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robes of a hermit. Having done so, and religiously observed the precepts of morality, and persevered in all the practices of religious meditation, he finally obtained the five supernatural powers and became a Rishi; the years of his life having been extended to a great length, his hairs were white, his flesh withered, and his shoulders bent, unable even with his staff to go far. At this time his disciples, anxious to go here and there for the purpose of begging food, took some soft pliable grass, and having lined a basket therewith they put the Royal Rishi in it, and hung him up from a branch of a tree, for fear the snakes or wild beasts should come and hurt him in their absence. So then they all went their ways, to beg their food. After they had gone it so happened that a huntsman on his tour penetrated so far as these desert mountains; at a distance he perceived the Royal Rishi (hanging in his basket from the tree), and supposing him to be a great white bird he immediately shot him dead. At this time, the Rishi having then been shot, two drops of blood issuing from the wound fell down on the earth below, and then he died; just at this time his disciples having begged their food came back again to the spot, and beheld their old master just expiring, and the two drops of blood on the ground. Then letting down the basket from the tree, and raising a mound of earth, having collected wood they burnt the body of the king, and collecting his bones raised a tower over them, and then offered every kind of perfumed wood and sweet scented flowers before it, in honour of his memory. Meanwhile, on the spot where these two drops of blood fell, there immediately sprang up shoots of the sweet sugar cane, which gradually increased in size and height, till at last, ripened by the heat of the sun, both of the canes burst asunder, and from one there came out a boy and from the other a girl, very beautiful, and quite incomparable for grace. Then the disciples of the Rishi, remembering that their royal master in his life-time had no sons, regarded these two children as his legitimate offspring, they nourished and protected them, and acquainted all the late king's ministers of the extraordinary circumstance of their birth. On hearing it the said ministers were greatly rejoiced, and going to the forest they respectfully conducted the two children back to the palace of their royal father, and had them properly instructed by the Brahmans. Then when they came to consult with the astrologers as to their names, the reply made was this "the first, born by the heat of the sun's rays on the sugar cane, shall be called Sujata (well born); he shall also be called "born of the sugar cane" (Ikshwaku virudaka), or because of the sun's rays having begotten him, his name shall be Sun-born (Suryavansa). Then the ministers immediately made Ikshwaku king, and Subhadra (the name given to the girl), the first of his queens.
Now it so happened that the second wife of the king being extremely lovely had four sons, but Subhadra had only one, whose name was "long lived" (Janta), very graceful, and of incomparable beauty, but his size and appearance of strength give no promise of his being king (literally, the bone-sign was not favourable to his being king).1 Then Subhadra, his mother, thought thus within herself, "the children of Ikshwaku are four, viz., Torch-face (ulka mukha), etc., and these are lusty and strong, but my son, and the only one I have, although very beautiful, is not so able-bodied as they, nor so fit for the place of king, by what device then can I contrive to get this my son elected to the kingly office?"
Again she thought " the king when he visits me overflows with passionate love; what then? I willdeckjmyself out in the choicest attire, prepare my body according to the most approved method, by washing, perfuming and painting. I will adorn my hair with the loveliest flowers, and by every wile and device in my power I will enflame the heart of Ikshwaku to inordinate love, and then, if I succeed ha so doing, when we are together in secret, I will ask him to comply with my desire." Having reflected thus, and adorned her person, as she intended, with the greatest care, she came forthwith to the presence of the king. The king, seeing his wife coming, was inflamed with excessive love towards her, which she perceived, and was glad to find her plan so successful. Then when the two were reposing together, the wife said "Great king! be it known to you that I should wish to ask a favour, if the king will grant it me." The king replied, "Great queen! whatever you ask I will give without grudge, with much joy." The queen again said, with great earnestness, " Great monarch! without a rival (tsz-tsai), if you consent to give me what I ask, then there must be no change or repentance on your part; if you
1 No doubt it refers to strength of bones, i. e., manly vigour.
change then I will ask nothing." The king replied, "If I change then let my head burst into seven parts." Then the queen said, "Great king! would that you would expel from the country those four sons of yours, Torch-face and the others, and let my son Janta succeed you on the throne!" Then Ikshwaku Raja replied at once and said, my four sons have done nothing worthy of exile; if you can show me any wrong they have done within my dominions, then they shall not stop here, but shall be expelled at once." The queen answered, "Your Majesty has sworn that if you repent or recall your promise then your head shall split into seven pieces." Then the king promised to do what she had requested, and at early mor n on the following day called for his four sons and said, "My sons, you have my permission to go where you please, you cannot dwell any longer within my dominions." Then the youths, with bent knees and clasped hands, desired to know what wrong they had done, or what law they had broken, or what fault they had committed, that they should be thus suddenly exiled and driven from the country." Then the king said, " I know, my sons, that you are innocent! it is not my doing or wish to expel you thus, but it is the wish of Subhadra, the queen. She asked me to grant her her desire, and I cannot recall my promise, and her request was that you should be banished."
[The mother of the four youths now comes to the king and asks if it be true that her sons are to be banished. The king tells her it is true. Then the concubines, the ministers, soldiers, artificers, and men of all professions, come and desire permission to go into exile with the four princes, their sisters also, and all connected with them, on which the king gives his permission for them all to go.]
Being thus banished, the exiles proceeding northward, arrived at the Himalaya mountains, where abiding for a short time, they crossed the Bhaghirathi river and ascended the Snowy mountains above the river, and there abode for a long while. The four princes dwelling there, in the mountain heights, supported themselves by hunting, feeding on the game they shot. Then gradually going forwards, they arrived at a valley on the southern slopes of the mountains, broad and level, without any precipices or hillocks; the lands fertile, and with no brambles or weeds, and very free from stones and grit. Nothing but the most beautiful forest trees grew there—the Sala tree, the Talas tree, the Nyagrodha tree, the Udambara tree, the Kalila tree (kaliya F), and others; all intertwining their branches, and so making an agreeable shade. Moreover, there was a great variety of flowers there, as e. gr., the Atimukta flower, the Janibu flower, the Asoka flower, the Patra flower, the Palasa flower, the Kuranya flower, the Kubitara flower, the Danara Karaka flower, the Muehilinda flower, the Sumana flower, and so on.
Some of these flowers were just opening and some falling—some in the bud and some burst from the bud; again there was every variety of fruit tree—such as the Amrapala, the Jambu, the Lingusa, the Panava, the Tinduka, the Amraka, and so on; some ripening, others ripe, others passing off. Besides this there were great numbers of wild animals there—the Stag, the water Buffalo, the white Elephant, the Lion, and so on. Again there were many varieties of birds—such as the Parrot, the Peacock, the Kalaks, the mountain Pheasant, the white Pheasant, and so on. Again there was every variety of pleasant lake, with flowers floating thereon—the Utpala, the Padma, the Kumuda, and so on; and on the banks of the lakes every kind of flower growing, overhanging the water—the water perfectly pure and bright, neither deep nor shallow; and on the four sides, among the trees that surround the lakes, every kind of amphibious animal — Turtles, Tortoises, etc., and every kind of aquatic bird, Ducks, Geese, etc.
Now in the midst of this delightful vale, there was an old Riehi living called Kapila. When, therefore, the princes beheld the spot, they said one to another, "Here is a place where we can found a city and establish our rule." Then it came to pass that the princes abiding here, remembered the injunction of the king their father, that in case they married not to marry wives except belonging to their own tribe, and rather than do so, to take their sisters and make them their wives; and so at first they desired to do, but on second thoughts they feared to pollute their race by such intermarriages.
At this time, the Suryavansa Ikshwaku King summoned to his presence a great Brahman, a distinguished teacher (kwo sse), and spake thus to him: "Great Brahman! where now are my four sons dwelling?" He replied, "Maharaja! your sons, with their sisters, etc., having gone to the Northern region, and settled there, have become the parents of beautiful children.
Then Ikshwaku, because he loved the princes, his heart filled with joy, said "Those princes are able to found a kingdom, and govern it well." Hence the name Sakya (able), and because they lived under tents made from branches of trees, they are also called Sikya.1 And because they lived in the place where Kapila had resided, their town was called Kapilavastu.
Now after three of the sons had died, the survivor reigned alone in Kapilavastu, and governed the people. He had a son called Kuru, he had a son called Gokuru, he had a son called lionjaw (Sinhahanu), he had four sons, the first called Sudhodana, the second Suklodana, the third Tulodana, the fourth Amritodana, and one daughter called sweet-dew-taste (Amrita).
Sinhahanu's eldest son, Sudhodana, succeeded his father at Kapilavastu. Now at this time, not far from Kapilavastu, there was a city called Tien-pi (Devadaho),2 in which was settled a member of the Sakya family, a rich householder, whose name was Supra) Buddha, abounding in wealth—his house like that of Vaisravana of the Northern region. This nobleman had eight daughters, the first called Manasa [or, it may be " Maya "], the eighth was called Mahaprajapati.
This Mahaprajapati was the youngest of all the daughters, and when she was born all the Brahman astrologers said, "This girl, if she has a son, will be the mother of R Chakravartin." So gra dually they grew up, and became marriageable. Then Sudho dana desired to have Mahaprajapati in marriage; but the king. Supra Buddha, refused until the seven elder sisters were married on which Sudhodana promised to provide for them all. Then Sudhodana taking the eldest and youngest himself, and giving two to each of his brothers, the king retired to his palace with the two, and lived according to the rules of all the kings who reign over the four quarters.
1 Vide Fa Hian, p. 83. 2 The same as Koli.