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commendo atque trado(Id., Epist. Fam. ii. 6). At the same time, in considering the question of the origin and proper meaning of the English phrase the custom of what was called Commendation in the Feudal System is not to be overlooked: the vassal was said to commend himself to the person whom he selected for his lord. Commend is etymologically the same word with command; and both forms, with their derivatives, have been applied, in Latin and the modern tongues more exclusively based upon it, as well as in English, in a considerable variety of ways.


SCENE 1.-The same. The Capitol; the Senate sitting,
A Crowd of People in the Street leading to the Capitol ; among them

Cæs. The ides of March are come.
Sooth. Ay, Cæsar; but not gone.

Art. Hail, Cæsar, read this schedule.
283. Dec. Trebonius doth desire you to o'er-read,
At your best leisure, this his humble suit.

Art. 0, Cæsar, read mine first; for mine's a suit
That touches Cæsar nearer: Read it, great Cæsar.
285. Cæs. That touches us Ourself shall be last served.

Art. Delay not, Cæsar; read it instantly.
Cæs. What, is the fellow mad ?

Pub. Sirrah, give place.
289. Cas. What, urge you your petitions in the street ?
Come to the Capitol.
CÆSAR enters the Capitol, the rest following. All the

Pop. I wish your enterprise to-day may thrive.

Cas. What enterprise, Popilius ? 292. Pop. Fare you well.

[Advances to CÆSAR. Bru. What said Popilius Lena :

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Cas. He wished to-day our enterprise might thrive.
I fear our purpose is discovered.
295. Bru. Look, how he makes to Cæsar: Mark him.
296. Cas. Casca, be sudden, for we fear prevention.--

Brutus, what shall be done ? If this be known,
Cassius on Cæsar never shall turn back,

For I will slay myself.
297. Bru. Cassius, be constant :

Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes ;

For, look, he smiles, and Cæsar doth not change. 298. Cas. Trebonius knows his time; for, look you, Brutus, He draws Mark Antony out of the way.

[Exeunt ANTONY and TREBONIUS. CÆSAR and the

SENATORS take their seats. Dec. Where is Metellus Cimber? Let him go, And presently

efer his suit to Cæsar. 300. Bru. He is addressed : press near and second him. 301. Cin. Casca, you are the first that rears your hand. 302. Casca. Are we all ready?

Cæs. What is now amiss,
That Cæsar, and his senate, must redress ?
304. Met. Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Cæsar,

Metellus Cimber throws before thy seat
An humble heart :-

[Kneeling. 305. Cæs. I must prevent thee, Cimber.

These crouchings, and these lowly courtesies,
Might fire the blood of ordinary men;
And turn pre-ordinance, and first decree,
Into the law of children. Be not fond,
To think that Cæsar bears such rebel blood,
That will be thawed from the true quality
With that which melteth fools ; I mean sweet words,
Low-crouched curt’sies, and base spaniel fawning.
Thy brother by decree is banished;
If thou dost bend, and pray, and fawn for him,
I spurn thee like a cur out of my way.
Know, Cæsar doth not wrong; nor without cause

Will he be satisfied.
306. Met. Is there no voice more worthy than my own,

To sound more sweetly in great Cæsar's ear

For the repealing of my banished brother? 307. Bru. I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Cæsar ;

Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may

Have an immediate freedom of repeal.

Cæs. What, Brutus ! 309. Cas. Pardon, Cæsar ; Cæsar, pardon :

As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall,

To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber.
310. Cæs. I could be well moved, if I were as you ;

If I could pray to move, prayers would move me :
But I am constant as the northern star,
Of whose true fixt and resting quality
There is no fellow in the firmament.
The skies are painted with unnumbered sparks ;
They are all fire, and every one doth shine;
But there's but one in all doth hold his place :
So, in the world ; 'tis furnished well with men,
And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive;
Yet, in the number, I do know but one
That unassailable holds on his rank,
Unshaked of motion : and, that I am he,
Let me a little show it, even in this;
That I was constant Cimber should be banished,
And constant do remain to keep him so.

Cin. O Cæsar,
312. Cæs. Hence ! wilt thou lift up Olympus ?

Dec. Great Cæsar, 314. Cæs. Doth not Brutus bootless kneel? 315. Casca. Speak, hands, for me. [CASCA stabs CÆSAR in the neck. CÆSAR catches hold of his

He is then stabbed by several other Conspirators, and

at last by MARCUS BRUTUS. 316. Cæs. Et tu, Brute.-Then, fall, Cæsar.

[Dies. The Senators and People retire in confusion. Cin. Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead! Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets.

Cas. Some to the common pulpits, and cry out,
Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!
319. Bru. People, and senators ! be not affrighted;
Fly not; stand still :-ambition's debt is paid.

Casca. Go to the pulpit, Brutus.
Dec. And Cassius too.
Bru. Where's Publius ?
Cin. Here, quite confounded with this mutiny,

Met. Stand fast together, lest some friend of Cæsar's
Should chance-


325. Bru. Talk not of standing; Publius, good cheer ;

There is no harm intended to your person,
Nor to no Roman else: so tell them, Publius.

Cas. And leave us, Publius ; lest that the people,
Rushing on us, should do your age some mischief.
327. Bru. Do so ;-and let no man abide this deed,
But we the doers.

328. Cas. Where's Antony ?
329. Tre. Fled to his house amazed :

Men, wives, and children stare, cry out, and run,
As it were doomsday.

Bru. Fates! we will know your pleasures :
That we shall die, we know; ’tis but the time,

And drawing days out, that men stand upon.
331. Casca. Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life
Cuts off so many years of fearing death.

Bru. Grant that, and then is death a benefit:
So are we Cæsar's friends, that have abridged
His time of fearing death.–Stoop, Romans, stoop,
And let us bathe our hands in Cæsar's blood
Up to the elbows, and besmear our swords :
Then walk we forth, even to the market-place;
And, waving our red weapons o’er our heads,

Let’s all cry, Peace! Freedom! and Liberty! 333. Cas. Stoop, then, and wash. How many ages hence,

Shall this our lofty scene be acted over

In states unborn, and accents yet unknown! 334. Bru. How many times shall Cæsar bleed in sport,

That now on Pompey's basis lies along,

No worthier than the dust! 335. Cas. So oft as that shall be,

So often shall the knot of us be called
The men that gave their country liberty.

Dec. What, shall we forth ? 337. Cas. Ay, every man away:

Brutus shall lead; and we will grace his heels
With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.

Enter a SERVANT. Bru. Soft, who comes here ? A friend of Antony's. 339. Serv. Thus, Brutus, did my master bid me kneel;

Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down:


And, being prostrate, thus he bade me say.
Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest;
Cæsar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving :
Say, I love Brutus, and I honour him;
Say, I feared esar, honoured him, and loved him.
If Brutus will vouchsafe, that Antony
May safely come to him, and be resolved
How Cæsar hath deserved to lie in death,
Mark Antony shall not love Cæsar dead
So well as Brutus living; but will follow
The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus,
Thorough the hazards of this untrod state,

With all true faith. So says my master Antony. 340. Bru. Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman;

I never thought him worse.
Tell him, so please him come unto this place,
He shall be satisfied; and, by my honour,
Depart untouched.
Serv. I'll fetch him presently.

[Exit SERV.
342. Bru, I know that we shall have him well to friend.
343. Cas. I wish we may: but yet have I a mind

That fears him much; and my misgiving still
Falls shrewdly to the purpose.

Re-enter ANTONY.
344. Bru. But here comes Antony.- Welcome, Mark Antony.
345. Ant. O mighty Cæsar ! Dost thou lie so low?

Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,
Shrunk to this little measure?-Fare thee well.
I know not, gentlemen, what you intend,
Who else must be let blood, who else is rank:
If I myself, there is no hour so fit
As Cæsar's death's hour; nor no instrument
Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich
With the most noble blood of all this world.
I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard,
Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and smoke
Fulfil your pleasure. Live a thousand years,
I shall not find myself so apt to die :
No place will please me so, no mean of death
As here, by Cæsar and by you, cut off,

The choice and master spirits of this age. 346. Bru. O Antony! beg not your death of us

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