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relative. We will now pass to a better class of evidence, raphy, as an amateur, for twenty-five years. They exthe private experiments of amateurs.
perimented at the studio of a friend, who was not a spirMr. Thomas Slater, an old-established optician in the itualist (but who became a medium during the experiEuston Road, and an amateur photographer, took with him ments), and had the services of a tradesman with whom to Mr. Hudson's a new camera of his own manufacture and they were well acquainted, as a medium. The whole of his own glasses, saw everything done, and obtained a por- the photographic work was done by Messrs. Beattie and trait with a second figure on it. He then began experi- Thomson, the other two sitting at a small table. The menting in his own private house, and during last summer pictures were taken in series of three, within a few seconds obtained some remarkable results. The first of bis suc- of each other, and several of these series were taken at cesses contains two heads by the side of a portrait of his each sitting. The figures produced are for the most part sister. One of these heads is unmistakably the late Lord not human, but variously formed and shaded white patches, Brougham's; the other, much less distinct, is recognized | which in successive pictures change their form and deby Mr. Slater as that of Robert Owen, whom he knew in- velop as it were into a more perfect or complete type. timately up to the time of his death. He has since ob- Thus, one set of five begins with two white somewhat tained several excellent pictures of the same class. One angular patches over the middle sitter, and ends with a in particular, shows a female in black and white flowing rude but unmistakable white female figure, covering the robes, standing by the side of Mr. Slater. In another the larger part of the plate. The other three show intermehead and bust appears, leaning over his shoulder. The diate states, indicating a continuous change of form from faces of these two are much alike, and other members of the first figure to the last. Another set (of four pictures) the family recognize them as likenesses of Mr. Slater's begins with a white vertical cylinder over the body of the mother, who died when he was an infant. In another a medium, and a shorter one on his head. These change pretty child figure, also draped, stands beside Mr. Slater's their form in the second and third, and in the last become little boy. Now, whether these figures are correctly iden- | laterally spread out into luminous masses resembling tified or not, is not the essential point. The fact that any nebulæ. Another set of three is very curious. The first figures, so clear and unmistakably human in appearance as has an oblique flowing luminous patch from the table to these, should appear on plates taken in bis own private stu- the ground; in the second this has changed to a white dio by an experienced optician and amateur photographer, serpentine column, ending in a point above the medium's who makes all his apparatus himself, and with no one pres- | head; in the third the column has become broader and ent but the members of his own family, — is the real mar- somewhat double, with the curve in an opposite direction, vel. In one case a second figure appeared on a plate with and with a head-like termination. The change of the himself, taken by Mr. Slater when he was absolutely alone, curvature may have some connection with a change in the by the simple process of occupying the sitter's chair after position of the sitters, which is seen to have taken place uncapping the camera. He and his family being themselves between the second and the third of this set. There are mediums, they require no extraneous assistance; and this two others, taken, like all the preceding, in 1872, but may, perhaps, be the reason why he has succeeded so well. which the medium described during the exposure. The One of the most extraordinary pictures obtained by Mr. first, he said, was a thick white fog; and the picture came Slater is a full-length portrait of his sister, in which there out all shaded white, with not a trace of any of the sitters. is no second figure, but the sitter appears covered all over The other was described as a fog with a figure standing in with a kind of transparent lace drapery, which on exami- it; and here a white human figure is alone seen in the nation is seen to be wholly made up of shaded circles of almost uniform foggy surface. During the experiments different sizes, quite unlike any material fabric I have seen made in 1873, the medium, in every case, minutely and or heard of.
correctly described the appearances which afterwards Mr. Slater has himself shown me all these pictures and came out on the plate. In one there is a luminous rayed explained the conditions under which they were produced. star of large size, with a human face faintly visible in the That they are not impostures is certain; and as the first centre. This is the last of three in which the star deindependent confirmations of what had been previously veloped, and the whole were accurately described by the obtained only through professional photographers, their medium. In another set of three, the medium first devalue is inestimable.
scribed, "a light behind him, coming from the floor.” A less successful, but not perhaps on that account less The next, — " a light rising over another person's arms, satisfactory confirmation has been obtained by another coming from his own boot.” The third, - "there is the amateur, who, after eighteen months of experiment, ob- same light, but now a column comes up through the table, tained a partial success. Mr. R. Williams, M. A., Ph. and it is hot to my hands.” Then he suddenly exclaimed, D., of Hayward's Heath, succeeded last summer in obtain-| –“What a bright light up there! Can you not see it?” ing three photographs, each with part of a human form pointing to it with his hand. All this most accurately debesides the sitter, one having the features distinctly marked. scribes the three pictures, and in the last, the medium's Subsequently another was obtained, with a well-formed hand is seen pointing to a white patch which appears figure of a man standing at the side of the sitter, but overhead. There are other curious developments, the while being developed, this figure faded away entirely. | nature of which is already sufficiently indicated; but one Mr. Williams assures me (in a letter) that in these exper. very startling single picture must be mentioned. During iments there was “no room for trick or for the production the exposure one medium said he saw on the background of these figures by any known means."
a black figure, the other medium saw a light figure by the The editor of the Brilish Journal of Photography has side of the black one. In the picture both these figures made experiments at Mr. Hudson's studio, taking his own appear, the light one very faintly, the black one much collodion and new plates, and doing everything himself, more distinctly, of a gigantic size, with a massive coarseyet there were “abnormal appearances on the pictures, featured face and long hair. (Spiritual Magazine, January although no distinct figures.
and August, 1873; Photographic News, June 28th, 1872.) We now come to the valuable and conclusive experi- Mr. Beattie has been so good as to send me for examinaments of Mr. John Beattie of Clifton, a retired photog- tion a complete set of these most extraordinary photographs, rapher of twenty years' experience, and of whom the thirty-two in number, and has furnished me with any parabove-mentioned editor says : “ Every one who knows ticulars I desired. I have described them as correctly as I Mr. Beattie will give him credit for being a thoughtful, am able; and Dr. Thompson has authorized me to use his skilful, and intelligent photographer, one of the last men name as confirming Mr. Beattie's account of the conditions in the world to be easily deceived, at least in matters re- under which they appeared. These experiments were not lating to photography, and one quite incapable of deceiv- made without labor and perseverance.
Sometimes twenty ing others.
consecutive pictures produced absolutely nothing unusual. Mr. Beattie has been assisted in his researches by Dr. Hundreds have been taken, and more than half have been Thomson, an Edinburgh M. D., who has practised photog. complete failures. But the successes have been well worth
the labor. They demonstrate the fact that what a medium that which by the other process could not have been peror sensitive sees (even where no one else sees anything), formed at all. He etched with immense precision and power may often have an objective existence. They each us all that he meant to etch; but he reserved his effects the that perhaps the bookseller, Nicolai, of Berlin whose things for which he cared -- for the other art. That alone case has been quoted ad nauseam as the type of a “ spec- clothed the skeleton, and visibly embodied the spirit of tral illusion,”. saw real beings after all; and that, had each picture. But when one speaks of the great etchers, pbotography been then discovered and properly applied, one speaks of those who gave to their art a wider field, we might now have the portraits of the invisible men and and claimed from it a greater result. They too, like women who crowded his room. They give us hints of a Turner, worked by lines, but their lines were a thousand process by which the figures seen at séances may have to to his one; for they were the end as well as the beginbe gradually formed or developed, and enable us better to ning — they made the picture, and did not only prepare understand the statements repeatedly made by the commu- for it. nicating intelligences, that it is very difficult to produce The work of the great etchers was usually speedy. d'efinite visible and tangible forms, and that it can only Their minds bad other qualities than those of the line be done under a rare combination of favorable condi- engravers. On the one side there was quiet intelligence,
patience, and leisurely attention to detail ; on the other, We find, then, that three amateur photographers work- rapid sympathy, instinctive recognition, and either a veheing independently in different parts of England, separately ment passion for the thing beheld and to be drawn, or confirm the fact of spirit-photography, --- already demon- else, at the least, a keen delight in it. The patience and strated to the satisfaction of many who have tested it leisure were for Marc Antonio, the passion was for Remthrough professional photographers. The experiments of brandt, the delight for Claude. Mr. Beattie and Dr. Thomson are alone absolutely conclu. It is perhaps because Vandyke was by a few years the sive; and, taken in connection with those of Mr. Slater and earliest of the etchers – save Albert Dürer, whose greatDr. Williams, and the test photographs, like those of Mrs. est achievements are all in a different art that one finds Guppy, establish as a scientific fact the objective existence in many of his prints a poverty of means, never indeed to of invisible human forms, definite invisible actinic images. be confused with weakness or with failure, but tending Before leaving the photographic phenomena, we have to now and then to lessen the effect and meaning of his work. notice two curious points in connection with them. The He was a genuine etcher: there was never a more genuine. actinic action of the spirit-forms is peculiar, and much more But if
you think of him with Rembrandt and with Claude rapid than that of the light reflected from ordinary material the two great masters who in point of time were ever forms; for the figures start out the moment the developing so little behind bim — there comes perhaps to your mind fluid touches them, while the figure of the sitter appears some thought of the diligent schoolboy whose round-hand much later. Mr. Beattie noticed this throughout his ex- and whose large-hand are better than his teacher's, but periments, and I was myself much struck with it when who can write only between those rigid lines which for watching the development of three pictures recently taken bimself the teacher would discard. Or, if that simile apat Mr. Hudson's. The second figure, though by no means pear offensive, think of the difference between certain bright, always came out long before any other part of the musicians: think of the precision of Arabella Goddard picture. The other singular thing, is the copious drapery that faultless, measured, restrained interpretation - and in which these forms are almost always enveloped, so as then of Joachim's artistic individuality: firmness at will, to show only just what is necessary for recognition, of the a resolute self-control, minute exactness, and then, sudface and figure. The explanation given of this is, that denly, and but for an instant, the divine indecision which the human form is more difficult to materialize than drac is the last expression of supreme mastery, because it is pery. The conventional " white-sheeted gbost " was not the sign that creator and interpreter are fused into one. ihen all fancy, but had a foundation in fact, a fact, too, But there may be other causes than the one I have sugof deep significance, dependent on the laws of a yet un- gested for that which, define it how we will, seems lacking known chemistry.
to Vandyke. Perhaps not in etching only — that process without precedents - is he something less than he might have been. As a painter, the highest examples were before
him. But did he fully profit by them ? MASTERS OF ETCHING.
He is born in 1599 the son of traders who are wealthy
and early showing signs of his particular ability, he has no difficulty in entering the studio of Rubens. That master much appreciates him. The youth gives still increasing promise ; and he is well advised in early manhood to set
out for Italy, so that he may study the treasures of Venice, REMBRANDT, Ostade, Vandyke, and Claude — these | Florence, and Rome. But he has not passed out of his are the four masters of the art of etching; and it is in native Flanders before he is enamored of a young country virtue of their mastery of that art that they receive from girl. He wavers.
The love of her detains bin many many a more enthusiastic admiration than that which their months. He is quite happy, painting the portraits of her painted pictures call forth from all the world. But what kinsmen. He has forgotten Italy. Remonstrance on reis the nature of that less popular art which they practised ? | monstrance comes from Rubens, and it is owing to this To draw upon the varnished surface of a copper plate, persistence that he finally sets forth. There is then a five with a steel point, the lines that are to give the form and years' absence. No absence so long was ever less fruitful light and shadow of your picture ; to bite those lines by in direct influence; and now he is busy at Antwerp. In the application of a bath of acid, and finally to transfer 1632 he travels to England, hoping for greater gain than your work to paper with ink and a printing press — that, work in his native city affords; and he is early patronized as far as one rough sentence can explain it, is the process by the king, by the Lords Strafford and Pembroke, and by of etching. It is, in many ways, the complement of the art Sir Kenelm Digby, whose wife's portrait (she was the of mezzotinting. The mezzotinter works by spaces, the Lady Venetia Stanley), he paints four times. He does not etcher by lines. And Turner, in the most interesting and neglect his work, but he does not feed and enrich his facmost important of his serial works, the “Liber Studiorum,” | ulty. He is amiable, no doubt; he is dashing and brilliant effected that marriage of the two arts which, strange to too. But it does not occur to any one to say that he is say, has never been repeated. He etched the leading lines wise. He dresses lavishly. In the matter of display he of bis studies, and mezzotint, executed sometimes under attempts an unreasonable rivalry with the wealthiest of bis own supervision and sometimes by lís own hand, ac- the nobles — runs that race which an artist rarely wins, complished the rest. Yet one does not class bim aniong and then wins only at the price of a fatal injury. Van. the great eicbers, because he only used etching to perform dyke keeps an open house for his friends an open purse
BY FREDERICK WEDMORE.
for his mistresses. And in due time he finds he is im- etched, therefore, in the prime of Vandyke, in 1630, or poverished ; not destitute, indeed, nor living meanly, but thereabouts, a year or two before he settled in England. shorn of many of his delights. He is advised to marry, For pure etching, nothing is finer or more spirited than and there is found for him the daughter of an eminent the print of Antonius Cornelissen, the burly, middle-aged, physician – Maria Ruthven is her name. With her, in and rich “ collector.” And yet one turns away from all 1640, he goes to Flanders and to France, hoping that with no other impression than that which was formed alLouis Treize will employ him in the decoration of the most at the beginning. Surely, one says, in the company Louvre, and stirred probably by the ambition to do higher of artists Vandyke is motioned to too great a place. work than portrait-painting. But Nicolas Poussin is en- Technical qualities apart, the value of his work as an gaged before Vandyke puts in his claim, and Vandyke must etcher is precisely that of his work as a painter. There return to England, though English air, in the world of is the same mind in it — that, and no more ; a mind politics and fashion, is thick with a coming trouble. Sir courtier-like, refined, chivalrous, observant, thoughtful at Anthony is ill — ill and unhopeful ; and though the king intervals; yet not of the highest at any point; neither is so far interested in the court-painter as to offer naïvely, the noblest nor the keenest, nor even near to these. Dea gratuity of three hundred pounds to the physician who ducting here and there a great exception — such as that can save his life, neither royal interest nor medical skill grave and gracious Sir Kenelm Digby, in the billiard-room is of any long avail, and Sir Anthony dies on the 9th day at Knole - his subjects, as he has represented them, are of December, 1641, the day of the baptism of his newly- not free from the suspicion of “posing.” There is little born child. That child - Maria Ruthven's — is not his intensity in his artistic temperament; little real appreciaonly child; for in the will made but a few days before his tion of beauty, or of the truest force. A touch of affectadeath there is pathetic mention of “my daughter beyond tion has no repugnance for him. His works in the main sea :” and one can fancy that with that wife beside him seem wanting in the unerring directness, the unerring whom friends had persuaded him to marry, so that his life strength, of a great man's message sent forth from mind to might be quieter, he, “weake of body, yet enjoying his mind. senses, memorie, and understandinge," thinks somewhat of the long past pleasure days, the bright beginning in contrast with this end.
Mr. W. H. Carpenter, who has catalogued his etchings, Roughly speaking, all our great etchers were contempoassigns to him but twenty-four. No less than twenty of raries; and while Vandyke was a child, there was born, at these are portraits of men. But Mr. Carpenter " does not Lübeck, Adrian van Ostade. Particulars of his life are feel justified in omitting thirteen other etchings, chiefly of not abundant, and if we may judge both from that little sacred and allegorical subjects." With these, in this which has descended to us of his story and from the cold paper, we have nothing to do.
and cynical observant face which makes the frontispiece The practical etcher will praise Vandyke for the frank- to his collection of etchings, they would not bear with ness and simplicity of his work; for an economy of labor them any dramatic interest. His life is in his work, and which up to a given point shows only as artistic excel- his work is great in quantity and in such qualities as are lence, and is the proof of knowledge and power. Yet technical. He came, when very young, to Haerlem, to again, it is carried sometimes too near to meagreness, and study under Franz Hals, was the fellow pupil and intithe praise needs must stop. Does the artist, on the other mate friend of Brauwer, and in the city of his adoption band, seek to avail himself to the full of the resources of he soon found ample and remunerative labor. As years his art? – then some fault of conception or execution passed on, his success and reputation became more gen. which slighter work would have left to be unnoticed, or eral and distinguished, and it is not likely that he would would not even bave carried with it at all, is very plainly ever have quitted Haerlem, bad not difficult times loomed apparent. A sky is hard and wooden; a background is in sight. artificial. Where is the tonality which would have been Alarmed at the approach of French troops, in 1662, he given by the more complete master ? On the whole, then, prepares to leave Holland and return to his own land. it is possible that Vandyke is best when he sketches. The He sells his pictures and effects with this intention, and lines of the figure, the lines of the face, this and that trait | gets as far as Amsterdam, whence he will embark for of character, generally true, yet generally not far below Lubeck. But in Amsterdam he is well received - bis the surface, all this Vandyke can render rapidly and fame has gone before him — and an amateur called Conreadily; a clear thought, not a profound one, expressed stantine Senneport prevails on him to be his guest. The with an accurate hand. Here is a cloak set as gracefully new friend explains to Ostade the advantages of remainas Mr. Irving's in the play. Here is a bearing as manly, ing in a town so great and rich; and Ostade, with whom but it is more the manner than the man. Here, too, is a love of country held, we may be sure, a very secondary suggestion of a collar of lace. How well that lies on the place when love of money had any need to clash with it, broad shoulders! Sometimes the mind is seized as well as
is soon persuaded to stay. In Amsterdam, therefore, his the raiment. The portrait of Snellinx has infinite rough easel is set up ; his works are purchased with avidity; vigor. This man was a painter of battles — there is battle they are ordered even more promptly than with all his in his eye and in his firm right hand. Will you see a perseverance they can be executed; and with increasing contented countenance; a mind at rest, with no thought of celebrity 'Ostade pursues his labor until old age is well a pose; a graceful head, with long and black disordered upon him. He dies in Amsterdam in 1685, aged seventyhair; a calm intelligence in eyes and mouth? Look, then, five, leaving, in addition to some three hundred highlyat Paul Pontius, the Antwerp engraver. He is a worthy finished pictures, many drawings which were done, it is gallant, standing there, with visible firm throat, stout arm, believed, as much for pleasure as for studies of his more and dexterous hand. The collar's lace-work makes the arduous works, and fifty etchings in which most of the firm throat yet more massive by its contrast : the many- characteristics of his paintings are reproduced with a folded garment hides nothing of the plain line of that dexterity, a mastery of manner, which, whatever be the rounded, stalwart arm. There is no date engraved upon change of fashion and of culture, will insure for him high the plate, and none is positively known for the man's birth rank, as one among the few great etchers. or death; but on an early impression in the Museum
An accomplished and often sympathetic critic, who has Print Room I see written by a German hand, “ Paulus made of etching his particular study, has been unusually Pontius, geboren 1603,” and one takes the portrait to be severe upon the work of Ostade: not, of course, upon its that of a man close upon seven-and-twenty.
technical merits — respecting which severity itself must
give way to admiration – but upon the sentiment that 1 One of these - Margaret Lemon - appears, says an authority, “ to have
it expresses by touches so direct, keen, unmistakable. been a woman of much notoriety.” There are prints after one of the portraits which Vandyke painted of her, by Hollar, Gaywood, Lommelin, and
Composition and chiar oscuro, perfect as the subjects selected can possibly give scope
these two great quali
ties Mr. Hamerton allows in Ostade's work. But the sen- picturesqueness of nature, when that was shown in little timent he finds wholly repulsive : repulsive from end to things of quite familiar appearance, and alive too, now and end. The condemnation, though true enough in the main, again, to such picturesqueness as men can make. The last is certainly a little too sweeping. It is true - need I re- he proves by the care and thought and delicacy he bestows
- of much of his work : of much even of that which on the often prominent quaint lines of diamond-patterned is technically the best. In the “ Tavern Dance” and in casements; and the first, by the lightness and sensitiveness " Rustic Courtship,”. “ the males pursue the females ;” of his touch when he draws the leat and tendril of the vine while in “ The Family," " the female gives suck to her by the house-wall, as it throws its slight cool shadow on the young.” It is all animal. And yet a sentiment quite other rustic bench, or curls waywardly into the now open winihan ibis is now and again conveyed; and in enumerating dow, through which there glances for a moment (brief inthese pieces, one should not forget those others – how, deed in Ostade's life !) a little of the happy sunshine of for instance, in “ The Painter" the calm pursuit of labor
De Hooghe. for labor's sake is well expressed; bow in " The Spectacle Seller” a rustic or suburban incident is depicted with point and simplicity. There is nothing animal in “ The KnifeGrinder; ” it is a little bourgeois scene of no elevation, but
HOW URI CHOSE HER CHIEF MAGISTRATE. of easily-recognized truth. In the “ Peasant Family saying Grace” there is even a little spirituality,' a homely Last month the solemn day came round when the anbut genuine piety; though the types are poor, with no nat- cient Republic of Uri, one of the oldest and most historic ural dignity — the father as unintelligent and sheep-like a of the Swiss cantons, bad to elect her chief executive offiparent as 'ever fostered his young, and accepted without cial, the Landamman. Uri is essentially Catholic. Her struggle or questioning a life of the dullest monotony. people were active on the side of the Sonderbund in 1847. Again, in the “ Peasant paying his Reckoning,” the They shared in the exaltation of the Cantonalist party over finest and most fascinating, I should say, of Ostade's
the Centralists when the latter made their first attempt to smaller plates, it is not the dull bliss of boozing that is rob the cantons of their hereditary privileges under color primarily thought of, dwelt upon, or presented, but rather of revising the Federal Constitution in 1872; and they The whole scene of this interior paying peasant who were proportionally depressed when these traitors to Swiss fumbles for the coin, and watchful hostess, and still abid- traditions triumphed under the influence of Protestant and iny guests. How good is the space : how good the acces- fo-called Liberal principles at the poll on the 19th of April. sories! the leisure, how delightful! It is a tavern in. Consequently a beavy gloom set on the faces of the fathers deed, but somehow glorified by art. For accurate delicacy of the country when they met to elect their own ruler under of perception, for dexterous delicacy of execution, what is the altered circumstances which would make the new Lanthere that surpasses this ?
damman, according to popular view in the canton, a mere But do you, on the other hand, wish to see work which agent of the distant Government of Berne, instead of the shall abundantly confirm Mr. Hamerton's opinion of Ostade chief magistrate of a free people. Herr Epp, whose term - already partly justified, as I have indicated, by “ The of office had come legally to a close, as it had indeed each Family,"
,”?'« Rustic Courtship," and "The Tavern Dance," May for many years before, was the first to speak. “I then you will turn to the pieces numbered 13 and 50 in have not the smallest desire to be reëlected," was the burthe catalogue of Bartsch. The first of these is called “ The den of his address; "and I beg earnestly that my wish on Smokers : " it represents three men, one of whom sits upon this head may be attended to. I have had very little sata turned-up cask. Chiar-oscuro is good, and grouping is isfaction in exercising my charge; and my successor is good: and that is all. There is as little subject for the likely to have still less, for in these evil days it is anything mind as beauty for the eye; there is nothing of the char- but a pleasant one. We are about to lose our own Constiacter with which Meissonier endows such a scene. The tution, and have it replaced by Federal institutions. I second represents an interior with many peasants, of whom would not therefore hold the position in which you placed some are children and the rest of mature years. They are me any longer. There will be plenty of taxes by and by; all delighting in and com
mmending to each other this drink and in short the lookout is in every way not an agreeable and that this and that savory mouthful that fitly crowns one. I am not the man to fulfil the functions of Landamwith sensual jollity the labor of the day.
man under these new conditions, and in no case will I Take Adrian van Ostade out of doors, and he is a little accept them, having had quite enough of the duty, and bebetter. In open air, somehow, he is less grossly animal. ing thoroughly tired of it. If I drink a quiet glass with an Not that in presence of a wide landscape and far-reaching old friend from the country, I find myself made a picture of vista there is any hopefulness in him. His own vista is in a caricature by some of the Liberals. I have no relish bounded as before. It is not the landscape that he sees for this sort of thing, and wish to go back to private life with his mind, but the near pursuit of the peasaut by the and be able to share my glass with an acquaintance withroadside, the peasant by the bridge. In “ The Fishers,” out observation. So I have now only to thank you all ?wo boys, with old men's faces, bend over the bridge's rail- for your support, and suggest that you should elect Herr ings, and over them hangs a gray Dutch sky, monotonous
Lusser to fill the post.” and dreary as their lives. A wide landscape says nothing Herr Lusser had acted as Vice-President of the Republic to Ostade. It is too great for him; he is never concerned for some time past; but his unwillingness to fill the higher with the infinite in any way. But just outside the cottage office seemed at first scarcely less remarkable than IIerr Huor, on the bench, within easy reach of ale-house tap, Epp's desire to quit it. “I have already," he said, “ been he and his work are happiest and best. Here is evoked thirty years in the service of the canton in various capacisuch sense of beauty as he is dowered with by Nature, ties, in most of which there was plenty to do and very litwbich is never profuse to him — such sense of beauty as tle
the heavithe conditions of bis Netherlands life have enabled him to est duty of all. Besides which, you forget that I am really keep and cultivate. Thus, in “La Fête sous la Treille,” too old. I have already passed my fifty-fifth birthday, and we have some charm of open-air life, much movement, need rest.” Cries here came from the assembly of “You some vivacity, and here and there a gleam of grace. In are not yet sixty, Herr Lusser (sixty being the proper the group of “ The Charlatan " there is some dramatic in- age for exemption from public duties). “ I cannot,” went terest, and there are characters more varied than he is on the speaker, disregarding these comments, “ get through wont to present. But as we have seen him in his interiors my day now without a nap. And then the Landamman to the picturesqueness of litter — sprawling brush and pot will have a very hard nut to crack, and my teeth are really and sauter, and strewn cards upon the floor — so let us take not strong enough for such a job. I had very much rather leave of him in recognizing that he was alive also to the you would elect our worthy standard-barer, Herr Ar.
nold." 1 lIow this spiritually struck the refined mind of Goethe may be seen in Goethe anu Menudelssohn, 2d Edition, p. 70.
Herr Arnold, called on to speak by this f #rsonal allusion,
already crushed poor France and is now imprisoning the A xew Salle bas just been opened in the Louvre for
proved bimself a man of very few words. « Fellow.citi- The great work on Michael Angelo, which is promised zens,” he said, "please to look on that remark of Herr for his fourth centenary, in March, 1875, and which, it is Lusser's as a mere matter of politeness. We are all agreed said, will contain 700 letters of the great artist. besides that he is the proper man to succeed Herr Epp. He is more than 1000 letters and writings of various kinds by exactly fit for the duty; for he not only knows our cantonal his contemporaries, will be published, it is said, simultalaws, but is well up in Federal legislation. As for me, I neously in three languages – Italian, German, and French. declare to you, on my word of honor, I will not accept the
Professor Hein has described a small cave recently post, and in this you will find me firm."
discovered near the railway-station of Thäingen, in SwitNo more discussion followed this very decided declara
zerland, containing abundance of animal bones, with untion. An almost unanimous vote taken on the instant declared Herr Lusser duly elected Landamman ; and, quit polished flint implements and other relics of human work
manship, including an incised figure of a reindeer on horn. ting his place in the outside ring, the new magistrate took
In the lower layers of the deposit were found remains of his position in the centre of the circle formed by bis fellow
the mammoth. citizens, as the official sign that he would no longer oppose their will. “Your confidence,” he said, addressing them, A curious discovery has just been made in Italy by a “ touches my very heart, and I will do my best for you, young musician, who has arrived in Paris with his prize. with God's help. I thought the worst pang of my life was It is an unpublished score by Cimarosa, entitled "Marwhen I lately buried my worthy mother; but I declare it gharita di Vicenza.” It was in a Carmelite convent at did not give me more pain than stepping forward into this Florence that the finder hit on it one day in turning over position. However, I will fill my post without favor or some old papers. He obtained the manuscript without any prejudice. These are evil times for him who is the protec- difficulty, and has presented it to the Paris Conservatoire. tor of the widows and orphans of the canton, for the pub- The Prussian Staatsanzeiger states that Professor Max lic chest is well-nigh empty, and the demands on it are
Müller has been elected a knight of the Ordre pour le large. We hope much from that “hole of the future,' as Mérite, at the same time as Field-Marshal Count Moltke. they call it, which is being bored through St. Gothard ; but
This is the highest distinction in Germany. The number we see nothing yet but a cloud of Italian and Suabian
of knights is restricted to thirty, and when a vacancy immigrants coming into the canton to ruin our morals and
occurs, a new member is elected by the chapter, and the take our business from us. Though we voted • No' the
election confirmed by the emperor. There are also some other day, we have got to live in the new house they have
foreign knights who enjoy the privilege of being allowed fitted on us. But then the Holy Father is a prisoner in to wear their insignia at the courts of England, France, his own, and so we have no business to complain. After and Italy, without requiring special leave from their sovall, we are not so taxed as our neighbors over the moun- ereigns. Mr. Thomas Carlyle and Mr. Humphrey Lloyd tains by their Galantuomo; nor are our ecclesiastics so have lately been elected foreigo members of the Ordre pour persecuted as those of Germany by that man who has le Mérite. bishops. But you may depend upon it, the church will
ancient American curiosities. In the glass cases that line outlive him. As for me, I am but a weak mortal; but I will do my best, and now only beg your prayers and help.”
the walls is placed a considerable collection of pottery; This exordium finished, the new Landamman took the
idols, vases, and other objects, which gives a good idea of oath of office, and Uri fairly entered on the first year of
the artistic knowledge of the races that inhabited America
before its discovery by Columbus. Many of the idols are the Lusser administration.
carved in stone and marble, and resemble in their types the well-known Egyptian divinities. The most remarkable object of the collection is an immense zodiac of about
twelve mètres in circumference, cut in a kind of black FOREIGN NOTES.
marble, and absolutely covered with grotesque signs and
inscriptions. All these treasures, it appears, have been The Fifth or “Inkerman” volume, as it is called, of
for a long time stowed away in the magazines of the LouMr. Kinglake's “Invasion of the Crimea," is announced
vre, but until the recent stir about the management of that for immediate publication.
museum no one seems to have thought of exhibiting them. It is announced that a school of music is to be estab
M. François LENORMANT, the successor to M. Beulé, lished by order of the Imperial German government at
late Archæological Professor at the. Collége de France, has Düsseldorf in connection with the local school of painting.
written to the Temps on the subject of Dr. Schliemann's
excavations. Comparing the antiquities now brought to MEISSONIER's Sign Painter," painted some light with similar objects found in Cyprus, Rhodes, and years ago, was recently sold in London, for £4500. An- Santorin, he inclines to think that they cannot be ascribed other picture by the same artist, “ The Guardsman," sold to a period later than 1600 B. C. They belong, he would at the same time for £4100.
fain urge, to an older Troy than that of Homer; more Long Ago is to be discontinued. The editor has the sat
probably to that city which tradition said was built by isfaction of knowing that during the brief existence of his
Phæbus and Poseidon and destroyed by Heracles ; or perpaper, it went back, financially at least, more energetically haps to that still more ancient one founded by Dardanus. than its rival — Notes and Queries.
There is a strong resemblance between the copper arms of
Hissarlik and weapons of the brazen age found in DenMr. Browning's forthcoming work will, it is said, con- mark and the lacustrine dwellings of Switzerland; while sist of a translation of the “ Hercules Furens” of Euripides, the eartben vases sculptured with women's breasts in rein an original setting, somewhat like that which “ Balaus- lief have direct counterparts in some found in Pomerania tion's Adventure" forms for the Alcestis.
and on the shores of the Baltic. The concerts which Anton Rubinstein gave last month
This fact corroborates a theory recently advanced by M. in St. Petersburg and Moscow - two in each city - yielded
Bertrand, the learned keeper of the Saint-Germain Muthe enormous sum of 23,000 roubles silver. One of each
seum, before Dr. Schliemann's doings were heard of, that of the two concerts was for a charitable object.
the civilization of the brazen age had its origin in the north
of Asia Minor among the Chalybean metal-workers. From It is stated tbat the latest result of the excavations at thence, he contends, their manufactures were brought by Rone is the discovery of a magnificent bust of Matidia, Eastern merchants along the route followed by the amber niece of Trajan, and mother of Sabina, wife of Hadrian, traders mentioned by Herodotus, past the Carpathian which is in a perfect state of preservation, and is to be range, where to this day are found boards of Greek coins, placed in the museum of the Campidoglio palace.
as far as the shores of the Baltic.