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nity; but the moral quality of the Creator is not so clearly shown in the forces of the external world. Lightning, flood, malaria, poison, gravity, know no difference between evil and good.

In revelation and in the record of revelation all parts have a divine work, but not the same work nor an equal work.—Lightfoot.

When we have by other means come to know Christ, then creation becomes to us an illustration of his thought, character, dignity, and goodness (Heb. 1: 2, 3; Col. 1 : 15, 16; 1 Cor. 8: 6).

In declaring that nature reveals something of the divine to man, Paul follows the Old Testament:

"The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork" (Ps. 19: 1). God speaks in thunder and wave (Ps. 29: 3, 4). Sun, moon, stars of light, fire and hail, snow and vapor, and stormy wind show his presence and fulfill his word (Ps. 148). From scenes of nature are derived exquisite names for God: The Lord is my Shepherd, my Light, my Rock, a Spring for the thirsty, a Tower for the persecuted, a Shield in battle.

Section 2. The spiritual nature of man is a source of knowledge of God.

"That which may be known of God is manifest in them' (Rom. 1: 19). The fact that men have the faculty of discerning God is made the ground of an accusation of guilt when they ignore him in practice:

"That they may be without excuse because that, knowing God, they glorified him not as God, neither gave thanks. They exchanged the truth of God for a lie. They refused to have God in their knowledge. God gave them up unto a reprobate mind. . . Knowing the ordinance of God, that they which practise such things are worthy of death."


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In these sayings Paul simply appeals to facts of proverb, custom, moral sentiment and laws by which men reveal what is in their minds. The Greek and Roman literature, laws, social discipline and worship, showed in many ways that the people had some knowledge of the righteousness of God.

Not only in self-condemnation, but also in partial selfapproval for uprightness did the Gentiles show that "the spirit of man is the candle of the Lord." ..

"For when the Gentiles which have no law do by nature the things of the law, these having no law, are a law unto themselves; in that they shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness therewith, and their thoughts one with another accusing or else excusing them. . . And shall not the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who with the letter and circumcision art a transgressor of the law?" (Rom. 2:14, 27.)

The "sacred books of the East," translations of Chinese, Indian, and Mohammedan religious books, furnish many illustrations of these words.

The spirit of man when enlightened by the gospel and filled with Christ's Spirit becomes still more capable of knowing God's inmost character and will. The soul of man is not agnostic.

"Things which eye saw not, and ear heard not, and which entered not into the heart of man, whatsoever things God prepared for them that love him. But unto us God revealed them through the Spirit. . . We received . . . the spirit which is of God, that we might know the things that are freely given us by God . . . He that is spiritual judgeth all things" (1 Cor. 2:9-16).

It is because nature without and the soul within bear marks of the Creator's mind and will that the study of

the sciences and humanities is capable of enriching our faith. Science and philosophy may be pursued with such interior blindness and moral selfishness as to yield nothing but proofs of atheism. Still it remains true that "the undevout astronomer is mad," and the unspiritual philosopher is fatally astray. "The pure in heart shall see God." Godet remarks on Rom. 1: 19:

Paul declared that the light was really put within them. Paganism itself is the proof that the human mind had really conceived the notion of God; for this notion appears at the root of all the varied forms of paganism.

But between the "notion of God," mere thought, and the incarnation of God in Christ, is a vast difference. Christianity is more than a doctrine, it is a divine fact of perfect love embodied in our Lord. We can readily admit that much truth has been revealed to heathen peoples without surrendering the supreme and absolute claims of the gospel. The sun is not jealous of the stars. So Godet adds:

When he says, professing to be wise, Paul does not mean to stigmatize ancient philosophy absolutely; he only means that all the labor of the sages did not prevent the most civilized nations, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, from being at the same time the most idolatrous of antiquity.

And on Rom. 2 : 14, 15, Godet gives illustrations of the revelation of moral truth to heathen:

They do not observe the precept as such, for they have it not; but they fulfill its contents; for example, Neoptolemus in Philoctetes, when he refuses to save Greece at the expense of a lie; or Antigone, when she does not hesitate to violate the temporary law of the city to fulfill the eternal law of fraternal love; or Socrates, when he rejects the opportunity of saving his life by escaping from prison, in order to remain subject to the magistrates. Sophocles

himself speaks of the "eternal laws," and contrasts this internal and divine legislation with the ever-changing laws of man.

Section 3. The course of Providence in human history is a partial manifestation of divine justice and benevolence. The moral, social, and physical effects of sin as disclosed in experience ought to instruct men that the ruler of events is righteous (Rom. I : 21-32). The goodness of God is a factor of the life of all men every day.

"Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?'' (Rom. 2: : 4.)

The word "father," as applied to God, carries a meaning of love, tenderness, and protection, which is hallowed by ages of universal experience in the family. We are helped to understand the kingdom of God in some of its aspects by our life in the domestic circle. "I bow my knees unto the Father, from whom every family (or 'fatherhood') in heaven and earth is named" (Eph. 3 : 14; 1 Thess. I 3; Rom. 9: 4, 7, 8, 26; 2 Cor. 6: 16, 18; Gal. 45-7). Without human experience in the family this word which introduces the universal prayer of Jesus would be unintelligible.

The idea of the church as the Bride of Christ is suggested by the human family. The moral union of love, sympathy, and confidence between husband and wife furnishes a symbol of the moral union of God and man (Eph. 5 : 22–33).

The domestic institution of service developed the ideas of obedience, submission, devotion, patronage. In earlier times slavery was often a means of defending the weak from death or starvation. So Paul speaks of himself as a “bondslave' of Jesus Christ (Phil. 1 : 1; Eph. 6:5–9). The master maintained the slave, and the slave served the master.

Men learned under the governments of States to attach to the word "king" the attributes of power, protection, justice, social order, and security. The title "father" expresses affection, gentleness, and personal authority; while "king" suggests a wider realm of government, general laws, higher powers, more absoluteness of control, more permanence in rule. So Jesus taught us to pray as to a king: "Thy kingdom come, thy will be done." The sovereignty of God is over all and his laws do not yield to man's will.

These social relations have a temporal value and are good in themselves, being parts of the plan of our Divine Father and Benefactor. But that which makes even the temporary institution eternally significant is that it becomes a symbol of the everlasting God, a revelation of the perfection of his moral nature.

But home and State are more than symbols. They furnish a real and necessary training and discipline in the virtues and dispositions which make us good citizens of the kingdom of God. The church can teach; but it can do little training. It is in house, court, shop, and street that God shapes our conduct and character. Hence Paul's declarations about the magistrate, and the parent, and the master in Rom. 13: 1–7; Eph. 5 nd 6.

Section 4. In the Sacred Scriptures God has been pleased to move prophets and apostles to speak and write in most distinct form the highest truths of religion. The permanent record of revelation in writing becomes a standard and test of all revelations, and in translations and copies is capable of carrying the divine message to all ages and to all lands. In the Holy Bible we have the religious meanings of nature of the soul and of history interpreted for us. The Gospels are the record of the revelation made by the Living Word of

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