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LESSON 115. - Memoriter Exercise.

333. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

334. MODEL. Conway CASTLE. 1. The venerable fortress of Conway Castle stands in a picturesque situation a short distance from the mouth of the river Conway, at the northern extremity of the county of Caernarvon in Wales.

2. The castle in form is an oblong square, and stands on the edge of a steep rock, which is washed on two sides by an arm of the river. The walls, which are ten or twelve feet thick, are all embattled, and flanked by eight vast circular embattled towers, each of which formerly had a slender machicolated tower rising from the top, from which hot substances could be poured on the assailants below. On the side towards the river one of the towers has been rent asunder by some of the inhabitants of the town quarrying the foundation for slates ; part of it stands erect, and part hangs in a slanting direction, forming altogether a singular ruin. The interior consists of two courts, bounded by the various apartments, all of which are in a lamentable state of decay, though still bearing strong marks of former magnificence.

3. and 4. It was erected in 1284, by command of Edward the First, as a security against the insurrections of the Welsh. Soon after its erection, the royal founder was besieged in it, and the garrison almost reduced by famine to a surrender, when they were extricated by the arrival of a fleet with provisions.

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5. After the restoration the castle was granted by Charles the Second to the Earl of Conway and Kilulta, who had scarcely obtained possession, ere he ordered an agent to remove all the timber, lead, iron, and other materials. He did not, however, reap the fruits of this Vandal order ; for the vessel in which the materials were placed, was wrecked on its voyage to Ireland, and all the property lost.

6. Few buildings in the kingdom have more frequently called forth the talent of the artist than Conway Castle ; it has been made the scene of dramatic representation, and often been the theme of the poet.

LESSON 116. Hints.

335. From the following Hints, which are given in regular succession, produce a Description developed and expressed as nearly as possible in accordance with the rule:


336. — ANCIENT CASTLES. 1. The materials varied according to places; but manner of building pretty uniform. 2. Outside walls generally of stones nearest at hand; insides filled up with fragments, or chalk, and fluid mortar. 3. General shape and plan depended on form of the ground occupied ; favourite situation, for security, an eminence, or bank of a river.

4. First outwork the barbican (an Arabic word) or watch tower, for noticing any approach, usually placed beyond the ditch, at the edge joined the drawbridge. 5. Next work the castle ditch or moat, wet or dry according to circumstances ; the former preferred. 6. When dry, sometimes under ground passages, cavalry could sally. 7. Over the moat, by the drawbridge, you passed to the ballium or bayley, a space within the outer wall. 8. This latter called wall of the ballium, flanked with towers, and had an embattled parapet. 9. Entrance into the ballium by a strong gate between two towers, secured by portcullis or falling door, armed with iron spikes, let fall at pleasure. 11. Over the gate rooms for the porter, the towers served for soldiers on guard. 12. When double line of walls, spaces next each wall, called the outer and inner ballia. 13. Within the ballium lodgings and barracks for the garrison and workmen, wells, chapels ; large mounts often thrown up in this place to command neighbouring country.

14. On a height, generally centre, the keep or donjon, sometimes called the tower.

15. This the citadel or last retreat of the garrison, often surrounded by an inner ditch with drawbridge, similar to, with additional walls and towers. 16. In large castles, it was usually a high square tower, of four or five stories, with turrets, in these turrets a staircase, sometimes a well. 17. The walls of the keep very thick, to withstand the attacks of time and weather ; the keep or donjon being now the only remaining part of many. 18. Small openings in the wall, double purpose, a little light, discharging arrows at the enemy.

LESSON 117.- Original. 337. From the following subjects, the pupil may select one for description according to the preced

ing rule:

1. A description of some Abbey which the pupil has visited. 2.


do. 3.

Palace or Mansion do.

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LESSON 118. 338. RULE 1. A DESCRIPTION OF A Town or City notices the situation and general appearance of the place, its extent, population, curiosities, buildings, trade, manufactures, municipal regulations, institutions (whether civil, religious, literary, or social), and condition of the people. These will be discussed according to the importance of the subject. Brief reflections, applicable to the subject, are occasionally inserted.

339. RULE 2. — A DESCRIPTION OF A DISTRICT notices the general appearance of the district, its climate, weather, soil, extent, population, productions, curiosities, trade, condition of the people, manners, and customs.

This description will be modified according to circumstances.

Memoriter Exercise.

340. 1. Read the following Extract two or three times over, noticing the sequence of the sentences.

2. Reproduce the Example from recollection.

3. Institute a Comparison between your own and the original, when all deviations either in construction, punctuation, or sequence must be noticed.

341. MODEL. - Lisbon. Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, is situated on the northern bank of the Tagus, about nine miles above the bar or entrance of the river. It rises in the form of an amphitheatre from the bank of the river, being built on a succession of hills, the highest of which are the hill of Buenos Ayres or Estrella, to the west, and the castle hill to the east. Most of the streets are steep, irregular, and tortuous, besides being ill paved and dirty. The new town, built in a valley between the hills, after the earthquake of 1755, contains, however, many fine streets. At the river's edge is a fine square called Praça de Commercio, one side of which is formed by the Tagus, and

the other sides by the arsenal, the custom house, the exchange, royal library, and other public buildings.

The oldest part of Lisbon, east of the castle, consists of narrow streets of lofty houses. Westward of the new streets the town ascends a slope, where are massive buildings, chiefly convents and churches, which crown the summits of the hills, and tower above all the rest.

The extreme limits of Lisbon extend about foar miles by one and a half; but many parts of the included area are occupied by extensive gardens, plantations, the naked steep declivities of the hills, and by ruins and rubbish. West of the bridge of Alcantara a line of streets parallel to the Tagus connects Lisbon with the market town and royal residence of Belem or Bethlehem. The Tagus at Lisbon is about five miles in width. The southern bank is studded with a number of small towns and villages, which supply the capital with provisions. The river gives to Lisbon a most splendid and safe harbour, which might contain all the fleets of Europe. The largest men-of-war can anchor close to Lisbon. The entrance of the river is defended by two forts. The climate of Lisbon is healthy and genial; it is


hot and dry in the summer months, though relieved by northwest winds. Heavy rains fall in November and December ; cold clear weather prevails in January ; but in February the weather becomes mild again, and the spring begins. Snow is a very rare occurrence.

Lisbon is not provided with conduits or sewers, and all the filth is thrown into the streets, from which it is washed off by the rain into the river.

The population of Lisbon in 1841 was 241,500. Its trade, though much diminished since the loss of Brazil, is still considerable. There are some manufactories of silks, paper, soap, and leather, and also a few sugar refineries and potteries.

LESSON 119.- Hints. 342. From the following Hints, which are given

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