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Having spoken thus, the King remained silent, anxiously expecting to hear the interpretations.

Then T'so-Ping Devaputra forthwith replied to the King and said, "Maharaja! be it known unto you that the first dream, in which you saw the vast multitude surrounding the Banner of Indra, and carrying it forth from the city gate, signifies that the prince, your son, will soon give up his present condition, and, surrounded by innumerable Devas, proceed from the city and become a recluse. This is the interpretation of your first dream.

"Again, when the Maharaja dreamt that he saw the prince riding in a chariot drawn by ten mighty elephants, proceeding from the South gate of the city, this signifies that the prince, having left his home, will forthwith attain to the knowledge of all things (Sarvadjna or Sarvasandjna) and the ten powers of mind (Dasabalas). This is the interpretation of the second dream.

"Again, when your Majesty dreamt that you saw the Royal Prince driving in a four-horsed chariot, and proceeding through the West gate of the city; this signifies that the prince having left his home and attained the perfect knowledge before-named, he shall likewise arrive at the condition of perfect fearlessness.1

"Again, when your Majesty dreamt that you beheld a richlyjewelled discus proceed through the North gate of the city, this signified that the prince, having left his home and attained perfect enlightenment, would turn the precious wheel of the perfect Law for the good of gods and men. This is the interpretation of the fourth dream.

"Again, when the King saw in his dreams the prince sitting in the midst of the four highways of Kapilavastu beating a mighty drum with a mace held in his hand; this signified that the prince having attained to the condition of Bodhi, and begun to turn the wheel of the Law, that the sound of his preaching should extend through the Highest Heavens (the Heavens of Brahma) even as the sound of the drum is heard through the inferior worlds.'2 This is the interpretation of the fifth dream.

"Again, when your Majesty dreamt that you saw in Kapilavastu

1 The four intrepidities, Vaisaradyas, vide Lotus, p. 346. This is the interpretation of the third dream.

2 This dream corresponds to the Avadana, translated by Stas. Julien, "Le Eoi et le grand tambour," Les Avadanas, vol. i, p. 1.

a high tower, and the prince seated on the top scattering precious gems towards the four quarters of heaven, whilst countless multitudes of creatures were gathered together collecting these precious gifts; this signifies that the prince, having arrived at perfect wisdom, will scatter the precious gems of the Good Law in every direction for the sake of Devas and men and the eight classes of creatures. This is the interpretation of the sixth dream.

"Again, when your Majesty beheld the six men outside the city Kapilavastu weeping and lamenting and tearing their hair; this signifies the misery and distress of the six heretical teachers whom the prince after his enlightenment shall discomfit and expose; to wit, Pourna Kasyapa, Mavakaragosaputra, Adjnitasa Kimbala, Parbata Katyayana, Sanjipayatijitaputra, and Kirganthajatiputra. This is the interpretation of the seventh dream."

Thus T'so-Ping, the Devaputra, having explained the dreams of Suddhodana Raja, he further addressed him and said, "Maharaja! your heart should be filled with joy and not with grief; for in truth these dreams are of the most felicitous character, compose your heart then, and let there be no more anxiety or distress." Thus speaking, he suddenly disappeared, and was no more seen.

Then the King, having heard these words, resolved to increase yet more the enticements to sensual indulgence in the palace of the prince; hoping thus to prevent his going forth to see the world.

And so the prince still remained in the indulgence of his animal passions, without any reflection.

Seeing the Sick Man on the Eoad.

§ 2. Now, then, the Devaputra, T'so-Ping, again began to bethink himself thus—" This Prabhapala Bodhisatwa Mahasatwa is still living within his palace indulging himself in mere animal enjoyment, giving rein to his passions, whilst the world is perishing! I must arouse him by some spiritual manifestation." Having thus reflected; he caused the prince, whilst sitting within the palace, suddenly to conceive a desire to make another tour of inspection through the gardens without (the city).

Then the prince summoned his coachman again to his side and said, "My worthy coachman! I wish to take another drive without the city towards the gardens for the purpose of seeing the trees and the flowers."

The coachman replied, "Even so, my lord! as you say!" Then having received his instructions, he forthwith sent the intelligence to Suddhodana Raja, who issued similar instructions throughout the city for the decoration and cleansing of the streets and highways, and the ornamentation of the trees of the garden.

Then the coachman, having prepared a magnificent chariot, approached the prince and said, "The chariot is even now ready, and awaiting your orders." Then the prince, mounting into the chariot, took his seat with the dignity and appearance of a king, and proceeded through the South gate of the city, and slowly advanced towards the gardens without.

At this time T'so-Ping Devaputra caused to appear in the way, just before the prince, a sick and pain-worn man, with cramped limbs and swollen belly, giving evidence of agonising suffering, pale and miserable, scarcely able to draw his breath, every now and then lying down in the dirt through exhaustion: till at last, unable to rise through weakness, he exclaimed with much difficulty in suppliant tones—" Oh! I humbly intreat you, raise me up to sit upon the road."

Then the prince, seeing this wretched object and hearing his intreaty, immediately addressed his coachman and said, "Who or what is this unhappy being? his breath like the steaming of a caldron, his body emaciated and wan, his skin yellow as parchment, and as he goes groaning and sighing 'Ah me ! what pain!' and again, 'Alas! alas! pity, master! pity." Indeed I cannot bear to hear such misery, I will go to raise him up."

Then the Devaputra, T'so-Ping, inspired the coachman to answer thus—" Holy youth! listen to me; this is a sick man."

Then the prince rejoined, "And what does that signify?"

The coachman replied and said, "Sacred Prince! this man's body is unsound and deprived of all vital power and grace; his limbs cramped and helpless; sighing for death; without refuge or protection; father and mother both forgotten—no one to sympathise with him; in this plight, daily looking for death, he still endures his misery, without help, without remedy! For this reason, O Prince! he is called a sick man I" And so the Gatha says

"The Prince asked the coachman and said, 'What man is this enduring such pain?' The coachman replied to the prince—

'The four elements ill-adjusted, therefore sickness is produced.'" Again the prince inquired, "Is this sickness confined to the case before us, or is it common to men generally?" To which the chairman replied, " It is not restricted to this man alone, but gods and men alike are unable to avoid this misery." "And must I too some day be sick?" asked the prince; "alas! if this be so, what fear, what anxiety?" And again he said, "If this really be so, O charioteer! then I feel in no temper to go to the gardens to enjoy the beauty of the trees and flowers; turn again, turn again to the palace." The coachman replied, "I will do as your highness commands." Then the prince, having returned to the palace, sat pensively and sadly reflecting on the truth he had heard, that he also must some day be reduced by sickness to the condition of the man he had seen.

Then Suddhodana Raja inquired of the coachman whether the prince had enjoyed his visit to the gardens or not. On which the charioteer explained the circumstance which had occurred, to the sorrow and grief of the King, who recalled the words of Asita, and in consequence he resolved to increase even more the inducements to pleasure within the palace of the prince, even as the Gathas say—

"The Prince Royal, for a long time dwelling within his palace, After a time desired to go forth to the gardens to enjoy

himself.
In the way he saw a sick man, lean and worn,
which caused him to loathe the thought of pleasure.
Sitting still he reflected on this misery of sickness—
What joy can I have, seeing I cannot escape this ?—
Dissatisfied with the pleasures of sense,
Though possessed of the most lavish means of enjoyment.
Such happiness and incomparable felicity did he inherit
from his former good deeds and virtuous conduct,"

Thus, then, the prince lived within his palace still absorbed, night and day, in the pursuit of sensuous pleasures.

Beholding the Corpse.

§ 3. And still again T'so-Ping, the Devaputra, reflected within himself as he beheld the prince thus engaged in self-indulgence and pleasure—" How can I best stir up this Prabhapala Bodhisatwa, to leave these foolish pleasures and become a recluse." And so he again caused the prince to long to go forth from his palace, and visit the gardens beyond the city. Whereupon the prince, calling his charioteer, addressed him as before, who on his part forthwith reported the matter to Suddhodana Raja. Then the same preparations and precautions having been adopted, the prince went forth. Then the Devaputra caused to appear before the prince as he rode onwards, a corpse lying on a bier in the road. Then he saw the people lift up the bier and carry it along, some were spreading over it every kind of crab grass (?), whilst on the right and left were weeping women, tearing their hair and beating their breasts with grief; others striking their heads across either arm; others throwing dust on their heads; others wailing and lamenting and weeping drops fast as rain, such sad and bitter cries as could seldom be heard!

The prince, witnessing this scene, his heart was overwhelmed with sorrow, and turning to his coachman he asked him, "Respectable coachman! who is this lying thus on his bed, covered with strangely-coloured garments, his head wrapped up, and surrounded by people lamenting and weeping as he is carried onwards ?"—in the words of the Gatha

"The gracefully-formed and ruddy prince
Asked his respectable coachman, ' Who is this
lying upon the bed borne on the four sides by men,
And surrounded by friends weeping and lamenting ?'"

Then T'so-Ping Devaputra by his supernatural power caused the coachman to answer thus—" Most holy prince! this is called a dead body (or a corpse] laid out)." "And what is a dead body?" inquired the prince. To which the coachman answered, "Great prince! this person has now done with life; he has no further beauty of appearance, or desire; he is one with the stones and the wood, just as the dead wall or a fallen leaf; no more shall he see father

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