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OLIVER AND RICHARD CROMWELL,

FROM 1656 TO 1659 :

NOW FIRST PUBLISHED

FROM THE

ORIGINAL AUTOGRAPH MANUSCRIPT.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION,

CONTAINING AN
ACCOUNT OF THE PARLIAMENT OF 1654;

FROM THE JOURNAL OF

GUIBON GODDARD, ESQ. M. P.

ALSO NOW FIRST PRINTED.

EDITED AND ILLUSTRATED

WITH NOTES HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL

BY JOHN TOWILL RUTT.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL. III.

LONDON:
HENRY COLBURN, NEW BURLINGTON STREET.

INTRODUCTION.

The courtiers of Whitehall, who attended the last hours of the late Protector, agreed in their report, that he had exercised his prerogative* of appointing a successor, by nominating, though, probably, almost in the article of death,t Richard, his eldest son ; who had been a member of both his Parliaments, and in whose favour he had resigned the Chancellorship of Oxford University. He also had been distin

* See infra, p. 224, note ; Vol. i. p. 385.

+ See infra, p. 141, 263, note. Roger Coke mentions the opinion, that “ Cromwell had, by his last will, when he was compos mentis, designed Fleetwood for his successor; whereas, Richard was substituted in a surreptitious manner, by the craft of some of the Council, when Cromwell had lost his senses.” Detection, (1697,) p. 406.

See vol. ii. p. 314, note. “Whitehall, July 29, 1657. This day, the most noble Lord, the Lord Richard Cromwell, was installed Chancellor of the most famous University of Oxon.

“ About four o'clock, afternoon, Dr. John Owen, Vice-Chancellor of the University, with the heads of houses in their scarlets, the proctors, and a great number of masters of arts, came hither to the lodgings of my Lord Richard in their formalities, the beadles of the University preceding the Vice-Chancellor.

“ The Convocation being set,” and “ the most noble Lord Chancellor elect” being “ admitted ;Master of Arts,” he “ came attended by the reverend Dr. Wilkins,” (his uncle, afterwards Bishop of Chester.) “ His Lordship's robe was scarlet, and after the manner of the Proctor's habit.” After “ a speech in Latin to his Lordship,” by the senior Proctor, and the presentation of “the Book of Statutes," and the various “ ensigns of authority,” and “ an elegant speech in Latin, by the Vice-Chancellor, the oath of Chancellor was administered. His Lordship, in a short speech, declared his good acceptance of the honour done him, with promises of performing whatever lieth in his power, as

VOL III.

guished by the priority of nomination to the other House. With this report the Council were easily satisfied ;* though an appointment, under such circumstances, was liable to animadversion, as will presently appear, t and could scarcely be sustained, except by the argument of possession, against that rigorous scrutiny which from the discordant interests of rival parties might be speedily expected.

Richard Cromwell accepted the appointment, with all its informality, and was immediately proclaimed in London and Westminster. I In a few days, the ceremonial was repeated

becomes their Chancellor, for the security, honour, and advantage of that renowned University.

“ This ceremony being ended, banquets were prepared in several rooms, for the entertainment of that learned body." Mercurius Politicus, No. 373.

* Whitlock represents “ the Council” as “ satisfied, that the Protector, in his life-time, according to the Petition and Advice, had declared his son Richard to be his successor.” Memorials, (1732,) p. 674.

+ See infra, pp. 25—33, 87, 104, 105, 112, 113, 124, 125, 129, 141, 151, note, &c.

See infra, p. 130. “ The proclamation of Richard to be Lord Protector," says Whitlock, “was made in London, in the following words:

“ Whereas, it hath pleased the most wise God, in his Providence, to take out of this world the most serene and renowned Oliver, late Lord Protector of this Commonwealth ; and his Highness having, in his lifetime, according to the humble Petition and Advice, declared and appointed the most noble and illustrious, the Lord Richard, eldest son of his said late Highness, to succeed him in the government of these nations :

"We therefore, of the Privy Council, together with the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and citizens of London, the officers of the army, and num. bers of other principal gentlemen, do now hereby with one full voice and consent of tongue and heart, publish and declare the said noble and illustrious Lord Richard, to be rightful Protector of this Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories thereunto belonging.

To whom we do acknowledge all fidelity and constant obedience, according to law, and the said humble Petition and Advice, with all hearty and humble affections, beseeching the Lord, by whom princes rule, to bless him with long life, and these nations with peace and happiness under his government.

“ Richard

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