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thought to resemble fire; for which reason | author that ever writ; and indeed all other
the words fire and flame are made use of to talents of an extraordinary genius.
signify love. The witty poets therefore It may be expected, since I am upon this
have taken an advantage from the double subject, that I should take notice of Mr.
meaning of the word fire, to make an in- Dryden's definition of wit: which, with all
finite number of witticisms. Cowley ob- the deference that is due to the judge
serving the cold regard of his mistress's ment of so great a man, is not so properly
eyes, and at the same time their power of a definition of wit as of good writing in
producing love in him, considers them as general. Wit, as he defines it, is “a pro-
burning-glasses made of ice; and finding priety of words and thoughts adapted to
himself able to live in the greatest extremi- the subject." If this be a true definition of
ties of love, concludes the torrid zone to be wit, I am apt to think that Euclid was the
habitable. When his mistress had read his greatest wit that ever put pen to paper.
letter written in juice of lemon, by holding It is certain there never was a greater pro-
it to the fire, he desires her to read it over priety of words and thoughts adapted to
a second time by love's fame. When she the subject, than what that author has
weeps, he wishes it were inward heat that made use of in his Elements. I shall only
distilled those drops from the limbec. appeal to my reader, if this definition
When she is absent, he is beyond eighty, agrees with any notion he has of wit. If it
that is, thirty degrees nearer the pole than be a true one, I am sure Mr. Dryden was
when she is with him. His ambitious love not only a better poet, but a greater wit
is a fire that naturally mounts upwards; than Mr. Cowley; and Virgil a much more
his happy love is the beams of heaven, and facetious man than either Ovid or Martial.
his unhappy love flames of hell. When it Bouhours, whom I look upon to be the
does not let him sleep, it is a fame that most penetrating of all the French critics,
sends up no smoke; when it is opposed by has taken pains to show, that it is impossi-
counsel and advice, it is a fire that rages ble for any thought to be beautiful which
the more by the winds blowing upon it. is not just, and has not its foundation in the
Upon the dying of a tree, in which he had nature of things; that the basis of all wit is
cut his loves, he observed that his written truth; and that no thought can be valuable
fames had burnt up and withered the tree. of which good sense is not the ground-
When he resclves to give over his passion, work. Boileau has endeavoured to incul-
he tells us, that one burnt like him for ever cate the same notion in several parts of his
dreads the fire. His heart is in Ætna, that writings, both in prose and verse. This is
instead of Vulcan's shop, encloses Cupid's that natural way of writing, that beautiful
forge in it. His endeavouring to drown his simplicity, which we so much admire in
love in wine, is throwing oil upon the fire. the compositions of the ancients; and which
He would insinuate to his mistress, that no body deviates from, but those who want .
the fire of love, like that of the sun (which strength of genius to make a thought shine

produces so many living creatures,) should in its own natural beauties. Poets who want • not only warm, but beget. Love in an- this strength of genius to give that majes

other place cooks pleasure at his fire. tic simplicity to nature, which we so much Sometimes the poet's heart is frozen in admire in the works of the ancients, are every breast, and sometimes scorched in forced to hunt after foreign ornaments, and every eye. Sometimes he is drowned in not to let any piece of wit of what kind tears, and burnt in love, like a ship set on soever escape them. I look upon these fire in the middle of the sea.

writers as Goths in poetry, who, like those The reader may observe in every one of in architecture, not being able to come these instances, that the poet mixes the up to the beautiful simplicity of the old qualities of fire with those of love; and in Greeks and Romans, have endeavoured to the same sentence, speaking of it both as supply its place with all the extravagances a passion and as real fire, snrprises the of an irregular fancy. Mr. Dryden makes reader with those seeming resemblances a very handsome observation on Ovid's or contradictions, that make up all the wit writing a letter from Dido to Æneas, in in this kind of writing. Mixt wit, there- the following words: 'Ovid,' says he, fore, is a composition of pun and true wit, speaking of Virgil's fiction of Dido and and is more or less perfect, as the resem- Æneas, “takes it up after him even in the blance lies in the ideas or in the words. same age, and makes an ancient heroine of Its foundations are laid partly in falsehood Virgil's new created Dido; dictates a letand partly in truth; reason puts in her ter for her just before her death, to the unclaim for one half of it, and extravagance grateful fugitive, and very unluckily for for the other. The only province there- himself, is for measuring a sword with a fore for this kind of wit, is epigram, or man so much superior in force to him on those little occasional poems, that in their the same subject. I think I may be judge own nature are nothing else but a tissue of of this, because I have translated both. epigrams. I cannot conclude this head of The famous author of the Art of Love has mixt wit, without owning that the admira- nothing of his own; he borrows all from a ble poet, out of whom I have taken the ex- greater master in his own profession, and amples of it, had as much true wit as any which is worse, improves nothing which


he finds. Nature fajls him, and being If in a picture, Piso, you should see forced to his old shift, he has recourse to

A handsome woman with a fish's tail,

Or a man's head upon a horse's neck, witticism. This passes indeed with his Or limbs of beast. of the most diffrent kinds, • soft admirers, and gives him the prefer Cover'd with feathers of all sorts of birds; ence to Virgil in their esteem.'

Would you not laugh, and think the painter mad?

Truet me that book is as ridiculous, Were not I supported by so great an Whose incoherent style, like sick men's dreams, • authority as that of Mr. Dryden, I should Varies all shapes, and mixes all extremes.

not venture to observe, that the taste of most of our English poets, as well as read It is very hard for the mind to disengage ers, is extremely Gothic. He quotes Mon- itself from a subject on which it has been sieur Segrais for a threefold distinction of long employed. The thoughts will be rising the readers of poetry; in the first of which of themselves from time to time, though he comprehends the rabble of readers, we give them no encouragement; as the whom he does not treat as such with re- tossings and Auctuations of the sea continue gard to their quality, but to their numbers several hours after the winds are laid. and the coarseness of their taste. His It is to this that I impute my last night's words are as follow: "Segrais has distin- dream or vision, which formed into one conguished the readers of poetry, according to tinued allegory the several schemes of wit, their capacity of judging, into three classes. whether false, mixed, or true, that have [He might have said the same of writers, been the subject of my late papers. too, if he had pleased.] In the lowest form Methought I was transported into a counhe places those whom he calls Les Petits try that was filled with prodigies and enEsprits, such things as are our upper-gal- chantments, governed by the goddess of lery audience in a playhouse; who like no- Falsehood, and entitled the region of False thing but the husk and rind of wit, and Wit. There was nothing in the fields, the prefer a quibble, a conceit, an epigram, be- woods, and the rivers, that appeared natufore solid sense and elegant expression. ral. Several of the trees blossomed in leafThese are mob readers. If Virgil and Mar- gold, some of them produced bone-lace, tial stood for parliament-men, we know and some of them precious stones. The already who would carry it. But though fountains bubbled in an opera tune, and were they niake the greatest appearance in the filled with stags, wild boars, and mermaids field, and cry the loudest, the best on it is, that lived among the waters; at the same they are but a sort of French hugonots, or time that dolphins and several kinds of fish Dutch boors, brought over in herds, but played upon the banks, or took their pasnot naturalized; who have not lands of two time in the meadows. The birds had many pounds per annum in Parnassus, and there- of them golden beaks, and human voices. fore are not privileged to poll. Their au- The flowers perfumed the air with smells thors are of the same level, fit to represent of incense, ambergris, and pulvillios*; and them on a mountebank's stage, or to be were so interwoven with one another, that masters of the ceremonies in a bear-garden: they grew up in pieces of embroidery. The yet these are they who have the most ad- winds were filled with sighs and messages mirers. But it often happens, to their mor- of distant lovers. As I was walking to and tification, that as their readers improve fro in this enchanted wilderness, I could not their stock of sense (as they may by read- forbear breaking out into soliloquies upon ing better books, and by conversation with the several wonders which lay before me, men of judgment) they soon forsake them. when to my great surprise, I found there

I must not dismiss this subject without were artificial echoes in every walk, that observing, that as Mr. Locke in the pas- by repetitions of certain words which I sage above mentioned has discovered the spoke, agreed with me, or contradicted me, most fruitful source of wit, so there is an- in every thing I said. In the midst of my other of a quite contrary nature to it, which conversation with these invisible compadoes likewise branch itself out into several nions, I discovered in the centre of a very kinds. For not only the resemblance, but dark grove a monstrous fabric built after the opposition of ideas does very often pro- the Gothic manner, and covered with induce wit; as I could show in several little numerable devices in that barbarous kind points, turns, and antitheses, that I may of sculpture. I immediately went up to it, , possibly enlarge upon in some future specu- and found it to be a kind of heathen temple lation.

a consecrated to the god of dulness. Upon

my entrance I saw the deity of the place

dressed in the habit of a monk, with a book No. 63.] Saturday, May 12, 1711.

in one hand and a rattle in the other. Upon

his right hand was Industry, with a lamp Humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam

burning before her; and on his left Caprice, Jungere si velit, et varias inducere plumas

with a monkey sitting on her shoulder. Undique collatis membris, ut turpiter atrum Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne:

Before his feet there stood an altar of a very Spectatum admissi risum teneatis, amici?

odd make, which, as I afterwards found, Credite. Pisones, isti tabula fore librum

was shaped in that manner to comply with Persimilem, cujus, velut ægri somnia, vanæ Fingentur species

* Pulvillios sweet-scented powders.

Hor. Ars Poet, ver. 1.


the inscription that surrounded it. Upon though perhaps there was not the least rethe altar there lay several offerings of axes, semblance in their faces. By this means an wings, and eggs, cut in paper, and inscribed old man was sometimes mistaken for a boy, with verses. The temple was filled with a woman for a man, and a black-a-moor for votaries, who applied themselves to dif- an European, which very often produced ferent diversions, as their_fancies directed great peals of laughter. These I guessed them. In one part of it I saw a regiment to be a party of puns. But being very deof anagrams, who were continually in mo- sirous to get out of this world of magic, tion, turning to the right or to the left, which had almost turned my brain, I left facing about, doubling their ranks, shifting the temple, and crossed over the fields that their stations, and throwing themselves into lay about it with all the speed I could make. all the figures and counter-marches of the I was not gone far before I heard the sound most changeable and perplexed exercises. of trumpets and alarms, which seemed to

Not far from these was the body of acros- proclaim the march of an enemy; and, as I tics, made up of very disproportioned per- afterwards found, was in reality what I ap

It was disposed into three columns, prehended it. There appeared at a great the officers planting themselves in a line on distance a very shining light, and in the the left hand of each column. The officers | midst of it, a person of a most beautiful were all of them at least six feet high, and aspect; her name was Truth. On her right made three rows of very proper men; but hand there marched a male deity, who bore the common soldiers, who filled up the several quivers on his shoulders, and graspspaces between the officers, were suched several arrows in his hand. His name dwarfs, cripples, and scare-crows, that one was Wit. The approach of these two enecould hardly look upon them without laugh- mies filled all the territories of False Wit ing. There were behind the acrostics two with an unspeakable consternation, insoor three files of chronograms, which dif- much that the goddess of those regions apfered only from the former, as their officers peared in person upon her frontiers, with were equipped (like the figure of Time) the several inferior deities, and the different with an hour-glass in one hand, and a scythe bodies of forces which I had before seen in in the other; and took their posts pro- the temple, who were now drawn up in miscuously among the private men whom array, and prepared to give their foes a they commanded.

warm reception. As the march of the In the of the temple, and before the enemy was very slow, it gave time to the very face of the deity, methought I saw the several inhabitants who bordered upon the phantom of Tryphiodorus, the lipogram- regions of Falsehood to draw their forces matist, engaged in a ball with four-and-into a body, with a design to stand upon twenty persons, who pursued him by turns their guard as neuters, and attend the issue through all the intricacies and labyrinths of the combat. of a country-dance, without being able to I must here inform my reader, that the overtake him.

frontiers of the enchanted region, which I Observing several to be very busy at the have before described, were inhabited by western end of the temple, I inquired into the species of Mixt Wit, who made a very what they were doing, and found there was odd appearance when they were mustered in that quarter the great magazine of re- together in an army. There were men busses. These were several things of the whose bodies were stuck full of darts, and most different natures tied up in bundles, women whose eyes were burning-glasses: and thrown upon one another in heaps like men that had hearts of fire, and women faggots. You might behold an anchor, a that had breasts of snow. It would be endnight-rail, and a hobby-horse bound up to-less to describe several monsters of the like gether. One of the workmen seeing me nature, that composed this great army; very much surprised, told me, there was which immediately fell asunder, and divided an infinite deal of wit in several of those itself into two parts, the one half throwing bundles, and that he would explain them themselves behind the banners of Truth, to me if I pleased; I thanked him for his and the other behind those of Falsehood. civility, but told him I was in very great The goddess of Falsehood was of a gihaste at that time. As I was going out of gantic stature, and advanced some paces the temple, I observed in one corner of it a before the front of her army: but as the cluster of men and women laughing very dazzling light which flowed from Truth heartily, and diverting themselves at a began to shine upon her, she faded insensigame of crambo. I heard several double bly; insomuch that in a little space, she rhymes as I passed by them, which raised looked rather like a huge phantom than a a great deal of mirth.

real substance. At length, as the goddess Not far from these was another set of of Truth approached still nearer to her she merry people engaged at a diversion in fell away entirely, and vanished amidst the which the whole jest was to mistake one brightness of her presence; so that there person for another. To give occasion for did not remain the least trace or impression these ludicrous mistakes, they were divided of her figure in the place where she had into pairs, every pair being covered from been seen. head to foot with the same kind of dress, As at the rising of the sun the constella

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tions grow thin, and the stars go out one much distressed to take the proper care after another, till the whole hemisphere is they cught of their dress. By degrees it extinguished; such was the vanishing of the prevailed, that such as had this inward opgoddess: and not only of the goddess herself pression upon their minds, made an apolobut of the whole army that attended her, gy for not joining with the rest of the world which sympathized with their leader, and in their ordinary diversions by a dress suitshrunk into nothing, in proportion as the ed to their condition. This therefore was goddess disappeared. At the same time first assumed by such only as were unthe whole temple sunk, the fish betook der real distress; to whom it was relief that themselves to the streams, and the wild they had nothing about them so light and beasts to the woods, the fountains recovered gay as to be irksome to the gloom and metheir murmurs, the birds their voices, the lancholy of their inward reflections, or that trees their leaves, the flowers their scents, might misrepresent them to others. In and the whole face of nature its true and process of time this laudable distinction of genuine appearance. Though I still con- the sorrowful was lost, and mourning is tinued asleep, I fancied myself as it were now worn by heirs and widows. You see awakened out of a dream, when I saw this nothing but magnificence and solemnity in region of prodigies restored to woods and the equipage of the relict, and an air of rerivers, fields and meadows.

lease from servitude in the pomp of a son Upon the removal of that wild scene of who has lost a wealthy father. This wonders, which had very much disturbed fashion of sorrow is now become a generous my imagination, I took a full survey of the part of the ceremonial between princes persons of Wit and Truth; for indeed it and sovereigns, who, in the language of all was impossible to look upon the first, with nations, are styled brothers to each other, out seeing the other at the same time. and put on the purple* upon the death of There was behind them a strong compact any potentate with whom they live in amibody of figures. The genius of Heroic ty. Courtiers, and all who wish themPoetry appeared with a sword in her hand, selves such, are immediately seized with and a laurel on her head. Tragedy was grief from head to foot upon this disaster crowned with cypress, and covered with to their prince; so that one may know by robes dipped in blood. Satire had smiles in the very buckles of a gentleman-usher her look, and a dagger under her garment. what degree of friendship any deceased Rhetoric was known by her thunderbolt; monarch maintained with the court to and Comedy by her mask. After several which he belongs. A good courtier's habit other figures, Epigram marched up in the and behaviour is hieroglyphical on these rear, who had been posted there at the be- occasions. He deals much in whispers, ginning of the expedition, that he might not and you may see he dresses according to revolt to the enemy, whom he was suspected the test intelligence. to favour in his heart. I was very much The general affectation among men, of awed and delighted with the appearance of appearing greater than they are, makes the god of Wit; there was something so the whole world run into the habit of the amiable, and yet so piercing in his looks, court. You see the lady, who the day beas inspired me at once with love and terror. fore was as various as a rainbow, upon the As I was gazing on him, to my unspeakable time appointed for beginning to mourn, as joy he took a quiver of arrows from his dark as a cloud. This humour does not shoulder, in order to make me a present of prevail only on those whose fortunes can it; but as I was reaching out my hand to support any change in their equipage, nor on receive it of him, I knocked it against a those only whose incomes demand the wanchair, and by that means awaked. C. tonness of new appearances; but on such

also who have just enough to clothe them.

An old acquaintance of mine, of ninety No. 64.] Monday, May 14, 1711.

pounds a year, who has naturally the vanity of being a man of fashion deep at his heart,

is very much put to it to bear the mortality Paupertate omnes Juv. Sat. iii. 183.

of princes. He made a new black suit upon The face of wealth in poverty we wear. the death of the King of Spain, he turned The most improper things we commit it for the King of Portugal, and he now in the conduct of our lives, we are led into keeps his chamber while it is scouring for by the force of fashion. Instances might the Emperor. He is a good economist in be given, in which a prevailing custom his extravagance, and makes only a fresh makes us act against the rules of nature, black button on his iron-gray suit for any law, and common sense; but at present í potentate of small territories; he indeed shall confine my consideration to the effect adds his crape hatband for a prince whose it has upon men's minds, by looking into exploits he has admired in the gazette. our behaviour when it is the fashion to go But whatever compliments may be made into mourning. The custom of represent- on these occasions, the true mourners are ing the grief we have for the loss of the dead by our habits, certainly had its rise

* Royal and princely mourners were usually clad in from the real sorrow of such as were too | purple.

-Hic vivimus ambitiosa

the mercers, silkmen, lacemen, and milli- ries, except we have authority for it, by ners. A prince of a merciful and royal being related in a particular manner to the disposition would reflect with great anxiety court which pays the veneration to their upon the prospect of his death if he consi- friendship, and seems to express on such an dered what numbers would be reduced to occasion the sense of the uncertainty of humisery by that accident only. He would man life in general, by assuming the habit of think it of moment enough to direct, that sorrow, though in the full possession of in the notification of his departure, the triumph and royalty.

R. honour done to him might be restrained to those of the household of the prince to whom it should be signified. He would think a general mourning to be in a less de- No 65.] Tuesday, May 15, 1711. gree the same ceremony which is prac

-Demetri, teque, Tigelli, tised in barbarous nations, of killing their Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedras. slaves to attend the obsequies of their

Hor. Lib. 1. Sat. x. 90. kings.

Demetrius and Tigellius, know your place; I had been wonderfully at a loss for

Go hence, and whine among the school-boy race. many months together, to guess at the cha After having at large explained what racter of a man who came now and then to wit is, and described the false appearances our coffee-house. He ever ended a news- of it, all that labour seems but an useless paper with this reflection, "Well, I see all inquiry, without some time be spent in conthe foreign princes are in good health.' If sidering the application of it. The seat of you asked, • Pray, sir, what says the Post- wit, when one speaks as a man of the town man from Vienna?' He answered, “Make and the world, is the playhouse; I shall us thankful, the German Princes are all therefore fill this paper with reflections well.'--'What does he say from Barcelona?" upon the use of it, in that place. The ap• He does not speak but that the country plication of wit in the theatre has as strong agrees very well with the new Queen.' an effect upon the manners of our gentleAfter very much inquiry, I found this man men, as the taste of it has upon the wriof universal loyalty was a wholesale dealer tings of our authors. It may, perhaps, look in silks and ribands. His way is, it seems like a very presumptuous work, though not if he hires a weaver or workman, to have it foreign from the duty of a Spectator, to tax inserted in his articles, that all this shall the writings of such as have long had the be well and truly performed, provided no general applause of a nation; but I shall foreign potentate shall depart this life with- always make reason, truth, and nature the • in the time above-mentioned.' It happens measures of praise and dispraise; if those in all public mournings that the many are for me, the generality of opinion is of trades which depend upon our habits, are no consequence against 'me; if they are during that folly either pinched with pre- against me, the general opinion cannot long sent want, or terrified with the apparent support me. approach of it. All the atonement which Without further preface, I am going to men can make for wanton expenses (which look into some of our most applauded plays, is a sort of insulting the scarcity under and see whether they deserve the figure which others labour) is, that the superflui- they at present bear in the imaginations of ties of the wealthy give supplies to the ne- men or not. cessities of the poor; but instead of any In reflecting upon these works, I shall other good arising from the affectation of chiefly dwell upon that for which each being in courtly habits of mourning, all respective play is most celebrated. The order seems to be destroyed by it; and the present paper shall be employed upon Sir true honour which one court does to an- Fopling Flutter. * The received character other on that occasion, loses its force and of this play is, that it is the pattern of genefficacy. When a foreign minister beholds teel comedy. Dorimant and Harriot are the court of a nation (which fourishes in the characters of greatest consequence, and riches and plenty) lay aside upon the loss if these are low and mean, the reputation of his master, all marks of splendour and of the play is very unjust. magnificence, though the head of such a I will take for granted, that a fine gentlejoyful people, he will conceive a greater man should be honest in his actions and reidea of the honour done to his master, than fined in his language. Instead of this, our when he sees the generality of the people hero in this piece is a direct knave in his in the same habit. When one is afraid to designs, and a clown in his language. Belask the wife of a tradesman whom she has lair is his admirer and friend; in return for lost of her family; and after some prepa- which, because he is forsooth a greater wit ration endeavours to know whom she than his said friend, he thinks it reasonable mourns for; how ridiculous it is to hear her explain herself, “That we have lost one of

* The Man of Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter, a come. the house of Austria!' Princes are ele- dy, by Sir George Etheridge. The character of Sir Fopvated so highly above the rest of mankind, ling was that of Beau Hewit, son of Sir Thomas

Hewit, that it is a presumptuous distinction to Wilmot earl of Rochester; and Bellair, that of the au take a part in honours done to their memo- I thor himself.

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