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Such an example of scorning and contemning the majesty of a prince, as never before that time was heard tell of in any remembrance ; except, I ween, either of Tamerlane the king of Scythia, a wild and barbarous creature, or else of Sapor king of Persia. b—All these, notwithstanding, were Popes; all Peter's successors; all Most Holy Fathers; whose several words we must take to be as good as several gospels.

the church falling down, grovelling before the Pope, he suffered himself to be trodden on by the Pope with his feet. In the mean while the Pope caused proclamation to be made by these words of the prophet David, spoken of Christ: “Thou shalt tread,' &c. And so at last he absolved him. The emperor in the mean while said, He showed that humility, not unto Pope Alexander, but to Peter. Thereunto the Pope answered, 'Et mihi, et Petro,' Both to me, and to Peter : placing himself before Peter.'

“Thus CARION declareth the whole story, with some particular circumstances : but whether of favour, or hatred, I will not judge.-But I think that the noble city of Venice, that caused this whole tragedy to be set forth in imagery, in St. Mark's Church, there, for the everlasting remembrance of the fact, (Pompeius Lætus,) was not so carried away, either with love of the one side, or with hatred of the other, that they would so openly have recorded a known untruth.” Defence, p. 384.

The place of this interview was St. Mark's Church, Venice; the date, July 24, 1177 ; the emperor was Frederic II. ; the Pope, Alexander III. - The story has been called in question, on account of the silence of some historians. But this is not sufficient ground to set aside the positive testimony of others, corroborated by the painting in St. Mark's, and by a letter of Alexander himself, who says of the emperor, " being arrived at Venice, he gave us the marks of his obedience, with all manner of humility, at the entrance of St. Mark's Church, in the presence of an innumerable multitude of people."]

* [The story of Tamerlane, (or Timour Beg) the Khan of the Tartars, and his confinement of the Sultan Bajazet in an iron cage, so long believed, but now esteemed of very dubious authority, is too well known to need repetition.)

["Sapor, the proud king of Persia, when he had conquered Valerian the Roman emperor, and taken him prisoner, used him afterward most villainously, as his foot-stock : and made him lie down grovelling upon the ground, that he might set his foot on his neck whensoever it should please him to mount on horseback.” Jewell, Defence, p. 384.]

(“ANTONINUS (Archbishop of Florence in 1446; canonized by the Romish Church) saith : 'Non minor honor,' &c. "There is no less honour due unto the Pope, than unto the angels of God. Therefore the Pope suffereth the faithful to worship him, and to fall down before him, and to kiss his feet; which things the angel of God would not suffer

St. John the Evangelist to do unto him.' (Summa Theol. Par. III. Tit. 22. cap. v. $ 4.)” Defence, p. 375.

Such are the honours to which, in the estimation of the Church of Rome, the office entitles the person of its head. Nor is the unworthi

VOL. III.-10

Sect. 10. If we be counted traitors, which do honour our princes, which give them all obedience, as much as is due them by God's word, and do pray for them : what kind of men then be these, which have not only done all the things before said, but also allow the same for specially well done? Do they then either this way instruct the people, as we do, to reverence their magistrate ? Or can they with honesty appeach us, as seditious persons, breakers of the common quiet, and despisers of princes' majesty ?

Truly we neither put off the yoke of obedience from us : neither do we disorder realms: nor do we set up, or pull down kings : nor give we our kings poison to drink : nor yet hold forth to them our feet to kiss : nor opprobriously triumph over them : nor leap into their necks with our feet.

This rather is our profession ; this is our doctrine : that every soul, of what calling soever it be be it monk, be it preacher, be it prophet, be it Apostle-ought to be subject to kings and magistrates :d yea, and that the Bishop of Rome himself, unless he will seem greater than evangelists—than the prophets, or the apostles, ought both to acknowledge, and to call the emperor

his • lord and master,' as the old bishops of Rome, who lived in times of more grace, ever did. Our common teaching also is, that we ought so to obey princes, as men sent of God; and that " whosoever resisteth them, resisteth the ordinance of God."f This is our doctrine ; and this is well to be seen, both in our books and preachings, and also in the manners and modest behaviour of our people.

ness of that person allowed to derogate in the least from these claims of office. In a recognized authority, the Gloss upon the Canon Law, the principle is explicitly laid down: 'Papa de homicidio vel adulterio accusari non potest. Unde sacrilegii instar esset, disputare de facto suo. "The Pope cannot be accused of murder or adultery. Whence it would be equal to sacrilege, to dispute of his doings. Dist. 40. Non nos, in Glossa.—How thoroughly this rule has been acted on, any acquaintance with the lives of the Popes will prove.] d CHRYSOSTom in 13 Cap. ad Romanos.

Thus Gregory addresses Maurice the emperor : Epist. 100. Lib. II.; Epist. 103. Lib. II., and often elsewhere.

f Rom. xiii. 2.


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Sect. 1. But whe from the unity of the a matter of malice, b yet hath it some se the common people, anu ear only to things true and ofur. such things also, if any chance, which may have but a resemblance of truth. Therefore we suv, that subtle and crafty persons, when they had no truth on their side, have ever contended and hotly argued with things likely to be true, to the intent they which were not able to espy the very ground of the matter might be carried away at least with some pretence and probability or likelihood of the truth.

In times, past, whereas the first Christians, our forefathers, in making their prayers to God, did turn themselves towards the East, as for the most part the manner was, there were that said, they worshipped the sun, and reckoned the same as their God.' Again, where our forefathers said, that as touching immortal and everlasting life, they lived by none other means but by the flesh and blood' of the · Lamb without spot,' that is to say, of our Saviour Jesus Christ; the envious creatures, and enemies of Christ's cross, whose only care was to bring Christian religion into slander by all manner of ways, made the people believe, that they were wicked persons; that they sacrificed men's flesh, and drank men's blood.h Also where our forefathers said, that before God there is neither male nor female,"i and that for attaining to the true righteousness there is

$ " Solem credụnt deum nostrum.-Inde suspicio, quod innotuerit nos ad orientis regionem precari.” TERTULLIAN. Apologet. c. xvi.

h TERTULLIAN. Apologet. c. vii. viii. ix. [The calumny is there stated and refuted at length; yet without assigning the ground of its origin.]

i Gal, iii, 28,


at all of persons ;t and whereas they Sect. 10. nother indifferently by the name of sisters' our princesers;"l there wanted not men with forged false is due thin the same, saying, that the Christians made no kind ofce among themselves, either of age or of kind, the t'ke brute beasts, without regard had to do one with ciałther. And whereas to pray together, and to hear the gospel, they met often in secret and by-places ; because rebels sometime were wont to do the like, therefore rumours were every where spread abroad, that they made privy confederacies, and took counsel together, either to kill the magistrates, or to subvert the commonwealth." And whereas in celebrating the holy mysteries after Christ's institution, they took bread and wine ; they were therefore thought of many to worship, not Christ, or God, but Bacchus and Ceres, forsomuch as those vain gods were worshipped of the heathens in like sort, after a profane superstition, with bread and wine.—These things were believed of many, not because they were true indeed, (for what could be more untrue ?) but because they were like to be true, and through a certain shadow of truth might the more easily deceive the simple. On this fashion likewise, do these men slander us, as heretics, and say that we have left the Church and fellowship of Christ : not because they think it is true, for they do not much force of that; but because to ignorant folk it might perhaps some way

appear true.

Sect. 2. We have, indeed, put ourselves apart, not, as heretics are wont, from the Church of Christ; but, as all good men ought to do, from the infection of naughty persons and hypocrites. Nevertheless, in this point they triumph marvellously--that they be the Church; that their Church is Christ's spouse, the pillar of the k Col. ii. 10, 11.

["Sic nos, quod invidetis, fratres vocamus, ut unius Der parentis homines, ut consortes fidei, ut spei cohæredes.” MINUCIUS Felix, Octavio, p. 313. ed. Ouzelii.-TERTULL, Apologet, e, xxxix. med.]

* TERTULL. Apologet. cap. vii. viii.

• "Illis nomen factionis accommodandum est : qui in odium bonorum et proborum conspirant, qui adversum sanguinem innocentium conclamant.” TERTULLIAN. Apologet. c. xl.

• Augustinus contra Faustum. Lib, xx, cap, 13.

truth, the ark of Noah ; and that without it there is no hope of salvation. Contrary wise, they say that we be renegates ; that we have torn Christ's seat ; that we are plucked quite off from the body of Christ, and have forsaken the Catholic faith. And when they leave nothing unspoken, that may never so falsely and maliciously be said against us, yet this one thing are they never able truly to say, that we have swerved, either from the word of God, or from the Apostles of CHRIST, or from the primitive Church.

Surely we have ever judged the primitive Church of Christ's time, of the Apostles', and of the holy fathers', to be the Catholic Church : neither make we doubt to name it • Noah's ark,'p • CHRIST's spouse, and upholder of all truth ;'r nor yet to fix therein the whole mean of our salvation.s It is doubtless an odious matter for one to leave the fellowship whereunto he hath been accustomed, and specially of those men, who though they be not, yet at least seem to be, and be called Christians. And to say truly, we do not despise the Church of these men, (howsoever it be ordered by them now-adays,) partly for the name's sake itself, and partly for that the gospel of Jesus Christ hath once been therein truly and purely set forth. Neither had we departed therefrom, but of very necessity, and much against our wills.t

q • the pillar

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p [This figurative epithet (in very common use among the fathers) is drawn from the comparison in 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21. Compare the first prayer in the Baptismal Service.]

9 Eph. v. 23–32. Rev. xxi. 9 ss. r 1 Tim. üi. 15.

[For this strong expression, if taken in its fullest sense, it would be difficult, not to say impossible, to find any sufficient Scripture warrant. Doubtless Jewell merely intended to convey the idea, that the whole of the appointed means for the securement of salvation were comprised in the Church of CHRIST—without excluding, or having reference at all to the extraordinary operations of Divine mercy, or permissive dispensations of the Divine will.]

+ [“We despise not the Church: it is the house of God. But we mislike your defacing and disordering of the Church. CHRIST reproved the priests and Pharisees, for they had turned the temple of God into a den of thieves:' and yet nevertheless he despised it not; but said it was his Father's house.' (Matth. xxi. 12. John ii. 16.) To leave the wicked fellowship of them that bear a name and show of godliness, it seemeth odious before men : but before God it is not odious. St. John saith, Whosoever is such an one, bid him not God speed : for he that

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