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more than a partial submersion, or a mere superinduction of water to the extent required. Unless this meaning is admitted, I do not see how its application in many passages can well be explained.
That the radical meaning of Banrw was to tinge, stain, or dye, and by no means to plunge or immerse, I am more and more satisfied. The word I think is seldom, if ever, applied to mere dipping, but only to dipping when used as the means of staining, tinging, or altering the quality; on the other hand, it is frequently applied to denote staining or tinging, where every idea of dipping or plunging must be excluded: surely then we are warranted in concluding that tinging or staining was really the radical sense, and was always in view, in whatever manner it was effected. It is almost needless to add to the examples given in the Lexicon, to prove this to be the radical sense ; but, having noted down two or three not mentioned there, I shall try your patience so far as to give you them.
Iamblichus, in his life of Pythagoras, quotes from an Epistle of Lysis the following sentence in his illustrations of Pythagorean discipline, καθαπερ οι βαφεις προεκκαθαραντες εστυψαν τα βαψιμα των ματιων όπως ανεκTMUTOV TAv Bapav avATIWITAI, (chap. xvii.) “ As dyers, after previous cleansing, fix by an adhesive preparation the parts to be dyed (Ta Bankrua) of garments, so that they may imbibe the dye, (or stain, Bapan) in such a manner that it cannot be washed out." Kuster, in
passage, quotes the one from Plato, given in the Lexicon, (page 160) and adds another
his note upon
from Theo Smyrnæus, concluding with these words, υστερον λογους ενδεξoιντο ώσπερ βαφαν, « they might finally receive the lessons as a dye,” (Bapan). In these passages the idea of dipping is completely out of view,dying or staining alone is expressed.
In the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux, several passages are to be found, clearly evincing the meaning of the word. Lib. i. cap. 4. the title of the chapter is, περι βαφης βεβαιας και αβεβαιου, « concerning dying
“ (or staining), strong or weak," (i.e. strongly retained or not.) Befana Baon is explained by a number of terms, all of them referring solely and exclusively to tinging or dying, none of them to dipping, such as, δευσοποιος, well dyed; ανεκπλυτος, indelible; ανεξαλειπτος indelible ; suavóns, resembling flowers, or, as we should say, flowered. In the same chapter mention is made of the discovery of the purple dye, by a girl; and it is said, αυτη θεασαμενη τα χείλη του κυνος ανθουντα αηθει Baon, “She observing the mouth of the dog, (which
, had eaten the murex) stained with an unusual tinge." The same author, lib. vii. cap. 30. professes to give a discussion expressly περι βαφης και χρωματων, &c.
concerning dying and colours," &c. He begins, ερεις δε βαφη χρωσις καταχρωσις, &c. 6. You will term Buon colouring, staining,” &c. The passage is long, and I shall not quote it, but Dr. R. can easily refer to it: it speaks of Babes and its cognates as denoting the dying of wool, tempering of metals, &c. and particularly specifies dEUOOTOLOU Buong, “ tincture by irrigation.” In the 33d chapter of the same book, mention is made of artists, whose business was gonoßaon
βαπτειν, « to dye yellow colours ;” της πορφυρας η βαφη, “ the dye of purple,” is likewise mentioned in the before quoted passage, lib. i. cap. 4.
In the following passage from Ælian, (lib. xiv. cap. 30.) Bafas seems to be used for denoting merely tinging or imbuing with perfume. The Persian monarch, says Elian, στεφανον εις μυρον βαψας, επεπλεκτο de godwv • Otsparcs, which I would translate, “having tinged (imbued or impregnated) with precious ointment a crown (or garland),--the crown was woven of roses.” Dr. R. would, no doubt, be for rendering it, “having dipped the crown into ointment;" but, considering the very great improbability that a chaplet of flowers should have been, in order to improve it, immersed in a substance, of the consistence of thick oil at least, probably even more viscid, the interpretation I have given appears to be the only one that makes sense of the passage ; and Bafas here will therefore mean, tinging with the perfumed ointment, i. e. scattering over it so much of the ointment as thoroughly to communicate the rich odour.
Iamblichus, in one place, uses sußants, to express lustration, or purification, where it seems evident that no immersion could take place. Among the directions which he tells us (Vit. Pythag. cap. xviii.) Pythagoras gave his disciples, one was ουδε εις περιρρανση
, . grov sußante, “not to purify in the periranterion.” The periranterion, it is well known, was a small vessel, or bason, only a few inches in depth, placed at the entrance of temples, for sprinkling the worshippers as they entered; precisely similar, as Middleton remarks,
to the vase for holy water, at Roman Catholic churches: now to plunge, immerse, or bathe, in one of these, was impossible; BATTEN here therefore, so far as I can see, must mean, to use the water in the periranterion for lustration,-a ceremony performed by scattering or sprinkling, the idea being probably taken from the new tinge or quality, supposed to be imparted by this ceremony to the worshipper. I can affix no other meaning to the passage. .
Hippocrates (de Morb. lib. ii.) uses santodai, to denote the application of a liquid to the skin, Zarios de un φορειτω μη δε βαπτεσθαι, Pogeita hem de BanteDAI, “neither sip, nor pour (or sprinkle), broth;" using Banteoda, in this sense, I sup
IS pose, from the idea that the application of the liquid would strongly affect the place to which the application was made; at all events it would require no small ingenuity to discover in this passage the idea of immersion.
So much then for BATTW. In regard to its derivative, Barri(w, I have hardly any thing to add to what is stated in the Lexicon ; the word indeed, I am inclined to think, does not very often occur, except in a metaphorical sense,—at least I have seldom met with it;- should any passages to the purpose afterwards come in my way, I shall communicate them. In the mean time, I must, before finishing, advert to one of the passages quoted by Dr. R. himself from Josephus ; it is the one in the Antiq. (lib. iv. cap. 4.) where a description is given of the preparation of the water of purification. Part of this preparation, Josephus says, was made by burning a heifer, and reducing it to ashes, then he adds, βαπτισαντες της νεφρας εις πηγην. Now upon looking into the Levitical law
this particular point, (Numb. xix. 17.) we find the direction was, “they shall take of the ashes, and running water shall be put thereto; here then, the putting water to ashes is expressly termed βαπτισαντες της νεφρας, βαρtizing the ashes. It is true, as Dr. R. remarks, that in this passage farvw and Barrilw are distinguished; but
; this distinction, I apprehend, respects the degree, not the mode, of applying the water, fully impregnating in the one case, and barely touching in the other.
Upon one or two more of Dr. R.'s references, I was disposed to make some remarks, but really I have gone so completely out of all bounds already, that I must positively stop. It is the less necessary I think to discuss Buttifw, the derivative, because if we have succeeded in ascertaining that the real and proper meaning of the primitive Battw is to tinge or imbue, it seems to follow that it was with reference only to this, that Batti(w was adopted to denote religious and ceremonial initiation, without any view to the secondary sense of immersion, in which undoubtedly Battwand Bamri w were both occasionally, but by no means constantly or universally, employed.
And now, my dear Sir, rejoice, that after this long and tedious travel through the water, you will find yourself within sight of land at last. I never dreamed that it was to have run to such an unmeasurable, length. I cannot however conclude without requesting, that if you have an opportunity of communicating with Dr. R. on the subject, you will have the goodness to express to him the sincere regard and