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may be branded with something more than being finical and fantastical, though they may undoubt, edly merit such a censure, which we meet with in, Mr Bernard Gilpin's Life, spoken by an High Sheriff at Oxford to the Students : “ Arriving, ” says he, at the mount of St Mary, in the stony

stage where I now stand, I have brought yoụ “ fome fine biscuits carefully conserved for the “ Chickens of the Church, the Sparrows of the

Spirit, and the sweet Swallows of Salvation.”

Şuch studied ornaments and pedantic conceits are unworthy a place in our compositions ; and they should be carefully avoided by all, but especially by such as have a lively fancy, and a turn for wit and humour.

Such labour'd nothings in so strange a ftile, Amaze th' unlearn'd, and make the learned smile Let the peace of oblivion brood over fuck trash, and may they never be called into remem brance, except to excite our dislike, and double our caution.

$ 11. Let us avoid all filthy and impure Tropes. We should take heed that no Tropes we make use of, either as to found or sense, convey any idea that will not be agreeable to à chaste mind, or make any trespass upon delicacy. Let us borrow our Tropes from what we find most pleasing to the ear, the eye, and the



* Pope's Elay on Griticism, line 326.

other senses. Tropes, says Aristotle, are “ to be taken from those things which are agree“ able, whether in found, or touch, or sight, or

any other sense *." Cicero will not admit that the commonwealth should be said to be emalçulated by the death of AFRICANUS, nor that another person should be called the dung of the court f. QUINTILIAN by no means approves of the saying of an Orator, that such a person had lanced the biles of the commonwealth I. “I cannot “ fee Horace's genius, says the Archbishop of “ CAMBRAY, in this low piece of satire,

Profiripti regis Rupili pus atque venenum ; “ and we should be apt to stare at the reading of i it, if we did not know the Author ll.

LONGINUS's remarks and instructions upon this head are very juft: « It by no means, fays



δε μεταφοράς εντευθεν οιςεον απο καλων, και τη φωνη, η an δυναμει, η τη οψει, η αλλη τινι αιθεσει. ARISTOT, Rhetor. lib, iii. cap. 2. § 4.

+ Nolo morte cici Africani castratam esse rempublicam ; nolo ftercus curiæ dici Glauciam : quamvis fit fimile, tamen est in utroque deformis cogitatio fimilitudinis. 'Cicer. de Orat. lib. iii. $ 41.

# Non enim probem illud quoque veteris Oratoris : perse. cuifti reipublicæ vomicas. Quintil. lib. viii. cap. 6. § 1.

|| Letter to the French Academy. This line of Horace in plain English may be rendered the filth (the word fignifying *the corrupt matter iffuing from a fore) and the poison of the profcribed King RUPILIUS ; Horace thereby intending the railing or abusive tongue of RupILIUs. Horat. Sat. lib. i. sat. 7. ver. 1

c. he, becomes us to sink into fordid and impure

terms, unless we are compelled by an unavoid << able necessity ; but we should make a choice “ of words correspondent to the dignity of the

subject; and should imitate nature in her for“ mation of the human fabric, who has not

placed the parts of our frame which are inde“ cent to mention, nor the vents of the body in

open sight, but has concealed them as much “ as possible; and, as ZenOPHON observes,' re“ moved the channels to the greatest distance “ from the eyes, thereby to preserve inviolable * the beauty of her workmanship *"

$ 12. Having given an account of the nature of Tropes in general, I shall conclude the chapter with two observations.

First, If we would have a distinct and full idea of the beauty of a Trope, let us substîcute' the natural expressions in the room of the tropical, and divest a bright phrase of its ornaments, by reducing it to plain and simple language, and then observe how inuch we abate the value of the


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Ου γαρ

δεν καταναν εν τοις οψεσιν εις τα ρυπαρα και εξυΟρισμενα, αν μη σφοδρα υπο τιν@- ανακης συνδιωκωμεθα" αλλα των πραγματων σρεπου αν και τας φωνας εχειν αξιας, και μιμειθαι την δημιαργήσασαν φυσιν του ανθρώπου, ητις εν ημιν τα μερη τα απορρητα εκ εθηκεν εν προσωπω, εδε τα τα σαν7%. ο Γκα περιηθηματα" απεκρυψατο δε, ως ενην, και, κατα τον Ξε" νοφωντα, τες τυπων οτι πορρωταω οχετες απεσρεψεν,” εδά. felony nataiquraca TO TE No {w¢ xaan. LONGIN, de Sublia mitete, S43

difcourse. Of this method Cicero gives us an example; -" live, ULYSSES, while you may,

Snatch the last glimpses of the golden day. “ The Poet does not say, take or seek (for either “ of those words would intimate delay on the

part of the speaker, as hoping that Ulysses “ would live some time longer) but snatch. This “ word agrees with what is said before, while

you may

Secondly, Tropes and metaphorical expressions are used, according to the obfervation of Mr BlackwALL, is either for necessity, emphasis, or $5 decency. ' For necessity, when we have not pro

per words to declare our thoughts; for empbafis, when the proper words we have are not so

comprehensive and significant ; for decency, " when plain language would give offence and 4 distaste to the Reader t."


Vive, Ulysses, dum licet Oculis poftremum lumen radiatum rape. Non dixit cape, non pete; haberet enim moram sperantis diu. tius efle fese victurum, sed rape; hoc verbum eft ad id aptatum, quod ante dixerat, dum licet. Cicer. de Orat.

lib. iii: $ 40.

+ BLACKWALL's Introduction to the Classics, part

chap. v.


The METAPHOR considered.

§ 1. The definition of a Metaphor. 2. How

diftinguished from a Trope, or how it appears. 10 be only a species of the Trope. 3. How diftinguished from a Comparison. 4. What necessary to constitute a Metapbor or Comparison. § 5. Which to be preferred, the Metaphor or Comparison, and upon what account. $ 6. Inftances of Metaphors from Scripture. $7. Encomiums upon the Metaphor, by Cicero, ADDISON, LONGINUS, and ROLLIN. 88. The Metaphor requires wisdom and delicacy to manage it. $ 9. We should take beed our Metaphors are not inconsistent. $ 10. The indulgence and privilege in the use of Metaphors considered and confirmed by examples. $IT. Mcthod how to avoid inconsistent Metaphers. § 12. Inftances of inconfiftent Metapbors in Authors of the first reputation, DoDDRIDGE, Young, TILLOTSON, ADDISON, and Cicero. 13. Examples of beautiful Metaphors from DODDRIDGE, YOUNG, TILLOTSON, Addison, and CICERO. 14. Metaphors not to be pursued too far; with inStances of faults of this kind. 9.15: Metaphors


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