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** This is my dog," say the children ; " that sunny seat is mine." « There is the beginning and the exemplification of the usurpation “ of the whole earth.” This is the natural acting of Acquisitiveness and Self-esteem, which are innate and not acquired feelings,

“ Pity for the unfortunate is no proof of virtue; on the contrary, " it is found desirable to make this demonstration of humanity, and “ to acquire at no expense the reputation of tenderness. Pity there“ fore is little worth.” The pity here spoken of is the result of Love of Approbation, not of Benevolence ; for the latter would act if it could ; the pity of the former is then merely counterfeit.

“ Though men have no interest in what they are saying, it will “ not do to infer from that absolutely that they are not guilty of “ falsehood ; for there are some who lie simply for lying sake.” This is a painful truth, too fully evidenced by examples in high and low life, such as Louis the Eleventh, J. G. &c. This vice is the result of a very large Secretiveness, large Wonder, with a deficient endowment of Conscientiousness, and an absence of all religious principle.

“ I cannot admire the man who possesses one virtue in high “ perfection, if he does not at the same time possess the oppo« site virtue in an equal degree, as in the case of Epaminondas, who “ united the extremes of valour and of meekness.” A universally good development is required to form a character of superior excellence. On a similar view of the universality of virtue or holiness, the Scripture says, speaking of the law of God, as it is required to reign in the heart of man, “ If a man of“ fend in one point he is guilty of all.”

“ This I is hateful ; and those who do not renounce it, who seek

no further than to cover it, are always hateful also. It is essentially “ unjust, because it will be the centre of all things; it is an an

noyance to others, because it will serve itself by them; for each “individual I is the enemy and would be the tyrant of all the others.”

This offensive I is the result of a too predominant development of the organs of Self-esteem and Love of Approbation ; it establishes the reign of selfishness upon the ruins of the reign of love ; nor will its baneful influence be ever exterminated from the human mind, except by the dominion of that charity which is the gift of God, and which “seek66 eth not her own."

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“ Man is evidently made for thinking. Thought is all “ his dignity and all his worth.” The reflective faculties are indeed excellent, and their organs are not possessed by the animal creation.

“ The heart has its reasons, of which reason knows no

thing. It is the heart which feels God, and not the reasoning powers.” Every one must feel the truth of the sentiment thus beautifully expressed in popular language. To render it phrenological, we must substitute “ moral sentiments for heart;" and how far more philosophical and rational is the statement thus rendered! There are few Anti-phrenologists who do not believe that “ the brain is generally the “ organ of the mind.” Is then the organ of the mind, or the intellectual part of man, totally dissevered from and unconnected with the organ of his feelings and affections? It would be almost as comprehensible that the intellect of a man should reside in one body, and the affections of the same individual in another.'

“ The way of God, who does all things well, is to plant

religion in the understanding by reasoning, and in the “ heart by his grace." Substituting intellectual faculties for understanding," and moral sentiments for heart,” how perfectly phrenological is this passage, and how does it show the harmony between Christianity and Phrenology! God has endowed man with intellectual faculties, and he shows him that in his Creator all wisdom centres, and that holiness is happiness. God has given man moral feelings, or affections, and he offers to him motives for the exercise of his unbounded submission, love, and reverence.

“What think you is the object of those men who are playing at « tennis with such intense interest of mind and effort of body?“ merely to boast the next day, among their friends, that they had “ played better than another. There is the spring of their de« votedness. Others again, in the same way, toil in their closets « to show the savans that they have solved a question in algebra “ which was never solved before. Others expose themselves, with • at least equal folly, to the greatest dangers, to boast at length “ of some place that they have taken.” The Love of Approbation is the motive which stimulates to all these exertions.

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That queen of error, whom we call Fancy, or Opinion, is the more deceitful because she does not deceive always. She would “ be the infallible rule of truth, if she were the infallible rule of “ falsehood. Who confers reputation ? Who gives respect and ve“ neration to persons, to books, to great men? Who but opinion ?

Opinion settles every thing. She constitutes beauty, justice, “ happiness, which is the whole of this world.” What gives this power to “ opinion,” but that innate Love of Approbation which exists, in various degrees of force, in every human being? The large development of this organ forms a national peculiarity in the heads of the French people generally, and their manners, their customs, their modes of thinking and acting, are formed, to a wonderful extent, upon the basis of this feeling alone.

“ Do not wonder that this wise man reasons ill just now; a fly is “ buzzing by his ear; it is quite enough to unfit him for giving good “ counsel. If you wish him to see the rights of the case, drive away “ that insect which suspends his reasoning powers, and frets that

mighty mind which governs cities and kingdoms.” How forcibly does this passage express the dependence of the mental powers on physical organization ! How perfectly does it accord with the language of one of the ablest advocates of our science !* “ The human mind, placed in a material world, cannot

act, or be acted upon, but through the medium of an organic apparatus." Yet, as this same writer continues, « the laws of

thought have been expounded with as much neglect of organization " as if we had already shuffled off this mortal coil !”

“ I can readily conceive of a man without hands or feet, and I " could conceive of him without a head, if experience had not taught

me that by this he thinks.” Pascal here states his conviction, that the brain is the organ of the mind.

“ It is dangerous to show man unreservedly how nearly he re“ sembles the brute creation, without pointing out at the same time “ his greatness. It is dangerous also to exhibit his greatness ex“ clusively without his degradation. It is yet more dangerous to “ leave him ignorant of both, but it is highly profitable to teach “ him both together.” Phrenology teaches that the nature of man is animal, moral, and intellectual.

« Pride has so thoroughly got possession of us, that we are prepared to sacrifice life with joy, if it may but be talked of.” The

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* Sec Combe's System of Phrenology-Introduction.

sentiment of Self-esteem is innate, and its predominant action

is pride.

« The

“ Notwithstanding the sight of all those miseries which wring us “ and threaten our destruction, we have still an instinct that we “ cannot repress, which elevates us above our sorrows." The sentiment of Hope is likewise innate; hence it is inextinguishable; and how invaluable is its assistance to suffering humanity!

“ The most important concern in life is the choice of an occupa“ tion; yet chance seems to decide it; custom makes masons, sol. “ diers, bricklayers, &c. Now we do not conceive that nature is so “ uniform. It is custom which does this, and carries nature with “ it. There are cases, however, in which nature prevails, and binds “ man to his specific object, in defiance of custom, whether bad or

good.” “ It is a lamentable thing," says Dr Spurzheim,“that few

persons stand in the situations for which nature particularly fitted “them. This soldier ought to have been a clergyman, that clergyman

a soldier; and here we see a shoemaker who was intended for a poet, and there an advocate who was designed for a shoemaker.” * The will is one of the principal sources of belief; not that it

produces belief, but that things appear true or false to us accord“ ing to the way they are looked at.” Mr G. Combe says, “ propensities and sentiments shed the light through which the oc

currences of the world reach the mind, and reflection perceives “ the objects as they appear under this illumination.” These passages appear quite accordant with one another.

“Do you wish men to speak well of you? then never speak well “ of yourself.” This is the modesty produced by Love of Approbation, Consciousness, and reflection, and it is very common. “ faces which resemble each other, neither of which is ludicrous “ alone, excite a smile from their resemblance when seen together.” “ Wit,” says Mr G. Combe, “ appears to consist chiefly in an intellec“ tual perception of difference; of congruity amid incongruity.” The fact mentioned by Pascal appears an illustration of this definition of wit. An unexpected congruity is perceived in the two faces which strikingly resemble each other amid the incongruity of their belonging to two distinct individuals, and by this perception at once of resemblance and difference the organ of wit is agreeably affected, and a smile is excited. It appears from the above definition, why the effusions of wit have always been assigned so high a rank amongst the operations of the mind, since it requires more ingenuity to discover two things which are at the same time alike and different, than two things which are simply alike or simply different.

* Two

“ When a discourse paints a passion or an effect naturally, we “ find in ourselves the truth of what we hear, and which was there without our knowing it; and we feel induced to love him who

causes us to discover it, for he does not show us his good, but our own.”

Each propensity, sentiment, and faculty," says Mr Combe,“ may be called into activity by presentment of its object.

Happiness consists in the harmonious gratification of the faculties, “ and the very essence of gratification is activity.”

The limits within which we must necessarily confine our observations forbid our extending them further. But we trust we have shown in some degree, however inadequately, the striking accordance which exists between Pascal's views of human nature and those to which Phrenology leads us. It is a proof of the extraordinary penetration which this great intellect possessed, that its unaided contemplations anticipated in some measure the result of the discoveries of two centuries; whilst, on the other hand, Phrenology affords us a light whereby we can explain many of Pascal's sublime, but often obscure thoughts, and expound the reason of things where, perhaps, he perceived only the effect.

ARTICLE V.

CASES OF MORBID CHANGE IN THE BRAIN.

The first case is one of Hypertrophy of the Brain, recorded in the Archives Generales de Médécine,* by Scoutetten, , D. M.P., Aide-Major à l’Hopital Militaire de Metz.

Antoine Peisset, a boy of 54 years of age, born of healthy and well-constituted parents, presented a very large head, equal in size to that of a full-grown adult, and which had

• Vol. vii. p. 41.

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