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places “ Love in Idless," as in the Shake-l present nomenclature, by the piling up of spearean compliment to Elizabeth in the Greek and Latin words on each other, “Midsummer Night's Dream:"

the barbarous compounds, and almost

unpronounceable words, such as : HabroYet marked I where the bolt of Cupid fell,

Cupid tell, thamnus," “Ortiospermum,” “Intyba. It fell upon a little western flower, Before milk-white, now purple with love's ceum," and the like. While the utterly

irrelevant proper names, such as the shaft, And maidens call it Love in Idleness !

“ Wellingtonia," for a pine-tree, belonging

to the far west American mountains, “ Rosemary" (that's for remem. scarcely even heard of while the “ Duke" brance '). "I pray you, love, remember,” | was still alive — the Roses dedicated to says Ophelia in her madness. It was French marshals, most unfloral men, are carried at funerals :

symptoms of our present poverty of Marygold that goes to bed with the sun

| language-making. And with him rises weeping.

The hosts of new shrubs and plants

now continually introduced, require a and the marsh edition of it, “all aflame," more systematic kind of name-inaking as Tennyson describes it.

than of old ; but we cannot help some“ Speedwell,” said the little blue Vetimes regretting the poetry of invention ronica in the hedge to the old folk who which has passed away from us, the love went before us. “Forget-me-not,” called ing transfer of our human thoughts and the turquoise blue Myosotis from the feelings to the inanimate things around water as they passed by.

us, the beautiful religious symbols into “Bloody Warriors,'' the dark wall- which our ancestors translated the nature flower, and bright blue “ Canterbury about them, and which so often must Bells,” filled their gardens.

have helped them to “rise from Nature We pay for the convenience of our | up to Nature's God.”

THE SOURCE OF NITROGEN IN THE FOOD | impregnates the subjacent soil around the OF PLANTS. — A somewhat strange series of roots; in the second the nitrogenous comopinions are those that have been started by pounds are converted into insoluble humates. M. Dehérain in his recent paper in the “An- The air of the soil is therefore at a certain nales des Sciences Naturelles." While adopt. depth deprived of oxygen; hydrogen is proing the conclusions of Lawes and Gilbert, duced as the result of the decomposition of Ville and Boussingault, that plants have no organic substances; and this hydrogen unites power of absorbing nitrogen directly from the with the nitrogen to form ammonia. If these air, he still holds that the atmospheric nitro views are correct, they will have a considerable gen is the source of that which enters into the practical importance in agriculture, the value composition of the tissues of the plant. The of a manure depending not so much on the results of a series of investigations which M. / actual amount of nitrogen present in it as on Dehérain has carried out tend to show that the quantity of carbonaceous substances which atmospheric nitrogen is fixed and retained in possess the power of taking up nitrogen from the soil through the medium of the hydrocar- the atmosphere. bons, such as humus, in conjunction with alkalies, and that this fixation is favoured by the absence of oxygen. In other words, the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen occurs when organic materials are in process of decomposi- AMERICAN PLANTS IN FRANCE. – Dr. Asa tion in an atmosphere either deprived of oxy- Gray states, in “Silliman's Journal” for Febgen or in which that element is deficient. ruary, that Ilysanthes gratioloides, a rather inUnder these circumstances carbonic acid and significant plant of the American flora, has hydrogen are both given off, the latter uniting recently been found in abundance in France, with nitrogen to form ammonia. According in the neighbourhood of Nantes. It is thought to the earlier researches of Thenard there are to have appeared there between the years 1853 in soil two strata exposed to the action of the and 1858, and to have been in some way reatmosphere -- an upper oxidizing and a lower ceived from the United States, but the manner deoxidizing stratum. In the first stratum the of its coming eludes enquiry. nitrogen is obtained from the atmosphere, and

Fifth Series,
Volume VII.

No. 1571. - J


S From Beginning, ? Vol. CXXII.

1. AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS, . . . . Quarterly Review, . . . 131
BROTHER. Part IX., . • •


. Blackwood's Magazine, . . 147 III. MR. RUSKIN'S RECENT WRITINGS. By

Leslie Stephen,· . . Fraser's Magazine, . . .

Thomas Hardy, author of “Under the
Greenwood Tree,” “A Pair of Blue Eyes,”

etc. Part VII., . . . . . . Cornhill Magazine, . . 165 V. ASSYRIAN DISCOVERIES. A Lecture Deliv.

ered at the London Institution, January 28,
1874, . . . . . . .

· Fraser's Magasine, . . . 177 VI. WHITBY JET,. .

. . All The Year Round, . . . 185 VII. A LETTER OF LAURENCE STERNE, . . Academy, . . . . . 188

POETRY. HYUN OF THE ASCENSION, . . 130 King FRITZ. [Found among the papers THAMES VALLEY SONNETS, By Dantel of the late Wm. M. Thackeray], 130 G. Rossetti.

TO A FRIEND LEAVING ENGLAND IN 1.-Winter, . . . . . 130 SEPTEMBER, · · • 190 IL – Spring. : : : : : 1301 MISCELLANY, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191, 192


TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor when we have to pay commission lor torrarding the money; nor when we club the LIVING Age with another periodical.

An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.

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And if ever, by words or grimaces,
Bright portals of the sky,

Their highnesses dare to complain,
Embossed with sparkling stars,

The King Hings a dish in their faces,
Doors of eternity,

Or batters their bones with his cane.
With diamantine bars,

'Tis thus that the chief of our nation
Your arras' rich uphold,

The minds of his children improves ;
Loose all your bolts and springs,

And teaches polite education
Ope wide your leaves of gold,

By boxing the ears that he loves.
That in your roofs may come the King of I warrant they vex him but seldom,

And so if we dealt with our sons,

If we up with our cudgels and felled 'em,
Scarfed in a rosy cloud,

We'd teach 'em good manners at once.
He doth ascend the air ;
Straight doth the moon Him shroud

Cornhill Magazine.
With her resplendent hair ;
The next encrystalled light
Submits to Hím its beams;
And He doth trace the height

Of that fair lamp which flames of beauty

1. — WINTER.

How large that thrush looks on the bare He towers those golden bounds

thorn-tree ! He did to the sun bequeath;

A swarm of such, three little months ago The higher wandering rounds

1. Had hidden in the leaves and let none know • Are found His feet beneath ;

| Save by the outburst of their minstrelsy. The milky way.comes near;

A white flake here and there - a snow-lily Heaven's axle seems to bend

. Of last night's frost — our naked flowerAbove each burning sphere,

beds hold; That robcd in glory heaven's King may ascend. And for a rose-flower on the darkling mould

The hungry redbreast gleams. No bloom, no
O well-spring of this All,

Thy Father's image live,
Word, that from nought did call

The current shudders to its ice-bound sedge :
What is, doth reason, live,

Nipped in their bath, the stark reeds one by The soul's eternal food,

one Earth's joy, delight of heaven, · · !

Flash each its clinging diamond in the sun : All Truth, Love, Beauty, Good.

'Neath winds which for this Winter's sovTo Thee, to Thee, be praises ever given !

ereign pledge. Drummond of Hawthornden.

Shall curb great king-masts to the ocean's

edge And leave memorial forest-kings o'erthrown.

11. — SPRING.

Soft-littered is the new-year's lambing-fold, KING FRITZ.

And in the hollowed haystack at its side

The shepherd lies o' nights now, wakeful. (FOUND AMONG THE PAPERS OF THE LATE

eyed W. M. THACKERAY.)

At the ewes' travailing call through the dark KING FRITZ at his palace of Berlin

cold. I saw at a royal carouse,

The young rooks cheep ’mid the thick caw o' In a periwig powdered and curling

the old : He sat with his hat on his brows.

And near unpeopled stream-sides, on the The handsome young princes were present,

ground, Uncovered they stood in the hall;

By her spring-cry the moorhen's nest is And oh ! it was wholesome and pleasant

found, To see how he treated them all!

Where the drained flood-lands flaunt their

marigold. Reclined on the softest of cushions His Majesty sits to his meats,

Chill are the gusts to which the pastures The princes, like loyal young Prussians,

cower, Have never a back to their seats.

And chill the current where the young reeds Off salmon and venison and pheasants

stand He dines like a monarch august;

As green and close as the young wheat on His sons, if they eat in his presence,

land: Put up with a bone or a crust.

Yet here the cuckoo and the cuckoo-flower

Plight to the heart Spring's perfect imminent He quaffs his bold bumpers of Rhenish,

hour It can't be too good or too dear;

Whose breath shall soothe you like your dear The princes are made to replenish

one's hand. Their cups with the smallest of beer. . l Athenæum.


From The Quarterly Review. I make the legitimate deductions and aniAUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS.* Imadversions. The result is such a porThe publication of the literary corre-trait of Archibald Constable, the man and spondence of Archibald Constable, the the publisher, as does justice at once to the great Edinburgh bookseller – “Hanni-integrity of the father and to the fidelity bal Constable," as Leyden called him of the son, and as satisfies the expectawith pride ; "the grand Napoleon of the tions both of the student of literary hisrealms of print," as Scott dubbed him in tory and of the student of human nature. jest; “the prince of booksellers," as Indirectly, literature owes this man a James Mill saluted him in all sincerity – very great debt of gratitude. Sir James reopens an interesting chapter in the Mackintosh, writing to him in sympaliterary bistory of the last generation. thetic terms after the great crash of 1826, Constable's career was closely connected says, “ You have done more to promote with the starting of a new era in our lit- the interest of literature than any man erature, regarded both as a profession who has been engaged in the commerce and as a trade. Of the chief men who of books.” (vol. ii. p. 378). He first set took part in this movement, either as au- the fashion of enlightened liberality thors or as publishers, these volumes af- towards authors, a fashion which his ford many interesting notices — of some rivals were forced to follow. He stimuonly tantalizing glimpses, of others full lated the public taste for pure and sound and satisfying details. The work owes literature; and he was the first to show its value in this respect, not merely to how works of the highest class might be Constable's position as a leading publish- brought within the reach of the masses, er, with a wide connection among the without fear or risk of failure. Then, in foremost literary men and women of his order to realize the extent of his direct time, but also to Constable's character as services to literature, and to freedom of a man, which was such as to command thought, we have only to remember that confidence and provoke friendship, far he was the first publisher of the Edinbeyond the ordinary range of business burgh Review, that he infused new life relations.

into the Encyclopædia Britannica, that Before going further, we are bound to through him Scott's poems, most of his acknowledge the fairness, delicacy, and novels, and the best of his miscellaneous tact, as well as to commend the literary works, were given to the world, and that skill, with which, in these volumes, Con-his Miscellany was, as his biographer stable's son has discharged a difficult says, “undoubtedly the pioneer and sugand, in some respects, a painful task. gester of all the various "libraries' He has nothing extenuated, nor aught which sprang up in its wake.” It is inset down in malice, though the provoca- teresting to find in the memoir abundant tion to transgress in both directions, proof that the great bookseller was also a when we remember Lockhart's gross mis- good and estimable man- good in all representations and rude ridicule, to say the relations of life - a loving husband, nothing of Campbell's sneers, was by no an affectionate and judicious parent, a means small. In connection with the fast and trusted friend. history of the Scott-Ballantyne failure in In one respect the plan of Constable's particular, the biographer might fairly memoir is open to objection. It carries have claimed for himself considerable us repeatedly over the same period of license of vituperation. But he has, as time, and forces us to traverse, over and wisely as courageously, resisted this temp- over again, though in different company, tation, and has confined himself almost the same ground. The third volume, exclusively to stating facts and quoting which is devoted to his connection with documents, leaving it to his readers to Sir Walter Scott, is to a great extent

self-contained and self-explanatory. But, • Archibald Constable and his Literary Correl in the or spondents : A Memorial. By his Son, Thomas Con.

in the first and second volumes, each STABLE. Three vols. Edinburgh. 1873.

* Tchapter deals with his connection with

one correspondent, or at most with three the present century to which we have or four. Thus, in company with his part. referred. It suggests a comparative in. ner A. G. Hunter, we traverse the years quiry, of great interest and value, into the from 1803 to 1811. In the next chapter relations which have subsisted, at differwe return to 1802, and go on with Tom ent periods in the history of literature, Campbell to 1810. John Leyden brings between authors and publishers, or rather us back again to 1800, and we advance in between authors on the one hand, and his pleasant company to 1808. The ac-publishers and the public on the other. count of Alexander Murray, the Oriental. Sir Walter Scott says in his “ Life of ist,- a monograph, let it be said in pass. Dryden,” “ That literature is ill-recoming, of rare literary and personal interest, pensed is usually rather the fault of the a portrait of a sterling, hard-headed, in- public than of the booksellers, whose dependent, and withal modest Scot - trade can only exist by buying that carries us back to 1794, and forward to which can be sold to advantage. The 1812. Nor is this all ; the same topics trader who purchased the · Paradise turn up again and again in different con- Lost' for £10 had probably no very good nections. To take but one example, | bargain.”* Curiously enough, this quo. Constable's quarrel with Longman is tation enables us to bring together exmentioned first in the general account of tremes of literary remuneration which the Edinburgh Review (vol. i. p. 55). It are “wide as the poles asunder ; " for in comes up again in the chapter on the same year in which Scott wrote these A. G. Hunter (vol. i. p. 79); once more, i words, he himself received from Constain treating of his dealings with John ble £1,000 for the coypright of “MarMurray (vol. i. p. 338); and yet again in mion,” a price which, we believe, did not describing bis competition with Murray, I turn out to the disadvantage of the book. and with Longman, for the patronage of seller. We may therefore safely conSir Walter Scott (vol. iji. p. 32): and so clude, that when Scott alluded as above with not a few other important items. to “ Paradise Lost," he did not refer to

The method of the work has no doubt the intrinsic merit of Milton's immortal some advantages. In particular, it gives epic, but only to the condition of the popcompleteness and individuality to the ular taste, and commercial demand, under descriptions of the separate correspond-which it was produced. Scott's words ents ; but this completeness of the parts make it plain that three factors have to is gained at a sacrifice of the unity and be taken into account in apprising lite. harmony of the whole. It makes the rary property - the labour of the author work analytic instead of synthetic, which in producing his work, the desire of the such a work ought expressly to be. It public to possess it, and the risk of the presents us with a series of cabinet por-publisher as a go-between in bringing traits, instead of with a historical picture. the author and the public into contact. It furnishes the materials for such a pic- In the earliest stages of literature there ture in abundance; but it leaves the were no publishers in the modern sense. grouping and arranging - in a word the and there was scarcely any public. Besynthesis — to be done by the reader, Ifore the introduction of printing the manand that at a considerable expenditure of ner of publishing a book was to have it trouble, and with no little risk of error read on three days successiv. ly before and misconstruction. But when every one of the universities or some other deduction has been made, on this or on recognized authority. If it met with apany score, the work must be admitted to probation, copies of it were then permit. be a sterling one ; and, as mémoires pour ted to be made by monks, scribes, illuservir, it cannot fail to be of the highest minators, and readers,- men who were value to the student of modern literature specially trained in the art, and who deand of modern society. The work, however, has much wider.

"The Works of John Dryden, with Notes, &c.,

ch wuel and a Life of the Author." By Walter Scott, Esq. bearings than those on the literature of Vol. i., p. 392. Edinburgh: 1808.


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