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For him alone Hope leads from goal to goad, And opens Itill and
opens on his soul, Till lengthen’d on to Faith, and uncenfind, It
pours the bliss that filis up all the mind. He sees why Nature plants in Man alone
345 Hope of known bliss, and Faith in bliss unknown : (Nature, whose dictates to no other kind Are giv’n in vain, but what they seek they find :) Wise is her present : the connects in this His greatest virtue with his greatest bliss;
350 At once his own bright prospect to be blest, And strongest motive to affiit the rest.
Self-love thus push'd to social, to divine,
360 God loves from whole to parts; but human soul Must rise from individual to the whole. Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake, As the small pebble stirs the peaceful lake; The centre moy'd, a circle straight succeeds, 365 Another ftill, and still another spreads ; Friend, parent, neighbour, first it will embrace; His country next, and next all human race : Wide and more wide th' o'erflowings of the mind Take ev'ry creature in of ev'ry kind :
370 Earth smiles around, with boundless bounty blest, And Heav'n beholds its image in his breast.
Come then, my Friend ! my Genius! come along; Oh, master of the poet and the song ! And while the Mule now stoops, or now ascends, 375 To Man's low passions, or their glorious ends, Teach me, like thee, in various Nature wise, To fall with dignity, with temper rise; Form'd by thy converse happily to steer From grave to gay, from lively to severe ; 380
Correct with spirit, eloquent with ease,
passion, answer one great aim ; 395 That true self-love and social are the same; That virtue only makes our bliss below, And all our knowledge is ourselves to know.
[As fome passages in the Ejay on Man bave been ful
pected of favouring the schemes of Leibnitz and Spinoza, or of a tendency towards Fate and Naturalism, it is thought proper here to insert the two following Letters, to show how ill.grounded such a suspicion is.-Tbese Letters are not in any London Edition.]
Mr. Pope to the younger Racine, a celebrated French writer, occasioned by
his animadversions on bis Ejay on Man, in a Poem called Religion. Sir,
London, Sept. 1, 1742. The expectation in which I have been for some time part of receiving the present you have honoured me with, was the occasion of my delaying so long to answer your letter. I am at length favoured with your Poem upon Religion, and Thould have received, from the perusal of it, a pleasure unmixed with pain, had I not the mortification to find that you impute several principles to me which I abhor and deteit. My un. eafinefs met some alleviation from a passage in your preface, where you declare your inability, from a want of knowledge of the English language, io give your own judgment on The Effay on Man. You add, that you do not controvert my tenets, but the evil consequences deducible from them, and the maxims which some persons of notable fagacity have imagined that they have discovered in my Poem. This declaration is a shining proof of your candour, your discretion, and your charity. 1 must take Icave to assure you, Sir, that your unacquaintance with the original has not proved more fatal to me than the imperfect conceptions of my translators, who have not sufficiently informed themseves of my real sentiments. The many additional embelliihments which my Piece has received from the versions of M. D. R---, have not done an honour to 'The Effay on Man equal to the prejudice it has suffered from his frequent misapprehension of the principles it inculcates. These minakes, you will perceive, are totally refused in the English piece which I have transmitted to you.
It is a critical and philofophic commentary, written by the learned author of the Divine Legation of Moses. I flatter myself that the Chevalier Ramsay will, from his zeal for truth, take the trouble to explain the contents of it. I shall then persuade myself that your suspicions will be effaced, and I shall have no appeal from your candour and judice.
In the mean time, I Mall not hesitate to declare myself very cordially in regard to some particulars about which you have desired an answer. I must avow then, open and sincerely, that my principles are diame
opposite to the sentiments of Spinoza and Leibnitz; they are perfectly coincident with the tenets of Mr. Paschal and the Archhishop of Cambray; and I shall always esteem it an honour to me to imitate the moderation with which the latter fubmitted his private opinions to the decisions of the church of which he profeffed himself a meinber. I have the honour to be, &c.
M Racine's Anfwer to Mr. Pope.
Paris, o&t. 25, 1741. The mildness and humility with which you jutify yourself is a con. vincing proof of your religion; t.e more so, as you have done it to one on who it is incumbent to make his own apology for his raih attack upon your character. Your manner of pardoning me is the more delicate, as it is done wito.it any mixture of reproach; but though you acquit me with so much politeness, I mall not to ealily forgive myself.
Certain it is, a precipitance of zeal hurried me away. As I had often heard positions, said to be your's, or ai leat contequences resulting from your ény, cited against certain truths which I now find you respect as much as myfelf, I Thought I had a right to enter the lists with you. The paffige in iny preface was extorted from me by a degree of remorie which I felt in writing againit you. This remorse, Sir, was awakened in me by the consideration that the greatert men are always the mot fuíct.ptible of the truths of Revelation. I was really grieved to think that Mr. Pope should oppose a religion whofe enemies have ever been contemptible; and it appeared strange that, in a Work which points out the road to bappineis, you should furniih arms to those who are indutrious to misguide us in the research.
Your letter, at the same time that it d es honour to your character, mut bring a bluth in my face for having entertained unjust suspicions: but, notwithartnding this, I think my felf obliged to make it public. The injury which I have done you was to, the reparation should be the saine, I owe this to you, I owe it to myself, I owe it to jutice.
Whatever may be said in your favour in the commentary you have fent me, it is now rendered unnecessary by your own declaration. The respect which you avow for the religion you profess, is a fufficient vina dication of your doctrine. I will add, that, for the future, those among us who shall feel the laudable ambition of making their poetry subtera vient to religion, ourzht to take you for their molel; and it should ever be remembered that the greatet poet in England is one of the humblex fons of the church.
I am, &c.
IN FOUR EPISTLES.
TO SEVERAL PERSONS.
Eft brevitate opus, ut currat fententia, neu fe
Advertisement. THE Esay on Man was intended to have been comprised in Four Books: The First of which the Author has given us under that title in Four Epifles,
The Second was to have consisted of the same number: 1. Of the extent and limits of human reason. 2. Of those arts and sciences, and of the parts of thein, which are useful, and therefore attainable; together with those which are unuseo
ful, and therefore unattainable. 3. Of the nature, ends, use, and application, of the different capacities of men. 4. Of the use of learning, of the science of the world, and of wit; concluding with a satire against the maj application of thern, illustrated by pictures, charažiers, and exardples.
The Third Book'regarded civil regimen, or the science of politics, in which the Je veral forms of a republic were to be examined and explained; toget!er with the several modes of religious worssip, as far forth as they effe:t faciety: between which ihe Author always supposed there was the most interesting relation and doseft connection ;,,so that this part would have treated of civil and religicus Society in their full extent.
The Fourth and laf Book concerned private ethics, or practical morality, confidered in all the circumstances, orders, professions, and stations, of human life.
The scheme of all this had been maturely. digtfied, and communicated to L. Bolingbroke, Dř. Swift, and one or two more, and was intended for the only work of his riper years; but was, parily through ill health, parily through discouragements from the depravity of the times, and partly on prudential and other considerations, interrupted, pojíponed, and, lastly, in a manner laid aside.
But as this was the Author's favourite work, which more exactly reflected the image of his firong capacious mind, and as we can have but a very imperfect ¿dea of it from the disjecta membra poetæ that now remain, it may not be amiss to be a little more particular concerning each of these proje:?ed Books.
The Firit, as it treats of Man in the abstract, and considers him in general under every of his relations, becomes the foundation, and furnishes out the sube jeels of the three following: so that
The Second Book was to take up again the first and second Epifles of the Firs Book, and treats of Man in his intellectual capacity at large, as has been explained above. Of this only a sinall part of the conclusion ( which, as we said, was to have contained a satire again the misapplication of wit and learning i may be found in the Fourth Book of the Dunciad, and up and down, occasionally, in the other Three.
The Third Lock, in like manner, was to reasume the subječt of the Third Episle of the First, which treats of Man in his social, political, and religious capacity. But this part the Poet afterwards conceived might be best executed in an epic poem, as the action would make it more animated, and the fable less intidious, in which all the great principles of true and faljé governments and religions should be chiefly delivered in feigned examples.
The Fourth and last Book was to pursue the subjet of the Fourth Epislle of the First, and treats of ethics, or practical morality, and would have confijted of many members; of which the Four following Epifiles were detached portions: the two first, on the charakters of Men and Women, being the introductory part off This concluding Book.