allegiance of a prince, who, by his royal will, would rights of the constitution, you have called together deprive us of every blessing of life, with all pos. an amiable host of savages, and turned them loose sible clemency. Jonse to scalp our women and children, and lay our country waste-this they bave performed with their
We are domestic we are industrious, we are in. usual skill and clemency; and yet we remain insen. firm and timid: we shall remain quietly at home, sible of the benefit, and unthankful for so much and not remove our cattle, our corn, or forage, in goodness.
bopes that you will come, at the bead of troops, in
the full powers of health, discipline, and valor, and Our congress have declared independence, and take churge of them for yourselves. Behold our our assemblies, as your highness justly observes, wives and daughters, our focks and berds, our have most wickedly imprisoned the avowel friends
goods and chattles, are threy not at the mercy of our of that power with which they are at War, and most lord the king, and of his lieutenant general, memprofanely compelled those, whose consciences will ber of the bouse of commons, and governor of Fort not permit them to fight, to pay some small part William in North Britain! A. B. towards the expenses their country is at, in sup
C D porting what is called a necessary defensive war.
E. F. &c. &c. &c If we go on thus in our obstinacy and ingratitude,
Saratogu, 10th July, 1777. what can we expect, but that you should, in your anger, give a stretch to the Indian forces under
Proposals for an exchange of general Burgoyne. your direction amountiug to thousands, to overtake
Ascribed to his ercellency Willian Livingston, erg. and destroy ús! or, which is ten times worse, that
governor of the state of New Jersey.* you should withdraw your feets and armics, and
Should the report of general Burgoyne's having leave us to our own misery, without completing the benevolent task you have begun, of restoring infringed the capitulation, between major general
Gates and himself, prove to be true, our superi vrs to us the rights of the constitution? We submit-we submit.-most puissant colonel
*The lurgid, bombastic procla'nation (for which
see American Museum, vol. II. page 495) which of the queen's regiment of light dragoons, and gave rise to this elegant and poignant satire, was governor of Fort William in North Britain! We prefaced in the following manner: “Proclamation offer our heads to the scalping knife, and our bel- by John Burgoyne, esquire, lieutenant general of
his majesty's armies in America, colonel of the lies to the bayonet. Who can resist the force of queen's regiment of light dragoons, governor of your eloquence? Who can withstar.d the terror of fort William, in North Britain, one of the repre your arms? The invitation you have made in the sentatives of the communs of Great Britain, and
commanding an arıny and Heet on an expedition consciousness of christianity, your royal master's from Canada, &c. &c. &c."-C.
will doubtless take proper care to prevent bis ment, I suppose a colonel of her majesty's ozun regireaping any benefit from it; and should he be de.ment will procure at least three continental coloncis tained as a prisoner for his infraction of any of the of horse. articles, I would bumbly propose to exchange him IV. For John Burgoyne, governor of fort William in in such manner, as will at the same time Hatter North Britain. his vanity and redound to the greatest emolu.gent Here I would demand one governor of one of the of America. To evince the reasonableness of my United States, as his multitulury excelleney is goproposal, I would observe, that by the same parity vernor of a fort; and two more, as that fort is in of reason, that a general is exchanged for a gene. North Brilain, which his Britannic majesiy may be ral, a colonel for a colonel, and so on, with respect presumed to value in that proportion; but consider. to other officers, mutually of equal rank, we ought ing that the said fort is called William, which may to have for one and the same gentleman, who shall excite in his majesty's mind the rebellious idea of happen to hold both those offices, both a general liberty, I deduct one upon that account, and, rather and a colonel. This will appear evident from the than puzzle the cartel with any perplexity, I am consideration that those exchanges are never re. content with two governors. gulated by viewing the persons exchanged in the V. For John Burgoyne, one of the representatives of light of but as officers; since otherwise, a colo Great Britain. nel might as well be exchanged for a serjeant as The first member of congress who may fall into for an officer of his own rank; a serjeant being, the enemy's hands. undoubiedly, equally a man, and, as the case soine. VI. For John Burgoyne, commander of a fleet em. times happens, more of a man too. One prisoner, ployed in an expedition from Canadu. therefore, having twenty different oflices, ought to The admiral of our navy. redeem from captivity twenty prisoners aggregately VII. For John Burgoyne, commander of an army holding the same offices; er such greater or less employed in an expedition from Canuda. number as shall, with respect to rank, be equal to 0e cuinmander in chief in any of our depart. bis twenty offices. This being admitied, I think ments. general Burgoyne is the most profitable prisoner VUI. For John Burgoyne, &c. &c. &c. we could have taken, having more offices, or (what Some connoisseurs in hieroglyphics imagine that amounts to the same thing in Old Englaad) more these three et ceteras are emblematical of three titles, than any gentleman on this side the Gunges. certain occult qualities in the general, which he And as his inpetuous excellency certainly ineant to never intends to exhibit in more legible characters, avail himself of his titles, by their pompous display viz. prudence, modesty, and humanity. Others sup. in iis proclamation, bad be proved conqueror, it is pose that' they stund for king of America; and that, but reasonable that we should avail ourselves of had be proved successful, he would have fallen them now he is conquered; and, till I meet with a upon general Howe, and afterwards have set up better project for that purpose, I persuade myself for himself. Be this as it may, (which it however that the following proposal will appropriate them behoves a certain gentleman on the other side of to a much better use, than they were ever applied the water seriously to consider) I insist upon it, to before.
that as all dark and cabalistical characters are The exchange I propose is as follows: suspicious, these incognoscible enigmas may porerid 1. For John Burgoyne, esquire.
much ́more than is generally apprenended. At all Some worthy justice of the peace, magnanimously evenis, general Burgoyne bas availed bipseit of stolen out of his bed, or taken from his farm by a their importance, and I doubt not they excited as band of rutians in the uniform of British soldiers, much terror in bis proclamation, as any of his more and now probably perishing with hunger and cold lumingus titles. As his person, therefore, is by the in a loathsome jail in New York.
capture, become the property of the congress, all 11. For John Burgoyne, lieutenant general of his ma. his titles, (which some suppose lo constitute bis jesty's urmies in America.
very essence) whether more splendid or opake, Two majors general.
laient or visible, are become, ipso facto, the lawful III. For John Burgoyne, colonel of the queen's regi goods and chatiels of the continent, and ought not ment of light drug cons.
to be restored without a consideration equivalent. As the British troops naturally prize every thing if we should happen to over-rate them, it is his in proportion as it partakes of royalty, and under own fault, it being in his power to ascertain their value whatever originates from a repubiican govern. Wintrissic value; uiid it is a rule in law, that when 2
man is possesses of evidence to disprove what is poser. Sor cail fordear suggesting its fatal tes. alleged against bin, and refuses to produce i:, the dency to widen tbat unhappy breach, which you, presioption raised against him, is to be taken for and those ministers under wbom you act, have regranted. Certain it is, that these three et ceteras peatedly declared you wish to see forever closed. mus: stand for three somethings, and as these three somethings must, at least, be equal to three some. Jy duty now makes it necessary to apprise you,
that, for the future, I shall regulate my conduct to: things without rank or title, 1 bad some thoughts
wards those gentlemen of your army, who are, or of setting them down for three privales; but then as they are three something, in genera! Burgoyne,
may be in our possession, exactly by ibe rule you
shall observe towards those of ours who may be which must be of twice the value of three any
in your custody. things, in any three privutes, I shall only double them, and demand in exchange for these three If severity and hardship mark the line of your problematical, enigmatical, hieroglyphical, mystic, conduct (painful as it may be to me) your prisoners necromantic, cabalistical and portentous et ceteras, will feel its effect; but if kindness and humanity sis privales.
are shown to ours, I shall, with pleasure, consider
those in our hands only as unfortunate, and they So that, according to my plan, we ought to detain:
shall receive from me that treatment to which the this ideal conqueror of the North, now a real pri
unfortunate are ever entitied. soner in the East, till we bave got in exchange for him, one esquire, two majors general, three colo. I bag to be favored with an answer as soon as nels of light horse, two governors, one member of possible, and am, sir, your very humble servant, congress, the admiral of our navy, one commander
G. WASHINGTON. in chief in a separate department, and six privates; His excellency genera! Gage. which is probably more than this extraordinary hero would fetch in any part of Great Britain, were he
ANSWER. exposed at public auction for a day and a year. All
Bos!on, August 13, 1775. which is nevertheless, humbly submitted to the con
SIR-To the glory of civilized nations, bumanity sideration of the honorable the congress, and his and war have been compatible; and compassion to excellency general Washington.
the subdued is become almost a general system. Princeton, December 8, 1777.
Britons, ever pre-eminent in mercy, have out. Letter from his excellency general Washington to ge. gone common examples, and overlooked the crimi. neral Gage.
nal in the captive. Upon these principles, your HEAD QUARTERS,
prisoners, whose lives, by the laws of the land, are Cambridge, August 11, 1775.
destined to the cord, have liither:o been treated S18-I understand that the officers, engaged in with care and kindness, and more comfortably lodgthe cause of liberty and their country, who, by the ed, than the king's troops, in the hospitals; indis. fortune of war, have fallen into your hands, have criminately, it is true, for I acknowledge no rank been thrown indiscriminately into a common jail,
that is not derived from the king. appropriated for felons-that no consideration has
My intelligence from your army would justify been bad for those of the most respectable rank, severe recrimination. I understand there are some when languishing with wounds and sickness-that of the king's faithful subjects, taken sometime some of them have been even amputated in this since by the rebels, laboring like negro slaves, to unworthy situation.
gain their daily subsistence, or reduced to the Let your opinion, sir, of the principle which actu. wre!ched alternative, 10 perista by famine or take ates them, be what it may, they suppose they act
arms against their king and country. Those, who from the noblet of all principles, a love of freedom
have made the treatment of the prisoners in my and their country, But political opinions, I conceive,
hands, or of your other friends in Boston, 2 preare foreign to this point. The obligations arising from
tence for such measures, found barbarity upon false.
hood. the rights of bumanity, and claims of rank, are uni. versally binding and extensive, except in case of I would willingly hope, sir, that the sentiments retaliation. These, I should have hoped, would of liberality, which I have always believed you to have dictated a more tender treatment of those in-'possess, will be exerted to correct these misdoings. dividuals, whom chance or war bad put in your Be temperate in political disquisitions; give free
operation to truth, and punish those who deceive political disquisition; nor shall I now avail my. and misrepresent; and not only the effects, but the self of those advantages, which the sacred cause causes of this unhappy conflict will soon be re. of my country, of liberty and human nature, five moved.
me over you; much less shall I stoop to retort any
invective. But the intelligence, you say you have Should those, under whose usurped authority received from our army, requires a reply. I have you act, controul such a disposition, and dare to taken time, sir, to make a strict enquiry, and find it call severity retaliation, to God, who knows all has not the jeast foundation in truth. Not only hearts, be the appeal for the dreadful consequences, your officers and soldiers have been treated with I trust that British soldiers, asserting the rights a tendernese due to fellow citizens and brethren, of the state, the laws of the land, the being of the but even those execrable parricides, whose counconstitution, will meet all events with becoming cils and aid have deluged their country with blood, fortitude. They will court victory with the spirit have been protected from the firy of a justly entheir cause inspires, and from the same motive will raged people. Far from compelling or permitting find the patience of martyrs under misfortune. their assistance, I am embarrassed with the num
bers who croud to our camp, animated with the pil. Till I read your insinuations in regard to minis.
rest principles of virtue and love of their country. ters, I conceived that I had acted under the king: You advise me to give free operation to truth; to whose wishes it is true, as well as those of his
punish misrepresentation and falsehood. If expe. ministers, and of every honest man, have been to
rience stamps value upon counsel, your's must see this unhappy breach forever closed; but unfor have a weight which few can claim. You best can tunately for both countries, those, who have long tell, how far the convulsion, which has brought since projected the present crisis, and influence such ruin on both countries, and shaken the mighty the councils of America, have views very distant empire of Britain to its foundation, may be traced from accommodation.
to these malignant causes. I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,
THOMAS GAGE. You affect, sir, to despise all rank, not derived George Washington, esq.
from the same source with your own. I cannot con.
ceive one more honorable, than that which flows
from the uncorrupted choice of a brave and free REPLY.
people, the purest source and original fountain of HEAD QUARTERS, all power. Far from making it a plea for cruelty, Cambridge, August 19, 1775.
a mind of true magnanimity and enlarged ideas, Sra-1 addressed you on the 11th inst. in terms would comprehend and respect it. which gave the fairest scope for the exercise of that humanity and politeness, which were supposed What may have been the ministerial views which to form a part of your character. I remonstrated have precipitated the present crisis, Lexington, with you on the unworthy treatment shewn to the Concord, and Charlestown, can best declare. May officers and citizens of America, whom the fortune that God, to whom you then appealed, judge be. of war, chance, or a mistaken confidence, had tween America and you. Uoder his providence, thrown into your hands.
those who influence the councils of America, and
all the other inhabitants of the United Colonies, at Whether British or American mercy, fortitude, the hazard of their lives, are determined to hand and patience, are most pre-eminent-whether our down to posterity those just and invaluable privi. virtuous citizens, whom the hand of tyranny has leges which they received from their ancestors. forced into arms, to defend their wives, their chil. dren, and their property, or the mercenary
I shall now, sir, close my correspondence willa ments of lawless domination, avarice, and revenge, you, perhaps forever. If your officers, our prison. best deserve the appellation of rebels, and the pu. ers, receive a treatment from me, 'diflerent from nishment of that cord, which your affected clemen- what I wished to shew them, they and you will cy has forborne to inflict-whether the authority remember the occasion of it. under which I act, is usurped, or founded upon I am, sir, your very humble servant, the genuine principles of liberty-were altogether
GEORGE WASHINGTON, foreign to the subject. I purposely avoided all General Gage.