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similar delicacies.

The Swallows and Martins continue to migrate in large flocks, especially when the wind veers round to the north. On the other hand, the snipe begins to arrive in this country. The Royston, or Hooded, Crow, which had gone northward to breed, now returns to us, and the Woodcocks are first seen on our eastern coasts, though the great body of them does not come over till November or December. Towards the middle of the month Wild Geese quit the fens for the rye-lands, where they pluck the young corn; while Goldfinches, Titmice, and various kinds of small birds feed on the seeds in the garden, and more particularly on those of the Sunflower, and the evening-Primrose, as well as other esculent grains.

About the 16th, the general migration of swallows and martins has taken place, though a few may still be seen at times, more particularly if a southerly or westerly wind continue to blow for long together.*

October 1st." This day the Lord Mayor and aldermen proceeded from Guildhall; and the two sheriffs with

* The following account is given from Forster of the times of the arrival of the various migratory birds, not mentioned in the text. The Ring Ouzel (Merula Torquata), arrives soon after Michaelmas. Redwing (Turdus Iliacus), middle of October.

Fieldfare (Turdus Pilaris), October and November.

Snipe (Scolopax Gallinago), same time; but some of them breed


Pigeon, or Stock Dove, (Columba Oenas), end of November; some of them abide here.

Wood Pigeon, Ring Dove, (Columba Palumbes), some abide all the year, some arrive in spring, and others perform partial migrations. The following are mere occasional visitors, frequently changing their summer and winter quarters.

Wild Swan (Cygnus Ferus).

Wild Goose (Anas Anser).

Pochard (Anas Fusca).

their respective companies from Stationer's Hall; and having embarked on the Thames-his lordship in the city-barge, and the sheriffs in the Stationers' barge— went in aquatic state to Palace yard; and a salute was fired from a small battery of cannon at Lambeth, after which they proceeded to the Court of Exchequer, where after the usual salutations to the bench (the Cursitor Baron, Francis Maseres, Esq., presiding,) the Recorder thus addressed the court, presenting the new sheriffs to his lordship, and paying a compliment by the way to the old ones. To this the Baron replied by expressing his approbation of those presented to him, and the several writs were then read, and the sheriff and the senior under-sheriff took the usual oaths.

[The ceremony in the Court of Exchequer, which vulgar error supposed to be an unmeaning farce, is solemn and impressive, nor have the new sheriffs the least connexion either with chopping of sticks or counting of hobnails. The tenants of a manor in Shropshire are directed to come forth, and perform their suit and service, on which the senior alderman below the chair steps forward, and chops a single stick in token of its having been customary for the tenants of that manor to supply their lord with fuel. The owners of a forge in the parish of St. Clement (which formerly belonged to the city and stood in the high road from the Temple to Westminster, but now no longer exists) are then called forth to do their suit and service, when an officer of the court, in the presence of the senior alderman, produces six horse-shoes and sixty-one hobnails, which he counts over in form before the Chief Baron, who

Teal, (Anas Querquedula).

The following birds appear at uncertain intervals.
Grosbeak (Lexia Coccothraustes).

Crossbill (Lexia Curvirostra).

Silk Tail, or Waxen Chatterer, (Ampelis Garrula).

on this particular occasion is the immediate representative of the sovereign.*]

"The whole of the numerous company then again embarked in their barges and returned to Blackfriars bridge where the state carriages were in waiting. Thence they proceeded to Stationers' Hall, where a most elegant entertainment was given by Mr. Sheriff Domville."†

FEAST OF THE HOLY ANGEL-GUARDIANS.-October 2.I have already had occasion to notice that the guardianangels of Christianity had the same office assigned to them that the Pagans attributed to their guardian-genii. "That particular angels are appointed," says Alban Butler, "and commanded by God to watch over each particular person among his servants,—that is, all the just, or such as are in the state of grace,—is an article of the Catholic faith of which no ecclesiastical writer within the pale of the church in any age ever entertained the least doubt." Indeed it would be difficult to point out any difference between the two beyond that of mere name, except that the former in addition to their duty as guardians had also to register the crimes of their respective protegès in this world that they might bear witness against them in the next.

In its primitive sense, angel, derived from the Greek, meant nothing more than a messenger. The angels then were the messengers from Heaven, but the term being so particularly applied to them, it in time lost its original precise signification and became a vague misty symbol of something celestial-men hardly knew what―till at length as the purer code of Christianity became cor

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The "solemnity" and "impressiveness" of this scene I must confess myself too vulgar to perceive. It is a stupid remain of the barbarous system of feudalism, and is not only ridiculous but mischievous, since it is a badge of slavery.

+ GENTLEMAN's Magazine, p. 964, vol. lxxiv. for October, 1804.

rupted by human devices, and religion assumed a more gross and substantial form, the angels formed a class, like the genii of old, between man and the highest intelligence. They were then divided into ranks and orders like any human society, and are thus marshalled by Randle Holme with as much precision as if he had been Garter King of Arms amongst the angelic choir. To be sure he has good authority for his table of precedence.

"There remained still in Heaven, after the fall of Lucifer, the bright star and his company, more angels, than there ever was, is, and shall be, men born in the earth, which God ranked into nine orders, or chorus, called the Nine Quoires of Holy Angels.

1st. Is the order of Seraphims, whose Governour, or chief Archangel is Uriel; whose ensign is a flaming heart and a cross staff.

2. Is the order of Cherubims, whose archangel is Jophiel, who are represented young, having four wings to cover their faces and feet.

3. Is the order of Archangels, whose head is Michael. His ensign is a banner hanging on a cross, and armed as representing victory, with a dart in one hand, and a cross on his forehead.

4. Is the order of Angels, whose governour is Gabriel, whose ensign is a book and a staff.

5. Is the order of Thrones, whose chief is Zaphkiel or Sachiel, represented kneeling, whose ensigns are a palm and a crown.

6. Is the order of Principalities, whose archangel is Chamael, or Samael; whose ensign is a scepter and girdle across the breast, being the angel-guardian of kingdoms.

7. Is the order of Powers, whose leader is the archangel Raphael, or Raphel. Therefore his ensign, of some,

is made to be a thunderbolt and a flaming sword, thereby to withstand the power of evil angels.

8. Is the order of Dominions, whose archangel is Zadkiel, or Sachiel,* whose ensign is a sword and sceptre and a cross.

9. And the lowest is the order of Virtues, whose conductor and leader is Haniel, or Anael, whose ensign is a crown of thorns in one hand, and a cup of consolation in the other.

Yet some authors have them thus:

1. Michael.-2. Gabriel.-3. Samael.-4. Raphael.— 5. Sachiel.-6. Anael.-7. Cassiel or Gaphriel.

Some authors rank them thus:

Seraphims; Cherubims; Thrones; Dominions; Vertues; Powers; Principalities; Archangels; Angels."+ Having given us this notable table, Holme pithily ob- serves, "Where God hath his church, the devil will have his synagogue."

OLD MICHAELMAS DAY; October 11th.-Brand gives an account of a curious custom, connected with this day, from a London newspaper of October the 18th, 1787; it was however confined to Bishop's Stortford in Hertfordshire, and the adjacent neighbourhood. "On the morning of this day, called Ganging Day, a great number of young men assemble in the fields, when a very active fellow is nominated the leader. This person they are bound to follow, who for the sake of diversion generally chooses the rout through ponds, ditches, and places of difficult passage. Every person they meet is bumped, male or female, which is performed by two other persons taking them up

*There would seem to be some blunder here, for we have already had Sachiel in the Order of Thrones ;-or were there two archangels of this name?

+ Randle Holme's Academy of Armory and Blazon. Book ii, chap. 1. p. 11.

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