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But never let th' enfample of the bad

Offend the good : for good, by paragone
Of evill, may more notably be rad ;
As white seemes fayrer macht with blacke

Ne all are shamed by the fault of one:
For lo! in heven, whereas all goodnes is
Emongst the angels, a whole legione

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II. 2.

for good, by paragone

Of evill, may more notably be rad ;] It is a maxim in the schools that things are knowable by their contraries : eadem eft scientia contrariorum.

Whether Spenser bad Chaucer before him or Berni, I leave to the reader: The sentiment and expressions agree : See Troil. and Crel. i. 638.

By his contrarie' is every thing declared
For how might ever sweetnesse have be know
To him, that never tasted bitternesse?
" No man wot what gladnesse is, I trow,
“ That never was in sorrow or some diftress:
“ Eke white by blacke, by same eke worthiness,
" Each set by other, more for other leemeth,

". As men may seem, and so the wise it deemeth.” And Orl. Innam. L. ii. C. vii. st. 3.

“ Provali appresso per filosofia,
“ Che quando due contrari sono accosto,
6 La lor natura e la lor gagliardia
" Più si conosce, che stando discosto :
Intender non protrafli ben, che sia
" Bianco color, se'l nero non gli e opposto, i
« Il foco, e l'acqua, e' piaceri, e le pene,
4 E

dirlo in un tratto, il male e'l bene.” Urton. II. 4.

with blacke attone :] The first edition reads attonce; but the fecond and folios, more agreeable to the rhyme, attone, that is, together, at once, at one. In Chaucer. this word is variouly written ; utone, atoon, atenes, atones.,


Of wicked sprightes did fall from happy blis; What wonder then if one, of women all, did mis?

III. Then listen, Lordings, if ye

lift to weet The cause why Satyrane and Paridell Mote not be entertaynd, as seemed meet, Into that Castle, as that Squyre does tell. “ Therein a cancred crabbed Carle does

dwell, That has no skill of court nor courtefie, Ne cares what men fay of him ill or well :

For all his dayes he drownes in privitie, Yet has full large to live and spend at libertie.

IV. “ But all his mind is set on mucky pelfe,

did mis ?] Err. So, in F. Q. ii. iii. 40. “ Cannot so easy mis.CHURCH.

III. 1. Then listen, Lordings,] Chaucer often applies this introductory form in the Canterbury Tales. Thus too, the old poem of Sir Bevis of Southampton begins : Listen, LORDINGES; and hold


still: " Of doutie men tell you

I will." And Robert Brunne in the same manner begins the Prologue to his Chronicle, ed. Hearn, vol. i. 96.

LORDINGES, that be now here,
If you will listen and lere,

“ All the story of Inglande." This address to the LORDINGES, requesting their silence and attention, is a manifest indication that these ancient pieces were originally sung to the harp, or recited before grand aflemblies, i upon solemn occasions. T. WARTON.

III. 5. Therein &c.] This is the account given by the Squire of Dames. CHURCH. Ibid.

II. 9.

a cancred crabbed Carle does dwell,] A cana créd Carlé is a Northern expression, and nieans an ill-natured

There is a familiar ballad in Scotland, commencing with " My Daddy is a cancred Carle." Topd.

old man.

To hoord up heapes of evill-gotten masse, For which he others wrongs, and wreckes

himselfe: Yet is he lincked to a lovely Lasse, Whofe beauty doth her bounty far surpasse ; The which to him both far unequall yeares And also far unlike conditions has ;

For she does ioy to play emongst her peares, And to be free from hard restraynt and gealous



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“ But he is old, and withered like hay,

Unfit faire Ladies service to supply;
The privie guilt whereof makes him alway
Suspect her truth, and keepe continuall spy
Upon her with his other blincked


IV. 3. For which he others wrong, &c.] The poet seems to have had in his mind the character of the churlish Nabal, I. Sam. xxv. 3, 8, 9, &c. TODD. IV. 5.

her bounty] So Spenser's own editions, and the edition of 1751, read. The sense is, whose beauty is greater than her goodness. See the note on bounty, F. Q. iii. i. 49. The folios and Hughes read “ his bounty," which entirely alters the sense. CHURCH.

Mr. Upton prefers his bounty" as the easier reading; but he seems not to have attended to the meaning of the old word bounty; for he interprets the original reading by “ her bounty either in the disposal of her charms or of her money being Itinted by the watchfulness and covetoufnefs of her husband :" This is a very forced explanation. I conform therefore to the original reading. Tonson's edition in 1758, as well as Mr. Upton, reads “ his bounty." TODD. V. 5.

his other blincked eye ;]. That is, his teft eye. See the note on F. Q. ii. iv. 4. ÚPTON.

Ne fuffreth he resort of living wight
Approch to her, ne keep her

But in close bowre her mewes from all mens

fight, Depriv'd of kindly ioy and naturall delight.


“ Malbecco he, and Hellenore she hight;

Unfitly yokt together in one teeme.
That is the cause why never any Knight
Is suffred here to enter, but he seeme
Such as no doubt of him he need misdeeme."
Thereat Sir Satyrane gan smyle, and say;
“ Extremely mad the man I surely deeme
That weenes, with watch and hard restraynt,

to stay A womans will which is disposd to go astray.

VI. 1. Malbecco he, and Hellenore she hight;

Unfitly yokt together in one teeme.] His name is derived from male and becco, a cuckold or wittal; becco fignifies likewise a buck-goat, to which perhaps he alludes, C. x. It. 47. “ And like a goat, emongst the goats did ruth.” So cabron in Spanish signifies both a he-goat and a cuckold. Her name is derived from Helena : and both were unfitly yok'd in one teeme. Compare Hor. Od. I. xxxiii.

“ Sic visum Veneri ; cui placet impares
“ Formas atque animos sub juga aënea

“ Sævo mittere cum joco.” Upton. Spenser's Malbecco is pointedly alluded to by Niccols, in his Cuckow, edit. 4to. 1607, p. 46.

" the old Malbeccoes of our age, " Who iustly beare cornuted Vulcans badge." TODD. VI. 4.

but he seeme] Unless he seeine. See the note on but, F. Q. iii. viii. 50. TODD,

VII. " In vaine he' feares that which he cannot

fhonne : For who wotes not, that womans subtiltyes Can guylen Argus, when she list misdonne ? It is not yron bandes, nor hundred eyes, Nor brasen walls, nor many wakefull spyes, That can withhold her wilfull-wandring feet; But fast goodwill, with gentle courtesyes,

And timely service to her pleasures meet, May her perhaps containe that else would

algates fleet.”


6 Then is he not more mad,” fayd Paridell,

“ That hath himselfe unto such service fold,
In dolefull thraldome all his dayes to dwell ?
For fure a foole I doe him firmely hold,
That loves his fetters, though they were of

gold. But why doe wee devise of others ill, Whyles thus we suffer this fame Dotard old

VII. 2. For who wotes not, that womuns subtiltyes

Can guylen Argus, &c.] Ovid, Amor. III. iv, 19. • Centum fronte oculos, centuin cervice gerebat

“ Argus; et hos unus fæpe fefellit Amor.” And Horace, Carm. III. xvi.

66 Inclufam Danaën turris aënea,
“ Robuftæque fores, et vigilum canum

Tristes excubiæ munierant fatis, &c.” JORtin. VIII. 7. Whyles thus we suffer &c.] The construction is, Whyles thus we fuffer this fame old Dotard, of his owne will,

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