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groves have started into being by the pow-) but all architects who display their skill in erful feat of a warm fancy. A castle- the thin element. Such a favour would builder is even just what he pleases, and as oblige me to make my next soliloquy not such I have grasped imaginary sceptres, contain the praises of my dear self, but of and delivered uncontrollable edicts, from a the Spectator, who shall, by complying throne to which conquered nations yielded with this, make me his obliged humble obeisance. I have made I know not how servant,

VITRUVIUS.' many inroads into France, and ravaged the T. very heart of that kingdom; I have dined in the Louvre, and drank champaign at Versailles; and I would have you take notice, I No. 168.] Wednesday, Sept. 12, 1711. am not only able to vanquish a people al

-Pectus præceptis format amicis. ready 'cowed' and accustomed to fight,

Hor. Lib. 2. Ep. i. 128. but I could, Almanzor-like,* drive the Bri

Forms the soft bosom with the gentlest art.- Pope. tish general from the field, were I less a

It would be arrogance to neglect the approtestant, or had ever been affronted by the confederates. There is no art or pro- plication of my correspondents so far, as not fession, whose most celebrated masters Isometimes to insert their animadversions have not eclipsed. Wherever I have af- upon my paper; that of this day shall be forded my salutary presence, fevers have therefore wholly composed of the hints ceased to burn, and agues to shake the hu- which they have sent me. man fabric. When an eloquent fit has been

MR. SPECTATOR, I send you this to upon me, an apt gesture and proper cadence has animated each sentence, and gaz; for treating on which you deserve public

congratulate your late choice of a subject, ing crowds have found their passions worked thanks, I mean that on those licensed tyup into rage, or soothed into a calm. I am short, and not very well made; yet upon arm them of their rods, you will certainly

rants the school-masters. If you can dissight of a fine woman, I have stretched into have your old age reverenced by all the a proper stature, and killed with a good air and mien.

These are the gay phantoms young gentlemen of Great Britain who are that dance before my waking eyes, and You may boast that the incomparably wise

now between seven and seventeen years. most contented happy man alive, were the Quintilian and

you are of one mind in this chimerical happiness which springs from particular. “ Si cui est (says he,) mens tam the paintings of fancy less fleeting and tran, is etiam ad plagas, ut pessima quæque man

illiberalis ut objurgatione non corrigatur, sitory. But, alas! it is with grief of mind I tell you, the least breath of wind has often cinia, durabitur;" i. e. “If any child be of demolished my magnificent edifices, swept

so disingenuous a nature, as not to stand coraway my groves, and left no more trace of rected by reproof, he, like the very worst of them than if they had never been. My ex- themselves.” And afterwards, Pudet di

slaves, will be hardened even against blows chequer has sunk and vanished by a rap on my door, the salutation of a friend has cost cædendi jure abutantur;” i. e. "I blush to

cere in quæ probra nefandi homines isto me a whole continent, and in the same moment I have been pulled by the sleeve, my say how shamefully those wicked men abuse

the power

of correction.” crown has fallen from my head. The ill

I was bred myself, sir, in a very great consequence of these reveries is inconceiv

school, * of which the master was a Welchably great, seeing the loss of imaginary pos- man, but certainly descended from a Spansessions makes impressions of real woe. ish family, as plainly appeared from his Besides, bad economy is visible and apparent in builders of invisible mansions. My temperas well as his

name.. I leave you tenants' advertisements of ruins and dilapi- Welchman ingrafted on a Spaniard would dations often cast a damp on my spirits, make. So very dreadful had he made himeven in the instant when the sun, in all its self to me, that although it is above twenty splendour, gilds my eastern palaces. Add to this the pensive drudgery in building, years since I felt his heavy hand, yet stiil and constant grasping aerial trowels, dis- once a month at least I dream of him, so tracts and shatters the mind, and the fond strong an impression did he make on my builder of Babels is often cursed with an in- mind. It is a sign he has fully terrified me

waking, who still continues to haunt me coherent diversity and confusion of thoughts. I do not know to whom I can more pro

sleeping. perly apply myself for relief from this fan- the business of the school was what I did

• And yet I may say without vanity, that tastical evil

, than to yourself; whom I earn- without great difficulty; and I was not reestly implore to accommodate me with a markably unlucky; and yet such was the method how to settle my head and cool my master's severity, that once a month, or brain-pan. A dissertation on castle-building may not only be serviceable to myself, oftener, I suffered as much as would have

* Eton. * Almanzor is a furious character in Dryden's Con. | Dr. Charles Roderick, master of Eton-school, and quest of Granada.

afterwards provost of King's-college, Cambridge.

satisfied the law of the land for a petty are so full of themselves, as to give disturblarceny,

ance to all that are about them. Some• Many a white and tender hand, which times you have a set of whisperers who lay the fond mother had passionately kissed a their heads together in order to sacrifice thousand and a thousand times, have I seen every body within their observation; somewhipped until it was covered with blood; times a set of laughers that keep up an in. perhaps for smiling, or for going a yard sipid mirth in their own corner, and by and a half out of a gate, or for writing an otheir noise and gestures show they have no for an A, or an a for an o. These were our respect for the rest of the company. You great faults! Many a brave and noble spirit frequently meet with these sets at the has been there broken; others have run opera, the play, the water-works, and other from thence and were never heard of after- public meetings, where the whole business wards. It is a worthy attempt to undertake is to draw off the attention of the spectators the cause of distressed youth; and it is a from the entertainment, and to fix it upon noble piece of knight-errantry to enter the themselves; and it is to be observed, that list against so many armed pedagogues. It the impertinence is ever loudest when the is pity but we had a set of men, polite in set happens to be made up of three or four their behaviour and method of teaching, females who have got wliat you call a who should be put into a condition of being woman's man among them. above flattering or fearing the parents of *I am at a loss to know from whom peothose they instruct. We might then pos- ple of fortune should learn this behaviour, sibly see learning become a pleasure, and unless it be from the footmen who keep children delighting themselves in that which their places at a new play, and are often they now abhor for coming upon such hard seen passing away their time in sets at allterms to them. What would be still a greater fours in the face of a full house, and with a happiness arising from the care of such in- perfect disregard to the people of quality structors, would be, that we should have sitting on each side of them. no more pedants, nor any bred to learning “For preserving therefore the decency who had not genius for it. I am,

with the of public assemblies, methinks it would utmost sincerity, sir, your most affectionate be but reasonable that those who disturb humble servant.'

others should pay at least a double price

for their places; or rather women of birth • Richmond, Sept. 5, 1711. and distinction should be informed, that a "Mr. SPECTATOR, I am a boy of four- levity of behaviour in the eyes of people of teen years of age, and have for this last understanding degrades them below their year been under the tuition of a doctor of meanest attendants; and gentlemen should divinity, who has taken the school of this know that a fine coat is a livery, when the place under his care. * From the gentle- person who wears it discovers no higher man's great tenderness to me and friend- sense than that of a footman, I am, sir, ship to my father, I am very happy in your most humble servant.' learning my book with pleasure. We never leave off our diversions any farther than to

Bedfordshire, Sept. 1, 1711. salute him at hours of play when he pleases “MR. SPECTATOR, -I am one of those to look on. It is impossible for any of us whom every body calls a poacher, and to love our own parents better than we do sometimes go out to course with a brace of him. He never gives any of us a harsh greyhounds, a mastiff, and a spaniel or two; word, and we think it the greatest punish- and when I am weary with coursing, and ment in the world when he will not speak have killed hares enough, go to an aleto any of us. My brother and I are both house to refresh myself. I beg the favour together inditing this letter. He is a year of you (as you set up for a reformer) to older than I am, but is now ready to break send us word how many dogs you will alhis heart that the doctor has not taken any low us to go with, how many full pots of notice of him these three days. If you ale to drink, and how many hares to kill in please to print this he will see it, and we a day, and you will do a great piece of serhope, taking it for my brother's earnest vice to all the sportsmen. Be quick, then, desire to be restored to his favour, he will for the time of coursing is come on. Yours, again smile upon him. Your most obedient in haste, ISAAC HEDGEDITCH.' servant,

T. S.' MR. SPECTATOR,—You have represented several sorts of impertinents singly, I No. 169.] Thursday, September 13, 1711. wish you would now proceed and describe Sic vita erat: facile omnes perferre ac pati: some of them in sets. It often happens in Cum quibus erat cunque una, his sese dedere, public assemblies, that a party who came

Eorum obsequi studiis; adversus nemini; thither together, or whose impertinences are of an equal pitch, act in concert, and times, was invented by one Mr. Winstanley, and ex:

† The Water-theatre, a favourite amusement of those

hibited at the lower end of Piccadilly; it consisted of * This was Dr. Nicholas Brady, who assisted Tate in sea-gods, goddesses, &c. playing and spouting out water, the new version of the Psalms; he died rector of Rich- and fire mingled with water; performed every evening mond and Clapham, in Surrey, in 1726.

between five and six.

envy.

Nunquam præponens se aliis ; Ita facilime

lanthropy or good-nature of his hero, Sine invidia invenias laudem

which he tells us he brought into the world Ter. Andr. Act i. Sc. 1.

with him, and gives many remarkable inHis manner of life was this; to bear with every stances of it in his childhood, as well as in body's humours; to comply with the inclinations and all the several parts of his life. * Nay, on body; never to assume a superiority over others. This his death-bed, he describes him as being is the ready way to gain applause, without exciting pleased, that while his soul returned to

him that made it, his body should incorpoMan is subject to innumerable pains and rate with the great mother of all things, sorrows by the very condition of humanity, and by that means become beneficial to and yet, as if nature had not sown evils mankind. For which reason, he gives his enough in life, we are continually adding sons a positive order not to enshrine it in grief to grief, and aggravating the com- gold or silver, but to lay it in the earth as mon calamity by our cruel treatment of

soon as the life was gone out of it. one another. Every man's natural weight An instance of such an overflowing of of afflictions is still made more heavy by humanity, such an exuberant love to manthe envy, malice, treachery, or injustice of kind, could not have entered into the imagihis neighbour. At the same time that the nation of a writer, who had not a soul filled storm beats upon the whole species, we are with great ideas, and a general benevolence falling foul upon one another.

to mankind. Half the misery of human life might In that celebrated passage of Sallust, be extinguished, would men alleviate the where Cæsar and Cato are placed in such general curse they lie under, by mutual beautiful but opposite lights, Cæsar's chaoffices of compassion, benevolence and hu- racter is chiefly made up of good-nature, manity. There is nothing therefore which as it showed itself in all its forms towards we ought more to encourage in ourselves his friends or his enemies, his servants or and others, than that disposition of mind dependants, the guilty or the distressed, which in our language goes under the title As for Cato's character, it is rather awful of good-nature, and which I shall choose than amiable. Justice seems most agrcefor the subject of this day's speculation. able to the nature of God, and mercy to that

Good-nature is more agreeable in con- of man. A being who has nothing to parversation than wit, and gives a certain air don in himself, may reward every man acto the countenance which is more amiable cor to his works; but he whose very than beauty. It shows virtue in the fairest best actions must be seen with grains of light, takes off in some measure from the allowance, cannot be too mild, moderate, deformity of vice, and makeseven folly and and forgiving. For this reason, among all impertinence supportable.

the monstrous characters in human nature, There is no society or conversation to be there is none so odious, nor indeed so exkept up in the world without good-nature, quisitely ridiculous, as that of a rigid severe or something which must bear its appear- temper'in a worthless man, ance, and supply its place. For this reason This part of good-nature, however, which

mankind have been forced to invent a kind consists in the pardoning and overlooking · of artificial humanity, which is what we of faults, is to be exercised only in doing express by the word good-breeding. For ourselves justice, and that too in the ordiif we examine thoroughly the idea of what nary commerce and occurrences of life; for we call so, we shall find it to be nothing in the public administration of justice, ; else but an imitation and mimickry of good- mercy to one may be cruelty to others. nature, or in other terms, affability, com

It is grown almost into a maxim, that plaisance, and easiness of temper reduced good-natured men are not always men of into an art.

the most wit. This observation in my These exterior shows and appearances opinion, has no foundation in nature. The of humanity render a man wonderfully po- greatest wits I have conversed with are pular and beloved, when they are founded men eminent for their humanity. I take upon a real good-nature: but without it therefore this remark to have been occaare like hypocrisy in religion, or a bare sioned by two reasons. First, because illform of holiness, which when it is discover- nature among ordinary observers passes for ed, makes a man more detestable than pro-wit. A spiteful saying gratifies so many fessed impiety.

little passions in those who hear it, that it Good-nature is generally born with us; generally meets with a good reception. health, prosperity, and kind treatment from The laugh rises upon it, and the man who the world are great cherishers of it where utters iť is looked upon as a shrewd sathey find it; but nothing is capable of forcing tirist. This may be one reason, why a it up, where it does not grow of itself. It is great many pleasant companions appear so one of the blessings of a happy constitution, surprisingly dull, when they have endeawhich education may improve but not pro-voured to be merry in print; the public duce.

Xenophon in the life of his imaginary prince, whom he describes as a pattern for

* Xenoph. De Cyri Instit. lib. viii. cap. vii. sect. 3

edit. J. A. Ern. 8vo. tom. I. p. 550. real ones, is always celebrating the phi Sallust. Bell. Catil. c. liv.

Ter. Eun. Act i. Sc. 2.

being more just than private clubs or assem- | she kindles the same passion in others, and blies, in distinguishing between what is wit, appears as amiable to all beholders. And and what is ill-nature.

as jealousy thus arises from an extraordiAnother reason why the good-natured nary love, it is of so delicate a nature, that man may sometimes bring his wit in ques- it scorns to take up with any thing less than tion, is, perhaps, because he is apt to be an equal return of love. Not the warmest moved with compassion for those misfor- expressions of affection, the softest and most tunes or infirmities, which another would tender hypocrisy, are able to give any saturn into ridicule, and by that means tisfaction, where we are not persuaded that gain the reputation of a wit. The ill- the affection is real, and the satisfaction natured man, though but of equal parts, mutual. For the jealous man wishes himgives himself a larger field to expatjate self a kind of deity to the person he loves. in; he exposes those failings of human na- He would be the only pleasure of her senses, ture which the other would cast a veil the employment of her thoughts; and is over, laughs at vices which the other either angry at every thing she admires or takes excuses or conceals, gives utterance to re- delight in besides himself. Aections which the other stifles, falls indif Phædra's request to his mistress, upon ferently upon friends or enemies, exposes his leaving her for three days, is inimitably the person who has obliged him, and, in beautiful and natural: short, sticks at nothing that may establish

Cum milite isto præsens, absens ut sies: his character of a wit. It is no wonder, Dies noctesque me ames: me desideres: therefore, he succeeds in it better than Me somnies: me expectes: de me cogites: the man of humanity, as a person who

Me speres: me te oblectes: mecum tota sis: makes use of indirect methods is more

Meus fac sis postremo animus, quando ego sum tuus. likely to grow rich than the fair trader.

Be with yon soldier present, as if absent:
L. All night and day love me : still long for me:

Dream, ponder still 'on' me: wish, hope for me:
Delight in me; be all in all with me;

Give your whole heart, for mine's all your's, to me. No. 170.] Friday, September 14, 1711.

Colman. In amore hæc omnia insunt vitia: injuriæ,

The jealous man's disease is of so maligSuspiciones, inimicitiæ, induciæ,

nant a nature, that it converts all it takes into Bellum pax rursum Ter. Eun. Act i. Sc. 1.

its own nourishment. A cool behaviour sets In love are all these ills: suspicions, quarrels, him on the rack, and is interpreted as an Wrongs, reconcilements, war, and peace again. instance of aversion or indifference; a fond

Colman.

one raises his suspicions, and looks too Upon looking over the letters of my fe- much like dissimulation and artifice. If the male correspondents, I find several from person he loves be cheerful, her thoughts women complaining of jealous husbands, must be employed on another; and if sad, and at the same time protesting their own she is certainly thinking on himself. In innocence; and desiring my advice on this short, there is no word or gesture so inoccasion. I shall therefore take this sub- significant, but it gives him new hints, ject into my consideration; and the more feeds his suspicions, and furnishes him with willingly, because I find that the Marquis of fresh matters of discovery: so that if we Halifax, who, in his Advice to a Daughter, consider the effects of his passion, one would has instructed a wife how to behave herself rather think it proceeded from an invetetowards a false, an intemperate, a choleric, rate hatred, than an excessive love; for cera sullen, a covetous, or a silly husband, has tainly none can meet with more disquietude not spoken one word of a jealous husband. and uneasiness than a suspected wife, if we

Jealousy is that pain which a man feels except the jealous husband. from the apprehension that he is not equally But the great unhappiness of this passion beloved by the person whom he entirely is, that it naturally tends to alienate the afloves. Now because our inward passions fection which it is so solicitous to engross; and inclinations can never make themselves and that for these two reasons, because it visible, it is impossible for a jealous man to lays too great a constraint on the words and be thoroughly cured of his suspicions. His actions of the suspected person, and at the thoughts hang at best in a state of doubtful- same time shows you have no honourable ness and uncertainty: and are never capa- opinion of her; both of which are strong ble of receiving any satisfaction on the ad- motives to aversion. vantageous side; so that his inquiries are Nor is this the worst effect of jealousy; most successful when they discover nothing. for it often draws after it a more fatal train His pleasure arises from his disappoint-of consequences, and makes the person you ments, and his life is spent in pursuit of a suspect guilty of the very crimes you are so secret that destroys his happiness if he much afraid of. It is very natural for such chance to find it.

who are treated ill, and upbraided falsely, An ardent love is always a strong ingre- to find out an intimate friend that will hear dient in this passion; for the same affection their complaints, condole their sufferings, which stirs up the jealous man's desires, and endeavour to soothe and assuage their and gives the party beloved so beautiful a secret resentments. Besides, jealousy puts figure in his imagination, makes him believe a woman often in mind of an ill thing that

she would not otherwise, perhaps, have actions; and are ever tormenting themthought of, and fills her imagination with selves with fancies of their own raising. such an unlucky idea, as in time grows They generally act in a disguise themselves, familiar, excites desire, and loses all the and therefore mistake als outward shows shame and horror which might at first at- and appearances for hypocrisy in others; tend it. Nor is it a wonder if she, who suf- so that I believe no men see less of the fers wrongfully in a man's opinion of her, truth and reality of things, than these great and has therefore nothing to forfeit in his refiners upon incidents, who are so wonesteem, resolves to give him reason for his derfully subtile and over-wise in their consuspicions, and to enjoy the pleasure of the ceptions. crime, since she must undergo the igno Now, what these men fancy they know of miny. Such, probably, were the consi- women by reflection, your lewd and vicious derations that directed the wise man in his men believe they have learned by expeadvice to husbands: •Be not jealous over rience. They have seen the poor husband the wife of thy bosom, and teach her not an so misled by tricks and artifices, and in the evil lesson against thyself.'*

midst of his inquiries so lost and bewildered And here, among the other torments in a crooked intrigue, that they still suswhich this passion produces, we may usu- pect an under-plot in every female action; ally observe that none are greater mourners and especially where they see any resemthan jealous men, when the person who blance in the behaviour of two persons, are provoked their jealousy is taken from them. apt to fancy it proceeds from the same deThen it is that their love breaks out fu- sign in both. These men therefore bear riously, and throws off all the mixtures of hard upon the suspected party, pursue her suspicion which choked and smothered it close through all her turnings and winddefore. The beautiful parts of the cha- ings, and are too well acquainted with the racter rise uppermost in the jealous hus- chase to be flung off by any false steps or band's memory, and upbraid him with the doubles. Besides, their acquaintance and ill usage of so divine a creature as was once conversation has lain wholly among the in his possession; whilst all the little im- vicious part of woman-kind, and therefore perfections, that were before so uneasy to it is no wonder they censure all alike, and him, wear off from his remembrance, and look upon the whole sex as a species of imshow themselves no more.

postors. But if, notwithstanding their priWe may see by what has been said, that vate experience, they can get over these jealousy takes the deepest root in men of prejudices, and entertain a favourable opiamorous dispositions; and of these we find nion of some women, yet their own loose three kinds who are most overrun with it. desires will stir up new suspicions from an

The first are those who are conscious to other side, and make them believe all men themselves of any infirmity, whether it be subject to the same inclinations with themweakness, old age, deformity, ignorance, or selves. the like. These men are so well acquainted Whether these or other motives are most with the unamiable part of themselves, predominant, we learn from the modern that they have not the confidence to think histories of America, as well as from our they are really beloved; and are so distrust- own experience in this part of the world, ful of their own merits, that all fondness that jealousy is no northern passion, but towards them puts them out of countenance, rages most in those nations that lie nearest and looks like a jest upon their persons. the influence of the sun. It is a misfortune They grow suspicious on their first looking for a woman to be born between the tropics; in a glass, and are stung with jealousy at for there lie the hottest regions of jealousy, the sight of a wrinkle. A handsome fel- which as you come northward cools all low immediately alarms them, and every along with the climate, till you scarce meet thing that looks young, or gay, turns their with any thing like it in the polar circle. thoughts upon their wives.

Our own nation is very temperately situated A second sort of men who are most liable in this respect; and if we meet with some to this passion, are those of cunning, wary, few, disordered with the violence of this pasand distrustful tempers. It is a fault very sion, they are not the proper growth of justly found in histories composed by poli- our country, but are many degrees nearer ticians, that they leave nothing to chance the sun in their constitutions than in their or humour, but are still for deriving every climate. action from some plot or contrivance, for After this frightful account of jealousy, drawing up a perpetual scheme of causes and the persons who are most subject to it, and events, and preserving a constant cor- it will be but fair to show by what means respondence between the camp and the the passion may be best allayed, and those council-table. And thus it happens in the who are possessed with it set at ease. affairs of love with men of too refined a Other faults, indeed, are not under the wife's thought. They put a construction on a look, jurisdiction, and should, if possible, escape and find out a design in a smile; they give her observation; but jealousy calls upon her new senses and significations to words and particularly for its cure, and deserves all

her art and application in the attempt. * Ecclesiasticus, ix. 1.

Besides, she has this for her encourage

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