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express to you my determination, and A moment's silence ensued, and no either as your leader or as your equal, voice speaking, a burst of approbation to point boldly out to you the only resounded, with shouts of “ Viva il course left open-to strike earnestly for Signor Porro! Viva il nostro Capi. our brothers' and sisters' emancipation, tano !" or to weep in silence over our own de- The curtain was again withdrawn, generacy! Italians ! from the centre and the Baron Pinaldi advanced a few of the old capital of the ancient world, steps towards Porro, who still stood Rome, a gleam of sunlight, for ages before the altar. hidden from our view, bas suddenly “Signor Porro, by an unanimous dawned upon our destinies, and it be- vote of the order of the Vengatori, I hoves us to greet bravely the ray, until have to inform you they have chosen not one, but a thousand, glitter in our you as their chief, and I now call upon path. Will you allow such a glorious you to subscribe to the oath. I request light to pass unheeded from before your you, therefore, to give me answers to gaze? Will you quietly sit down and the questions I shall address you. Do proclaim to Europe that the children of you solemnly believe in the justice of Dante, of Rienzi, are deaf to the sound our cause, in the pledge we take to of freedom? Will you see your pa- repel force by force, until the divine rents, your sisters, your infants, sold rights accorded to man by God be to demoralisation, to vice, to the basest fully admitted ?" of all slavery? Men, if such is the “I do." future destiny you consign them to, I “Do you solemnly declare, in wishabandon my country; the very name ing to enter our order as companion, of an Italian will be to me the imper- you are actuated by neither ambition sonation of dishonour. But if you nor personal motive of any kind; and choose the cause of justice, of right, of that your only feeling in doing so is country, of soul-inspiring liberty, then the pure, holy, and sublime love of I bless my fortune for having you as country and humanity ?” brothers, and from this hour I dedicate “I do." my life and lands at the altar of Italy's Do you, in sincerity of heart and wrongs !”

purpose, renounce now and for ever As Porro ended the curtains closed, all allegiance to the House of Austria, and concealed him from sight. So deep from its Emperor to its lowest servant ; and passionate in feeling had been his and throughout life, until Italy is free address, that for a few moments not a from its slavery, you will lose no opsound, not a whisper was heard. All portunity, either in secrecy or openly, were entranced, not so much with his at the hazard of life, of fortune, of language, as with the heartfelt emotion fame, in opposing its power and its which breathed in every word, in every empire ?" action of his body the true soul of “I do." oratory. Then burst forth from every “ Are you willing to bind yourself lip, “ Viva l'Italia! Viva la libertà! by oath to the questions I have asked Long live Italy! Long live liberty!" you, and which you have answered in and was again and again echoed the affirmative ?” through the cavern, so intense was the “I am." feeling the address had excited.

Repeat after me, then, the formula “ Vengatori,” spoke the Baron Pi- of our oath." naldi, the instant silence bad been ob- “1, Alberico Porro, firmly con. tained, “it now becomes your duty to vinced that the rights and immunities say whether you accept of Alberico of my country have been betrayed to Porro as your leader and chief, to serve foreign oppression, the laws of 'Chrishim with life and fortune, until the tianity violated by robbery, pillage, hour when the world shall proclaim murder, and sacrilege, do here solemnyour land a nation again.”

ly vow, in presence of God and man, “Yes, yes !” answered every voice, to dedicate my life in defence of my we accept him as our chief."

country. I swear to let no opportu“ For form's sake, and for the neces- nity pass, where my judgment shall sary observance of our rules, which we consider it as coming within the have all sworn to obey, it becomes ne- moral code of war, without seizing cessary for me to demand if any mem- upon it to advance the liberty of Italy. ber of our order opposes the election?” I swear never, by either act or word,

to pay obedience to the Emperor of Aus- ment of this noble end, our lives betria, and that I will use whatever influ. come a sacrifice, is it not far better to ence I may possess to induce others to die than to live in uncertainty and pursue the same course. I swear to shame ?-to live in the memory of the pursue with uncompromising hatred good, the pure, the free, than as the every friend of the house of Austria, bondsınen of those who respect no ties, even if found in the ranks of my near- who acknowledge no justice? Man est and dearest relatives. I swear to with life acquired the inalienable right obey, without questioning, the orders of of freedoın; and it cannot be torn the chief of the Order of the Vengatori; from him without a violation of the and lastly, not to divulge to human law of God. For this crime perished being either the objects or the names miserably Ezzelini and his family ; for of its members, without a special per- a similar one, the Borgia. And for mission from the chief to do so. As this, too, must fall the supremacy God is my judge, and as I trust for of the Emperor on Italian soil. I salvation through the mercy of my would be the last to hurry on to the Saviour hereafter, I declare I have in uncertainty of revolution the moral perfect purity of heart and purpose, claims and rights appertaining to us. been ordained a member of the Order I would be the last to counsel you to of Vengatori."

secret, and afterwards to open resist“Signor Porro, having now become ance; but every other avenue for rea member of the society, the adjutant dress has long been closed to you will instruct you in the signs and every prayer and entreaty, however passes requisite to distinguish a member humble, unheeded ; and patience, havof our holy cause. Companion, you ing its limits, calls loudly for the scabwill now oblige the members by inform- bard to be cast indignantly aside the ing them if you are willing to accept sword to tlash bravely in the light the post of chief which they have your motto, Country and Liberty, or unanimously conferred upon you." Slavery and Death!' To prepare this “I am."

struggle – to use with prudence the “Subscribe, then, to the oath.” large sums placed at my disposal - to

“I, Alberico Porro, accept in take warning from previous failures, entire unity of faith, and in the con- will be my earnest task; and to you, viction of my sincerity, the post of Vengatori, to whom God has enChief of the Order of the Vengatori, trusted our resurrection, to you be it and declare before you, brothers in jus- the end to stir up the minds of your tice, in truth and in honesty, I will countrymen, to prepare for the battle never use, or subvert, for personal and emancipation of Italy! Let no ambition or private interest, the ends fear or doubt linger on your minds-reof our Society. I swear to keep invio- member boldness and decision are half late this oath and the rules of the Order." the victory; and to appear weak is to

A shout of applause greeted Porro throw a shadow on the justice of our the instant he had finished subscribing cause. Farewell till our next meet. to the oath.

ing! I go to lay the mine of to-day"Comrades and soldiers of the Army the triumph of to-morrow." of Vengeance! I have accepted the In the midst of loud applause from noble post of your chief, in the full the band who had elected hiin as chief, determination of proving myself worthy Porro, accompanied by Pinaldi, left of your acceptance. The march of the cavern, and, by another entrance, thought, the experience of past ages, known only to themselves, soon issued long years of oppression and injustice, forth, as it were, from the bowels of are rousing in the Cæsar race the spirit the earth. of Brutus. With joy do I greet its “I congratulate you, my dear young appearance with pleasure urge

it friend and noble leader,” said Pinaldi, forward. Let it roll over the fair “on the success of this night's work. plains of Lombardy, and I will still say, You eeded my expectations, and Forward! Let it roll in Croatian blood, have created for yourself a feeling and my cry will still be the same; nor amongst the Vengatori which, united shall I cease to echo it until from the with the oath by which I and they are Sicilian Sea to the Alps is seen floating all bound, will make them obey your in the breeze of heaven the national slightest wish.” flag of Italy. What, if in the attain- * Happy am I that you approve of

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what I have done and said. The first step They had now arrived, by a different is taken, and I shrink not from the con- path from the one we have pursued in sequences. You will not fail me to-mor- the first part of the chapter, where two row night, for I will then inform you on roads, or rather narrow footpaths, what further means I have decided.” crossed each other. A servant stood

“No; in nothing will I fail you here with a horse, awaiting the arrival so long as our conferences tend to the of his master, Porro, who immediately downfallof imperial Austria," answered mounting and bidding farewell again Pinaldi in a quick and vindictive tone to the baron, galloped on his way toof voice.

wards Milan, full of thoughts which “ Adieu, Pinaldi! May, the smile were to conduce to the happiness or of Heaven alight on our glorious en- misery of thousands. terprise !"



"I have in my hands an infallible means of making the good Milanese forget their idol, Pio Nono, and their wishes for national independence, which they have lately manifested in their puerile demonstrations; the carnival is approaching, and I will then give a grand entertainment in the Theatre della Scala."-Conversation uuth H. Figuelmunt, the Austrian Minister at Milan.

** The evil counsels of fanatics, and the faithless spirit of innovation, will be broken by your valour and fidelity, like fragile glass against a rock."- Marshal Radetsky's address to the Austrian troops in the capital of northern Italy before the period of the Revolution.

ALONE, in a small, handsomely-fur- to be more or less disaffected towards nished room, before a table covered the Government. He therefore comes with numerous papers, was seated a to the conclusion, and a just one too, person of rather an advanced age. His a political meeting must have been countenance was frank and open ; his held in the neighbourhood. The whole dress and appearance bore the stamp of the persons the Count Bolza has of a person of some consequence. It discovered are strangers to the neighwas the Baron Toresani Lanzenfeld, bourhood, and being there on the same for many years the director of the po- evening that the courier was robbed, lice at Milan. In his right hand he can easily be questioned, and if not beld a paper which he was intently able to assign good and valid reasons scanning over, while his left supported for travelling in that direction, can be his head, as his elbow rested on the detained in prison ; but this young Sigtable. The contents of the document nor Porro, I know not whether we could he was perusing called every few mo- venture on such a step towards him. ments a smile to his lips, and his rather Allied as he is to many of the most instern features glistened with inward fluential families in Lombardy, and to pleasure, created, no doubt, by the the royal house of Sardinia, his arrest news he was gathering.

would not be allowed to pass by with“So, so," muttered the Baron; "the out strong remonstrances from quarters web is commencing to be unravelled. we had better conciliate tban excite The Count Bolza informs me here he further. Caution must be the plan, has at length discovered a track to the and before we think of curtailing bis perpetrators of the robbery committed liberty we must have sure proof to on the person of the Government's go on. I must pause a few moments courier." The Baron Pinaldi was seen and reflect well on the matter. Ah! near the place about the same time the a good idea, we must set some trusty outrage was committed, and in his spy on his footsteps, who will gain his company this young lord, who has but confidence, which must be an easy task, lately returned to his country, and who for he is so young, and then the rest annoyed the Imperial Court so much can be soon settled. These treacherous with some tale about bis nurse's impri- times require treacherous means. sonment. The Count Bolza informs His further reflections were interme here-a trusty agent he is—there rupted by a servant entering and anwas also observed about the same neigh nouncing the minister Figuelmont was bourhood a number of strangers waiting without. during the evening previous, and the “ Show his excellency in immemorning following, and he has collect- diately. Ah, my lord,” continued the ed a number of their names, all known Baron Toresani Lanzenfeld, as the

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Austrian minister entered, “ you have whom your lordship must see, from just arrived in time to aid me with the influence of his powerful conyour good advice. But pray be seat- nexions, his rank, his riches, I caned."

not deal with as I would with one of “ What is it you would ask of me? the common herd of this vain, proud, Of importance it must be, if your own and besotted Italian nobility.” sagacity cannot discover the course to “ Ha, ha! you must be more chapursue under your difficulty. It is ritable in speaking of our kind neighthought, and in high quarters too, the bours, who, with all their fine airs, rechief of the police here is not often at mind me of so many Gascons, with fault," answered the Count Figuel. plenty of boasting, but lacking the mont-a man possessing good talents, courage to make their empty vaunts but with an inordinate vanity in his good. own powers of discernment.

" Yet to deal with them, we must “I am glad to find, my good lord, keep a sharp eye over their proceedmy efforts to fulfil my duties have met ings.” with, for these several years past, the “Right, right; nothing like the approbation of our gracious Emperor; strong sword of authority to keep yet there are times, and I fear it is so them at their proper distance. With with most men, when I know not well this young noble, this Signor Porro, how to deal with men, who, high in rank of whom you speak, we must deal and influence, lend themselves to in. gently; not on account of any feelings crease the agitation we see daily rising of leniency we might entertain, but around us on every side. It was when for other reasons, of which I shall you but entered now I was perusing a speak anon. Nothing so easy as to lull letter from one of our most trusty him into security, to profess to be his agents, and one who is well known to most devoted servants, and then, when your lordship-the Count Bolza-who the proper hour arrives, to suddenly informs me he has discovered a clue to fall upon him, with full proof of his the perpetrators of the outrage, who criminality, and give him either a stopped and robbed the Government's quick and easy death, or consign him courier the other evening of his dis- to the tender keeping of one of the patches. It must have appeared clear, at many gaolers of our prisons.” least to you, that these were no ordinary My own thought. Yet where to thieves, for not an article on the courier's find one to whom we could entrust the person was touched with the exception delicate handling of this stripling. of the Government's bag; and I have My own agents are commencing to be from the courier's own lips his version all so well known, or smell so strongly of the story, and he stated positively- of the police, I fear none of them for I was most particular on that head. would be able to effect the work; and a that the robbers had plenty of time be- failure would only place him on bis fore any help reached to have taken guard." from him every article he had about Oh, I can supply your want. I him. Now, from what Bolza informs have on my hands a young Neapolitan me, from the information he has ga- nobleman, whom I have been acquainted thered in the neighbourhood, some with for some time past, and who would meeting of a clandestine kind, un- just suit the purpose. He must be known to the police, must have been well paid, however; for, in the first held the very night the robbery took case, his task will be an expensive one ; place, in that part of the country. and, secondly, his whole fortune, al. Further he gives me to know, a num- though a large one when I knew him ber of persons, all amongst the list of first, has entirely disappeared during a the suspected, and living far from the long career of extravagance and dissi. immediate neighbourhood, must have pation. Apart from these reasons, been gathered there for some unlawful however, I would wish to serve him ; purpose. Out of this list I must except and how better than binding him to one; and here lies my great difficulty.” the Gordian knot, where retreat is im

• In what way, Baron ?-for to the possible ?" authority of the police must bow every “Always sagacious, my lord-always one but its superiors.”.

ready with your good advice, to re“ This exception of whom I speak medy any evil we may wish to overis the heir of the Porro family one come. When will you send him to

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me, this new protegé of yours? I came an absolute necessity, to prevent need not ask your lordship also, whe. an increase of their number. The ther you are well assured of his fide- merchant was a widower, with an only lity ?"

child, a son, of about three or four As to your latter question, I in- years of age. One of our agents, a variably abide by the rules laid down hardy ruffian, inured to every service, by our Government — never to employ was a lover of the child's nurse, and any person, whatever the interest I he induced her one evening to give the may feel in bim, without having such child what he pretended was but a a power over his future life as to be dose of physic, but in reality poison. able, at any hour, if I find the slight. In the morning the child was discoest cause to doubt his fidelity, to turn vered a corpse, and the bottle which him adrift on the world, a living curse had contained the poison secreted in to himself, and shunned by the whole of the coat of the father, placed there by society. An excellent rule, too; for the hands of our trusty agent. The I have never, except in a single case police, who took care to be immewhich came to my knowledge, known diately on the spot the moment the any employé of ours become unruly in child was discovered dead, arrested the our service."

merchant and the nurse, and carried “ And what is the case your lord. them before the commissary, who was ship alludes to, if I may venture to in- acquainted with the real facts of the quire ?"

The nurse, for fear of losing “ Ob, to you I can have no objec- her lover, and by threats, was kept tion to communicate the fact; but we silent; while the father, against whom must be careful the world become not the evidence appeared so strong, was, acquainted with a system we derive so by the offer of his safety and liberty, much benefit from ; for what an out- with a promise of strict silence on the cry would be raised if it was but whole matter, in an agony of terror known what means we adopt to turn at being thought by his friends and our regular police body, our true fellow-townsmen the murderer of his agents, to a proper account! The se. own child, induced to confess all he cret stratagems, the bold crimes, the knew about the Carbonari. So far, means to subdue both body and soul- everything had succeeded well ; but, the poisoning, the strangling, the con- unfortunately, the nurse, a short time tinual torture of conscience; and yet after, suddenly seized with illness, conthese means, however fearful, are fessed the whole transaction at least necessary to carry out an authority as much as she was acquainted with such as ours. The fact of which I to her master; and he, good soul, inspoke is but an illustration of our stead of seeking safety in flight, with system, and which would have turned the dangerous knowledge he possessed out as successful as all other cases, of our means of gaining information, were it not for an unfortunate disco- must present himself at the commisvery; and thus, instead of our em. sary's office, with threats of vengeance. ployé living a few years longer in hor- This, as I informed you before, was ror of our secret servitude, we were only put a stop to by the death of forced to consign him quietly to the the merchant; there was no other al. arms of death. The case was simply ternative. Such is the bistory of a this. A respectable merchant, resid. matter, which, to this day, is still a ing in the town of Padua, was thought mystery to the wise world."* to be a member of the Carbonari, and “Ah, I remember well, my lord, we had reason to think several mem- my feelings of compunction when first bers of it were scattered over the appointed to my oilice, and I learned town. To find out who they were be- the many terrible secrets of our duty.


* The tale related is a strict fact, personally known to the author as having occurred. The tyranny of the Austrian police exceeds description ; its means are most revolting to human nature. Cantù, in bis “ Storia di Cento Anni," thus describes its power :" Corrotte dalla Polizia, arbitra di tutto. Una polizia aulica, una polizia generale, una polizia del comune, una del governo, una della presidenza del governo, tutte spiantesi e vicenda ; in mano della polizia stravano tutti gli impieghi, gli onori, i posti dell' instituto, le cattedre, sino il ministero ecclesiastico; giacchè per ogni nomina eran necessarie le sue infurinazioni secrete, irreparabili.”


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