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Namque aliqui exercent vim duram, & rebus iniqui
VID. Poetic. lib. ii. line 44.
THE VARIOUS KINDS OF
TA R O P E S
SUITABLE EXAMPLES under each of them.
TROPE a fov❜reign pow'r o'er language fhows,
A METAPHOR Compares without the fign:
An ALLEGORY in a length of chain
A vine from Egypt, by JEHOVAH's hand,
The wide-extended fhade the hills admir'd, "And cedar-like to Heav'n its boughs afpir'd: "But now with hungry rage and lawless pow'r, "The mountain-bull and forest-boar devour: "Inclosures, clufters, boughs their fury tares, "And fire confumes what brutal havock fpares. "Look, gracious GOD, on this thy mournful vine, "And let thy guardian care atteft it thine!".
A METONYMY will, for kindred's fake, The name of one thing for another take. Caufes effects intend. His fin will find
Th' offender out, and rack his conscious mind *.
A METALEPSIS throng'd with Tropes appears.
SYNECDOCHE our ftile diverfifies,
And at her call a thousand beauties rise.
Numb. xxxii. 23.
The whole intends a part. To quench the flames
A part denotes the whole. At Blenheim's field,
+ Matt, xxvi. 27...
Genus for fpecies ftands. New life proclaim
ANTONOMASIA for a common name
See that young CAESAR! By revers'd command,
A common for a proper name shall stand.
How fhone the Orator† in that great hour,
When the world's Monarch + fhook beneath his pow'r!
Mark xvi. 15.
The ftory here referred to is thus related by Dr WARD, in his Latin Oration prefixed to his Syftem of Oratory, which I fhall take the liberty to tranflate. "But I cannot, fays the "Doctor, reftrain myself from mentioning how this most emi“nent man (CICERO) obtained the Kiberty of his friend, ac"cused of a capital offence; an occasion in which, if ever, the utmost ftrength of his eloquence exerted isfelf. The "civil war between CASAR and POMPEY being ended, and "the fovereignty of Rame being now in the hands of CSARI
QUINTUS LIGARIUS was accufed by Q. TUBERO of being
body trembled, and he dropped fome parchments out of his "hand. In the end CICERO carried his caufe, and LIGA
RIUS was fet free. Thus the Sovereign of fo many nations
An IRONY in fmooth mellifluent phrase Its poifon fhoots, and wounds with deep difgrace. "Ye are the men of all mankind most wife, "And when ye die, no doubt all wisdom dies."
SARCASM is Irony in its excess.
King of the Jews, thee humbly we addrefs; "Low at thy feet we bend fubmiffive down, "Revere thy reed, and hail thy thorny crown †.”
HYPERBOLE the truth will oft' neglect
By bold excefs, and by as bold defect.
Mark how it rifes. "Yon tall mountain fhrowds "Its height in heav'n, and tow'rs above the clouds." Again it finks. "Shall man his grandeur boast! "An atom of an atom-world at most !”
A CATACHRESIS thro' the want of words Or fond of charms which novelty affords, Boldly bounds o'er expreffion's wonted fence, And makes the Reader tremble for the fenfe. "How swift thofe cranes, exulting in the gale, "Thro' the cerulean gulphs of Æther fail? "For me the wheat's fat kidneys crown the plains, "And mine's the blood the mellow grape contains t."
"was overcome by the force of Eloquence; and he who had " carried his victorious arms to almoft every part of the globe, "was himself at length vanquished by more powerful weapons. "An illustrious victory indeed! in which CICERO might well "boaft, that arms had yielded to the gown,"
↑ Matt. xxvii, 29,
• Job xii. 2. xxxii. 14.