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Rutledge, esqrs. now present in congress, and to kingdoms, and elevated the house of Brunswick to the other delegates of this colony at Philadelphia, royalty. for their important services in the American con
Worthy delegates! It is the judgment of your gress.
country that your conduct, of which I have markMr. President accordingly addressed himself to ed the grand lines, in the American congress, is the hon. Dir. Middleton, and Mr. Rutledge, as justifiable before God and man, and that, whatever follows:
may be the issue of this defensive civil war, in
wbicb, unfortunately, though gloriously, we are Gentlemen-When the hand of tyranny, armed
engaged, whether independence or slavery, all the in hostile manner, was extended from Great Bri.
blood, and all the guilt, must be imputed to Britain to spoil America of whatever she held most tish not to American counsels.--Hence your convaluable, it was, for the most important purposes, stituents, sensible of the propriety of your conduct, that the good people of this colony delegated you and of the benefits which, with the blessing of the to represent them in the continental congress, at Almighty, it is calculated to shed upon America, Philadelphia. It became your business to ascer- have constituted me, their instrument, as well to tain the rights of America, to point out her violat.
signify to you their approbation, as to present to ed franchises, to make humble representation to
you their thanks: and it is in the discharge of these the king for redress, and, he being deaf to the cries duties that I now have the honor to address you.' of his American subjects, to appeal to the King of kings, for the recovery of the rights of an infant In an important crisis, like the present, to receive people, by the majesty of Heaven formed for future the public thanks of a free people, is to receive the
most honorable recompense for past services, and empire.
to deserve such thanks is to be truly great. I know In this most important business you engaged, that it is with pain such men bear their comas became good citizens; and, step by step, you mendations. Gentlemen, with the public recon. deliberately advanced through it, with a regret pense, I mean to pay into you my mite also; and and sorrow,
and with a resolution and conduct, lest I wound your delicacy, when I mean only to that bear all the characters of ancient magnanimity. do justice to your merit, I forbear to particularize Your constituents, with a s:eady eye, beheld your what is already well known. I therefore confine progress. They saw the American claim of rights, myself; and I do most respectfully, in the name of the association for the recovery of American the congress, present to you, and to each of you, franchises, and the humble petition to the king the thanks of your country, for your important serfor redress of grievances. They saw the Ameri- vices in the American congress at Philadelphia. can appeal to the King of kings; and a second hum. ble petition to the British monarcb, alas! as un.
Boston, April 25, 1776. availing as the first. They have also seen the The corporation of Harvard College in Cambridge, in establishment of an American naval force, a trea.
New England, to all faithful in Christ, to whom sury, a general post-office, and the laying on a these presents shall come greeting: continental embargo: in short, they have seen per
Whereas academical degrees were originally mission granted to colonies to erect forms of go.
instituted for this purpose, that men, eminent for vernment independent of, and in opposition to, the knowledge, wisdom and virtue, who have highly regal authority.
merited of the republic of letters, should be re.
warded with the honor of these laurels, there is Your country saw all these procesdings, the the greatest propriety in conferring such honor on work of a body of which you were and are mem that very illustrious gentleman, George Washingbers: proceedings arising from dire necessity, and ton, esq. the accomplished general of the connot from choice; proceedings that are the natural federated colonies in America; whose knowledge consequences of the present inauspicious reign; pro- and patriotic ardour are manifest to all; who, for ceedings just in themselves, and which, notwith his distinguished virtues, both civil and military, in standing the declarations of the corrupt houses of the first place being elected by the suffrages of parliament, the proclamation at the court of St. the Virginians one of their delegates, exerted himJames's, the 23d of August, and the subsequent self with fidelity and singular wisdom in the celeroyal speech in parliament, are exactly as far brated congress in America, for the defence of li. distant from treason and rebellion, as stands the berty, when in the utmost danger of being forever glorious revolution, which deprived a tyrant of bis lost, and for the salvation of his country; and ther,
at the earnest request of that grand council of, try, requires an exertion of the greatest prudence patriots, without hesitation, left all the pleasures and abilities. of his delightful seat in Virginia, and the affairs
At a time, when our rights and privileges are of his own estate, that, through all the fatigues and
invaded, when the fundamental principles of the dangers of camp, without accepting any reward, constitution are subverted, and those men whose he might deliver New England from the unjust duty should teach them to protect and defend us, and cruel árms of Great Britain, and defend the
are become our betrayers and murderers; it calls other colonies; and who, by the most signal smiles aloud on every virtuous member of the community of Divine Providence on his military operations, to stand forth, and stem the prevailing torrent of drove the fleet and troops of the enemy with disgrace. corruption and lawless power. fal precipitation from the town of Bosion, which for eleven months had been shut, fortified and defend The many and frequent instances of your attached by a garrison of above 7000 regulars; so that ment towards me, and an ardent desire to promote the inhabitants, who suffered a great variety of the welfare of my country, have induced me to bardships and cruelties while under the power of accept of this weighty and important trust; for their oppressors, now rejoice in their deliverance; your interest only I desire ta act; and relying on the neighboring towns are also freed from the your aid and assistance in every difficulty, I sball tamults of arms, and our university has the agreea- always most confidently expect it. ble prospect of being restored to its ancient seat.
Some venal disaffected men may endeavor to Know ye, therefore, that we, the president and persuade the people to submit to the mandates of fellows of Harvard College in Cambridge, (with despotism; but surely every freeman would conthe consent of the honored and reverend overseers sider the nature, and inspect the designs and execaof our academy) have constituted and created the tion of that government, under which he may be aforesaid gentleman, George Washington, who called to live. The people of this province, in opmerits the bighest honor, doctor of laws, the law posing the designs of a cruel and corrupt ministry, of nature and nations, and the civil law; and have have surmounted what appeared inseparable difgiven and granted him at the same time all rights, ficulties; and notwithstanding the artifice and adprivileges and honors to the said degree pertain- dress that for a long time were employed to divert ing.
their attention from the common cause, they, at
length, by imperceptible degrees, succeeded, and In testimony whereof, we have affixed the com- declared their resolutions to assert their liberties, mon seal of our university to these letters, and and to maintain them, at all events, in concurrence subscribed them with our hand-writing, this third with the other associated colonies. For my part, day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand I most candidly declare that, from the origin of seven hundred and seventy-six.
these unhappy disputes, I heartily approved of the SAMUEL LANGDON, S. T. D. Preses. conduct of the Americans. My approbation was NATHANIEL APPLETON, S. T. D.
not the result of prejudice or partiality, but proJOHANNES WINTHROP, Mat. et. Phi. P. ceeded from a firm persuasion of their having acted ANDREAS Elliot, S. T. D. (Hol.) L. L. 1. agreeable to constitutional principles, and the SAMUXL Cooper, S. T. D.
dictates of an upright disinterested conscience. Jogans WADSWORTH, Log. et. Eth. Pre.
We must all acknowledge our great obligations Savannah, (Georgia) June 20, 1776.
to our ancestors, for the invaluable liberties we Our provincial congress met here on the 6th inst.enjoy; it is our indispensible duty to transmit them when his excellency Archibald Bullock, esq. pre-inviolate to posterity; and to be negligent, in an
sident and commander in chief of the province of affair of such moment, would be an indelible stain | Georgia, delivered the following speech:
of infamy on the present æra. Animated with this Mr. Speaker, and gentlemen of the congress
principle, I sball think myself amply rewarded, if The state of the province at your last meeting
I can be so fortunate as to render any service to
the cause of freedom and posterity. made it absolutely necessary to adopt some temporary regulations for the preservation of the pub. Mr. Speaker and gentlemen of the congresso lic peace
and safety; and your appointment of me Being sensible that colony matters of great im. Carry these things into execution, at a time so portance will claim your attention at this meeting, critical and important to the welfare of this coun-le will not take up too much of your time from the
public business. Some further regulations respect. disposition; but I have received some accounts ing the courts of justice, the state of the continen. rather unfavorable. As this is of the highest con. tal battalions, and the better ordering of the sequence to the peace and welfare of the colony, militia of this province, will necessarily be the I would bere suggest, whether it would not be subject of your disquisitions.
necessary to enter into some resolves, in order to You must be convinced of the many difficulties prevent any future misunderstanding between thema
and our back settlers; and to this I think I may add, we labor under, arising from the number that still
that the putting the province in the best posture Pemain among us, under the shelter of an affected
of defence, would be an object very requisite af neutrality. The arguments alleged for their con.
this juncture. duct, appear too weak to merit a refutation. This
The continental congress bave always been is no time to talk of moderation: in the present
solicitous to promote the increase and improve. instance it ceases to be a virtue. An appeal, an ment of useful knowledge, and with the bighest awful appeal, is made to Heaven, and thousands of satisfaction contemplating the rapid progress of lives are in jeopardy every hour. Our northern
the arts and sciences in America, have thought brethren point to their wounds, and call for our
proper to recommend the encouraging the manu. most vigorous exertions; and God forbid that so
factory of salt-petre, sulpbur, and gun.powder. noble a contest should end in an infamous conclu The process is extremely easy, and I should be sion. You will not, therefore, be biassed by any
very glad to see any of the good people of this suggestions from these enemies of American li
province exerting themselves in the manufacture berty, or regard any censure they may bestow on
of these useful and necessary articles. If they once the forwardness and zeal of this infant colony. - consider it is for the public good, they will need You must evidently perceive the necessity of
no other inducement. making some, further laws respecting these non. Mr. Speaker and gentlemen of the congressassociates; and though there may be some who ap
Remember in all your deliberations you are pear at present forward to sign the association,
engaged in a most arduous undertaking. Genera. yet it becomes us to keep a watchful eye on the
tions yet unborn may owe their freedom and happi. motive and conduct of these men, lest the public
ness to your determination, and may bestow bles. good should be endangered through this perfidy sings or execrations on your memory, in such manand pretended friendsbip.
ner as you discharge the trust reposed in you by By the resolves of tbe general congress, the your constituents
. Thoughts like these will influinhabitants of the united colonies are permitted to
ence you to throw aside every prejudice, and to
exert your utmost efforts to preserve unanimity, trade to any part of the world, except the dominions of the king of Great Britain; and in consequence
firmness and impartiality in all your proceedings.
ARCHIBALD BULLOCK. of which, it will be necessary to fix on some mode of proceeding, for the clearance of vessels and other matters relative thereto; and perhaps you
The Bishop of St. Asaph's Speech. may think it further requisite, to appoint proper The following piece, wrote by the Rev. Dr. JONATHAN officers to despatch this business, that the ad SHIPley, late bishop of Sl. Asaph, was intended to venturers in trade may meet with as little obstruc
have been spoken in the house of lords on the bill for tion as possible. and I would at the same time altering the charter of the colony of the Massarecommend to your consideration, the exorbitant chusetts Bay; and is now exhibited 10 the public prices of goods, and other necessaries of life, in the for their perusal: It is the whole of the pamphlei, town of Savannah, and every part of the province.
save an advertisement that preceded the work, which This certainly requires some immediate regula we thought needless to insert. tions, as the poor must be greatly distressed by
(Maryland Gazette, Sept. 29, 1774. such alarming and unheard of extortions.
It is of such great importance to compose, or
even to moderate, the dissensions which subsist With respect to Indian affairs, I hoped to have at present between our unhappy country and her the pleasure of assuring you, from the state of the colonies, that I cannot help endeavoring, from the proceedings of the commissioners, that they were faint prospect I have of contributing something to im every respect friendly and warmly attached to so good an end, to overcome the inexpressible our interest, and that there was the greatest rea. reluctance I feel at uttering my thoughits before son to expect a coctinuance of the same friendly the most respectable of all audiences.
The true object of all our deliberations on this much lessened the pleasure I used to feel in think. occasion, which I hope we shall never lose sight of, ing myself an Englishman. We ought surely not is a full and cordial reconciliation with North Ame to hold our colonies totally inexcusable for wish. rica. Now I own, my lords, I have many doubts ing to exempt themselves from a grievance, which whether the terrors and punishments we hang out bas caused such unexampled devastation; and, my to them at present are the surest means of produc-| lords, it would be too disgraceful to ourselves, to
Let ing this reconciliation. Let us at least do this try so cruel an experiment more than once. justice to the people of North America, to own us reflect, that before these innovations were that we can all remember a time when they were thought of, by following the line of good conduct much better friends than at present to their mother which had been marked out by our ancestors, we country. They are neither our natural nor our governed North America with mutual benefit to determined enemies. Before the stamp-act, we them and ourselves. It was a happy idea, that considered them in the light of as good subjects as made us first consider them rather as instruments the natives of any county in England.
of commerce than as objects of government. It
was wise and generous to give them the form and It is worth while to enquire by what steps we the spirit of our own constitution; an assembly, in first gained their affection, and preserved it so which a greater equality of representation has been long; and by what conduct we have lately lost it.
preserved them at home, and councils and gover. Such an enquiry may point out the means of restor nors, such as were adapted to their situation, ing peace, and make the use of force unnecessary though they must be acknowledged to be very against a people, whom I cannot yet forbear to inferior copies of the dignity of this house, and the consider as our brethren.
majesty of ibe crown. It has always been a most arduous task to go.
But what is far more valuable than all the rest, vern distant provinces, wiib even a tolerable apo we gave them liberiy. We allowed them to use pearance of justice. The viceroys and governors their own judgment in the management of their of other nations are usually temporary tyrants, who own interest. The idea of taxing them never think themseives obliged to make the most of their entered our beads. On the contrary they have time; who not only plunder the people, but carry experienced our liberality on many public occaaway their spoils, and dry up all the sources of sions: we have given them bounties to encourage commerce and industry. Taxation, in their hands, their industry, and have demanded no return but is an unlimited power of oppression: but in what- what every state exacts from its colonies, the advan. ever bands the power of taxation is lodged, it wages of an exclusive commercè, and the regulaimplies and includes all other powers. Arbitrary tiwns that are necessary to secure it. We made tuxation is plunder authorised by law: it is the requisitions to them on great occasions, in the support and the essence of tyranny, and has done same manner as our princes formerly asked benemore mischief to maukind, than those other three volences of their subjects; and as nothing was asked scourges from Ileaven, fam..e, pestilence and the but what was visibly for the public good, it was sword. I need not carry your lordship out of your always granted; and they some times did more than own knowledge, or out of your own dominions, to we expected. The matter of right was neither make you conceive wbat misery this right of taxa. disputed, nor even considered. And let us not tion is capable of producing in a provincial govern. forget that the people of New-England were them. ment. We need only recollect that our country- selves, during the last war, the most forward of all men in India liave, in the space of five or six years, in the national cause; that every year we voted in virlue of this right, destroyed, starved, and them a considerable sum, in acknowledgment of driven away more inhabitants from Bengal, than their zealand their services; that, in the preceding are to be found at present in all our American war, they alone enabled us to make the treaty of culonies; more than all those formidable numbers Aix-la-Chapelle, by furnishing us with the only which we have been nursing up for the space of equivalent for the towns that were taken from our two hundred years, with so much care and success, allies in Flanders; and that, in times of peace, they to the astonishment of all Europe. This is 80 alone have taken from us six times as much of our exaggeration, my lords, but plain matier of fact, woolen manufuclures as the whole kingdom of collected from the accounts went over by Mr. Hast Ireland. Such a colony, my lords, not only from ings, whose name I mention with honor and venera- tbe justice, but from the gratitude we owe them, rion. And, I mus! own, auch accounts have very have a right to be heard in their defence; and if
their crimes are not of the most inespiable kind,,it well deserves your serious consideration The i could almost say, they have a right to be forgiven. true cause is, that a mother-country never existed But in the Himes we speak of, our public inter the sarte equal footing; and joined with them in
before, who placed her natives and her colonies on course was carried on with ease and satisfaction. fairly carrying on one common interest. We regarded them as our friends and fellow citi. zens, and relied as much upon their fidelity as on
You ought to consider this, my lords, not as & the inhabitants of our own country. They saw our mere historical fact, but as a most important and power with pleasure, for they considered it only as invaluable discovery. It enlarges our ideas of the their protection. They inherited our law's, our power and energy of good government beyond all language, and our customs; they preferred our former examples; and shews that it can act like manufactures, and followed our fushions with a gravitation at the greatest distances. It proves to partiality that secured our execlusive trade wild a demonstration that you may have good subjects them more effectually than all the regulations and in the remotest corner of the earth, if you will but vigilance of the custom house. Had we suffered treat them with kindness and equity. If you have them lo enrich us a little longer, and to grow a any doubts of the truth of this kind of reasoning, little richer themselves, their men of fortune, like the experience we have had of a different kind will the West-Indians, wou'd undoubtedly bave made entirely remove them. this country the place of their education and resort.
The good genius of our country had led us to For they looked up to England with reverence and the simple and happy method of governing freeaffec:ion, as to the country of their friends and men, which I have endeavored to describe. Our ancestors. They esleemed and they called it their ministers received it from their predecessors and bome, and thought of it as the Jews once thought for some time continued to observe it; but without of the land of Canaan.
knowing its value. At length, presuming on their Now, my lords, coosider with yourselves wbat own wisdom, and the quiet dispositions of the were the chains and ties that united this people Americans, they flattered themselves that we might to their moiher-country with so much warmth and reap great advantages from their prosperity by affection, at so amazing a distance. The colonies destroying the cause of it. They chose, in an of other nations have been discontented with their unlucky hour, to treat them as other nations have treatment, and not without sufficient cause; always thought fit to treat their colonies; they threatened, murmuring at their grievances, and some times and they taxed them. breaking out into acts of rebellion. Our subjects I do not now enquire whether taxation is matter al honie, with all their reasons for satisfaction, have of right; I only consider it as matter of experiment: never been entirely satisfied. Since the beginning for surely the art of government itself is founded of this century we have had two rebellions, several on experience. I need not suggest what were the plots and conspiracies; and we ourselves been consequences of this change of measures. The evils witnesses to the most dangerous excesses of produced by it were such as we still remember sedition. But the provinces in North America have and still feel. We suffered more by our loss of engaged in no party, have excited no opposition, trade with them, than the wealth flowing in from they have been utter strangers even to the name India was able to recompense. The bankruptcy of whig and tory. In dl changes, in all revolu- of the East-India company may be sufficiently tions, they bave quietly followed the fortunes and accounted for by the rapine abroad and the knavery submitted to the government of England. at home; but it certainly would have been delayed Now let me appeal to your lordships as to men
some years, bad we continued our commerce with of enlarged and liberal minds, who have been led them in the single article of tea. But that and by your office and rank to the study of history, many other branches of trade bave been diverted Can you find in the long succession of ages, in
into other channels, and may probably never return the whole extent of buman affairs, a single instance
entire to their own old course. But what is worst svhere distant provinces have been preserved in
of all, we have lost their confidence and friendship: so fourishing a state, and kept at the same time
we have ignorantly undermined the most solid in such due subjection to their mother country?
foundation of our own power. My lords, there is no instance; the case never In order to observe the strictest impartiality, it existed before. It is perhaps the most singular is but just for us to enquire what we have gained plenomenon in all civil history; and the cause of by these taxes as well us what we have lost. Iam