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to the Russian court had charged them with complete success. The goven with a breach of faith in thus sacri- ment of the Ionian republic, it us ficing to France the independence of now determined, should be restored. the Septinsular Republic. The Rus- but the British flag was set up togisians having recommended to the Par. ther with the Septinsular flag, ini guinotes to secure a good under- British troops were stationed to de standing with the French, completely fend the several posts till the various abandoned them. The Pacha, seeing offices were properly filled up. Whe that France had obtained possession the Parguinotes, whose ancestors ba! of the Ionian Islands, entered into bled for their country, who the a negociation with the French Gene- selves were ready to bleed for that ral (Berthier) for getting Parga ced- country, who had been respected by ed to him. The Parguinotes, see- Russia and by France, when they ing these negociations between the saw this example of British French General and the Pacha, pre. nerosity, when they saw the is. pared for their own defence, and at ands reduced by British rales, the same time made strong applica- and restored to freedom by Brite tion to the French General for assist- generosity, could it be supposed tha: ance. The French General refused they did not unanimously throw to give them up, and promised to themselves under British protection? report to the Emperor that they were On the one side they saw the: a free people, and every way worthy friends slaughtered by the Turks; a of favour. He at the same time sent the other, they saw the Septiasalathem a French flag and troops to government restored in the most defend them This was in 1807, and magnanimous manner. Could thes the cession was finally refused by the hesitate as to the course to be adops
. Emperor. In 1809 and 1810, Ad- ed? This was in 1809 and 1810 miral Collingwood commanded in We were afterwards too much ethe Mediterranean, and took mea- gaged by the war in other places sures to resist the further progress to carry our successes further is of the French. Sir John Stuart far- this quarter, and it was vain to at nished land forces, and Lord Col. tempt the establishment of an inde lingwood ships, for an expedition to pendent government without Corfi. reduce the lonian Islands. Lord In 1814, the Pacha made an atte: Collingwood instructed the captain, on Parga. The Parguinotes applied that on their landing on any of those for aid to the French General, who islands, the Septinsular, and not the replied, that he could afford them British flag, should be boisted, the no assistance; that he had no troops inhabitants should be required to for the purpose; and, if he had, that take arms, and the fortresses should he could not, without instructions not be garrisoned by British troops, from his government, send them to their own troops being sufficient for their assistance. They determined
, that purpose. Five of the islands notwithstanding, to make no cession : were reduced. Corfu, the head of they made all the resistance possible them all, was not reduced, there not in the neighbourhood of Parga, and being troops sufficient to effect its at its walls. The Pacha's army reduction. The commander of the 20,000 men was repelled, and his expedition, in his dispatches, said, nephew, who commanded it, slain
. that he had great satisfaction in sta- The Pacha retreated; he was repe!lting that their efforts were attended ed, not routed. They had not num.
ers enough to pursue him.. Seeing placed over Parga by the Governor hat they could get no assistance of the lonian islands. Of the first rom the French, they sent a depu- paper he had a copy, but motion ation to General Campbell, with an could not be regularly founded upon ffer to withdraw their fortunes from it. He would read, however, from rance, and to place themselves un. this copy, the instructions from Geler British protection, to follow the peral Campbell to Lieutenant Breton, lestinies of the Ionian Islands. He respecting Parga.
The date was zranted their request, and sent Mr May 1815. Parga was to be conForesti's (the English ambassador's) sidered an appendage to the lonian son and Sir Charles Gordon with a Islands, and more particularly as an strong detachment, to assist in for- outwork of the garrison of Corfu ; cing the French out of Paxo, which it was wisdom to retain it. Such was opposite to Parga, on the terms were the instructions then given that an English garrison should be respecting Parga. If, then, Parga received, and that Parga should fol. was considered as included in the de. low the destinies of the lonian Islands. pendencies, it must follow the Ionian Captain (afterwards Sir William) Islands, and be free and indepenHoste arrived there at the same time dent. Reference was made in the with two frigates. They sent a depu. treaty of Paris, 1815, to a treaty in tation to him, who received them 1800 between Russia and the Porte, well, but replied that he could do in this manner-" with their depennothing for them, that he could dencies, small islands, such as de. not attack the fortress; but that if scribed in the treaty between the Emthey could get the British flag hois- peror of all the Russias and the Ottoted, he would draw up his fri. man court in 1800.” That reference gates under it at all hazards. They was only for description, and not for got the British flag conveyed into pointing out the destiny of Parga at the fortress by an old woman un- This time. Its destiny could not be der her clothes; the inhabitants, determined by that treaty, which, by who had formerly fought against the the way, had been observed only so Pacha, at the same time attacked the long as was convenient for the parsentinels. The British flag was ties. We were bound before 1815 hoisted, the frigates were drawn up in good faith, in generosity, to prounder the fortress, and the garrison tect the inhabitants of Parga. We were made prisoners. The place were not to refer to a posterior treaty was in tranquillity in two or three contrary to a transaction which had hours after the first movement. This taken them into our embraces. In brought him to the point. The Par- the treaty of 1800, Prevesa, Bucinguinotes were now under British tro, Vonitzo, and Parga were ceded protection. The object of his mo- to the Turks. Even if that treaty tion was to obtain the paper which were binding upon us, we could uncontained the conditions on which answerably reply—“ True, we enthe commanders, by sea and land, gaged to give those places to you, gave assistance to the Parguinotes. and you engaged to preserve their This document must have been sent privileges inviolable.
Where now home to Ministers. He also wished are Prevesa, Bucintro, and Vonitzo? to obtain the answer of our Govern. They are in desolation. Those ment, if there was any, authorising places, when delivered up to you, what political government was to be enjoyed peaceful tranquillity: the
cross stood in their churches, and occupation arose out of the treaty Christianity Aourished among them. of 1800. It was very largely discus: They were overrun by you; you ed, though not settled, at Vienn broke all stipulations in their favour, and at Paris during the debates en and you spared the lives of any the treaty of 1815: and it was then Christians only to do you menial of. understood that this Government had fices. Restore those places to their no right to hold Parga in favour of former condition, and then we shall the inhabitants as against the Porte. consider it our duty to consign Par. This, however, would not be a bar ga into your hands : but we never can to any future regulation by which give up to you the last European place their interests might be better sethat erects the cross of Christ, when cured. It was the general feeling we see Prevesa, Bucintro, and Vo- of the Powers in 1815, that the nitzo, in the greatest desolation.” most liberal policy should be ex. England had as it were given to the tended towards that people, and this Parguinotes a guarantee of future was supported by what he conceitprotection, by having the military ed was the duty of this Government, occupation of their city for a long that they (the Parguinotes) should time. She ought not now to dis- have as good a settlement as pos. appoint the hopes which ber con- sible, consistently with the general duct had raised. The honourable regulations of the other powers. Baronet concluded by moving that But with this disposition on the part an humble address be presented to of Government towards that people, His Royal Highness the Prince Re- he did still think that they had no gent, praying that he might be gra- other claim upon us than' for our ciously pleased to give directions good offices. Every thing which that there be laid before the House could be done for them in that way a copy of the instructions sent by his Majesty's Ministers felt disposGeneral Campbell to Colonel Gor- ed to do. On the subject of negodon in 1814, respecting the occu- tiation, he begged distinctly to state, pation of Parga; also a copy of the that there was no convention of instructions sent to Lieutenant Bre- any kind respecting this city since ton on the same subject; likewise a the treaty of 1815. There was a copy of any communications from species of correspondence between British officers to the Parguinotes, a commissary of Great Britain and assuring them of protection, and the one of the Porte, but it did not recommunications of the Parguinotes fer to the possession of Parga. Any to which those were a reply. negotiation which could be carried
Lord Castlereagh felt disposed to on would be with the Porte, and not give every credit to the motives of with Ali Pacha: if the place were the honourable Baronet in bringing to be surrendered, it would be to forward this motion, and was glad of the former. What use he might the mode in which he had placed it afterwards make of it, the English before the House. As the honourable Government could not guarantee. Baronet had only called for informa- The negotiations of 1815 had been tion, he had no difficulty in acced- formed on the 8th article of the ing to his motion. His Majesty's treaty of 1800, by which the authoMinisters entertained the most li. rity of the Porte over those places beral views with respect to the Gre- had been acknowledged. As to the cian islands. The question of their desolation and destruction of other
towns, and the scenes of distress to of this insignificant rock, which had
of vessels of war without to the Parguinotes a free option of licence. The law of our country on remaining in the country, or of this subject, founded on a statute of leaving it if they chose, on getting George Il., made it an offence aa proper indemnity. To all those mounting to a felony to enter into who left it, that indemnity would be the service of a foreign state. The secured ; and all who remained object of that law was to prevent his would be entitled to the good of. Majesty's subjects from engaging in fices of this country, and to enjoy the service of any state at war with all they would have enjoyed under another state with which he was not the treaty of 1800. This was all at war. But it was important to the they had a right to expect. Never country, that if neutrality was to be till this night had he heard it assert- preserved, it should be preserved beed, that we had a right to maintain tween states that claimed to themthis place against the Porte. selves the right to act as states, as
After a few words from Mr Scar. well as between those that were aclett and Sir James Mackintosh, the knowledged to be states. The words motion of the honourable Baronet of that statute might, however, raise was put, and carried unanimously. a doubt how far it was intended to
On the 15th of June, Lord Čas- embrace those entering into the tlereagh brought up the papers rela- service of states not acknowledged tive to Parga, which had been pre- to be such. The learned gentleman viously ordered. On this occasion, stated, that the object of his bill, in Sir Charles Monck, in some degree, a certain degree, was to amend the departed from the ground he had statute, by introducing after “ king, previously taken, by admitting the prince, state, potentate," the words
revival of the treaty of 1800; from colony or district who do assume · which it follows that the Parguinotes the powers of a government.” The
had no further claim to British pro- intention şi introducing these words s tection, than what was founded on was to make enlisting in the service
humanity, and that the cession of of unacknowledged powers, the same Parga and its territory to the Porte as enlisting in the service of those was rendered indispensable by the that were acknowledged.
But to positive stipulations of that treaty, make the law consistent, it was his revived, and re-enforced by the first object, by this bill, to reduce treaty of Paris in 1815. For this the penalty from a felony to a misreason, and because, in the interim, demeanour, that is, that the penalty intelligence had arrived that the eva. on the first offence should be for a cuation had actually taken place, and misdemeanour, and on the second for the town and territory been ceded, a felony; and to make the law ethe honourable Baronet withdrew his qually applicable to acknowledged further motion relative to the cession and to unacknowledged powers. In
VOL. XII. PART 1.
the second provision of the bill, two opportunity of contradicting certain objects were intended to be em- circumstances which had been met braced, namely, to prevent the fitting tioned by the supporters of the bill out of armed vessels, and also to on the last occasion that the quesprevent the fitting out or supplying tion had been argued. The noble other ships with warlike stores in Lord had then laid great stress apo any of his Majesty's ports. Not that this country being bound by treaties such vessels might not receive pro- to do Spain every service that lay visions in any port in the British do- within her power, and had argued minions; but the object of the en- in such a manner as would have led actment was to prevent them from any inconsiderate person to believe, shipping warlike stores, such as guns that Spain had not merely always and other things obviously and ma- acted in such a manner towards us, nifestly intended for no other pur. but had even strained every perre pose than war. These were the ob- to put a favourable construction upjects of the bill; and unless it ap- on such of her institutions as were peared to the House that they ought hostile to our commercial interto distinguish between legitimate course with her subjects. But was states and those self-constituted such a statement reconcileable with states that were unacknowledged, he facts ? Would any body, except the could not anticipate any objection Noble Lord, pretend to argue that to it. He then moved for leave the conduct of Spain had not been to bring in a bill to prohibit enlist- one continued series of unwarrantments in foreign service, and the able aggressions against this country? equipment of vessels of war without that she had not violated almost licence.
every treaty which she had ever The learned gentleman proved to made with us ? that she had not combe mistaken in his anticipation, that mitted the most gross and unjustino serious objection would be made fiable outrages against our national to the bill which he now proposed honour ? that she had not imprisoned to introduce. In all its stages it was the bodies, confiscated the property, keenly and powerfully opposed ; and, and annihilated, as far as depended as we will see immediately, was upon herself, the commerce of Bri. carried through some of its stages tish merchants? He would mention by very small majorities. On the one or two of the facts on which he present occasion, and after a warm principally rested his assertions. The discussion, the motion of the Attor. treaty upon which all our commerney-General was agreed to, without cial transactions with Spain rested a division. The bill was according. was made in the year 1667, and was ly brought in and read a second time afterwards confirmed by the peace on the 3d of June. On this occa- of Utrecht. This, with some slight sion, the measure was strenuously fluctuations, continued till the year opposed by Sir Robert Wilson, Mr 1783, when another treaty was formDenman and others, and as vigo- ed between the two countries. That rously defended by the Attorneyremained in force till the year 1796, General, Mr Wynn, and Lord Cas- when it was again altered. In 1806, tlereagh. Ultimately, however, the when Spain was at the feet of Buobill was ordered to be committed naparte, duties absolutely prohibi. on the 10th.
tory were imposed by the King for Before the House went into the the avowed purpose of annihilating committee, Colonel Davies took the the commerce of Great Britain. In