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VALVERDI.

SWEDES IN PENNSYLVANIA.

not mention, that of the people of has amounted to ten thousand pounds this city, a very large portion are of sterling. The missionaries had, as that description who always have all the Swedish clergy have, a learnbusiness out of doors, at all seasons. ed education. By their zealous exYet I do not blame him much for this ertions, six churches have been omission, for other travellers are built, and landed estates acquired, equally to blame in making general whose increasing revenues became observations. A traveller, speak- the principal funds for supporting ing of Palermo, says, “ During the divine worship. They spared no prevalence of the siroc wind, nobo- pains for preserving the language, dy stirs out but those who are com- but it declined from the following pelled to do it.” Yet, as he has not causes. The original population was told us how great a portion of the but small, and had no accession from population are compelled, we may Sweden after the separation. An make a gross mistake in picturing account of all the families, taken in to our minds an idea of the appear. 1793, makes the number of them ance of that city, at the above-men- about 200, and the whole number of tioned season.

men, women, and children, about Philadelphia, Dec. 5, 1805. 1000. The choice of land, and of

situations for hunting, fowling, fishing, and water-carriage, had occa

sioned wide scattering from the first For the Literary Magazine. main settlement about Christine

creek, up and down Delaware on both sides, and on the streams that

flow into it, at that early period : a By Mr. Collin.

few families had even gone to Elk

river, and Egg harbour. In the THE first colony from Sweden course of time, many families joined came in 1634, and was increased at in forming distant settlements, as several times till 1654. It was next about Malatton, now Pottsgrove, and year conquered by the Dutch, who on Maurice's river, in New Jersey. had a prior and far stronger esta. The missionaries could not often viblishment on North river, but fell, sit these remote parts, and a great with this, under the British domi- portion of the people that lived nion in 1664. Sweden could not re- above ten miles from the churches, take the country from Holland, be. could not frequently attend the pubcause it was at war with several lic worship. great powers, and afterwards ceded Schools were practicable only in its claim to England, by a treaty, in the closer neighbourhoods. This which property, civil rights, and dispersion opened a speedy admis. free exercise of religion were secur- sion of other people, and in propored to the people.

tion to their increasing number, freThe Swedish government had no quent intermarriages. The greater farther expectation of political or part of the children from these learnt commercial benefits from them, but nothing, or very little, of the lanyet continued a very generous care guage. Not a few of the Swedes for their spiritual welfare, by a re. were grossly negligent of their mogular succession of missionaries, de- ther tongue, especially those parents traying the whole expence of their who spoke it well, and yet did not voyages, furnishing a part of their instruct their children in it. The support, and pensioning them when continual operation of these causes, they returned, until they got suita- compelled the missionaries, sixty ble preferments. As their number years ago, to preach occasionally in was generally three or four, and the English ; and within the last thirty greater part of them went home years in some places generally, in within ten years, the total expence others altogether. At present very

few natives of the Swedish race un ment they are in a state ready to derstand the language. The mis. be spun. The card is a kind of brush sion has also ceased in the states of made with wires instead of hair, the Delaware and New Jersey.

wire not being perpendicular to The facility of the Swedes for the plane, but all inclined one way learning and speaking the English in a certain angle. From this de language contributed to the loss of scription, such as are totally unactheir own ; yet many of other na- quainted with the subject may contions, that lived amongst them, learot ceive that cotton wool, being stuck it well, especially many Dutch fa. upon one of those cards or brushes, milies, that became so incorporated may be scraped with another card with the Swedish congregations, that in that direction, that the inclination the national distinction was entirely of the wires may tend to throw the effaced, and their descendants in ge- whole inwards rather than suffer it neral did not know their origin. to come out. The consequence of Some of these, with others of Ger- the repeated strokes of the empty man, English, Welch, Scots, Irish, card against the full one must be &c. pedigree, nay, even some ne a distribution of the whole more groes, have spoken Swedish, though evenly on the surface, and, if one the majority of pure Swedish pa. card be then drawn in the opposite rentage have totally lost it.

direction across the other, it will, The Swedish church in South- by virtue of the inclination of its wark, Philadelphia, was consecrated wires, take the whole of the wool the 2d of July, 1702, and styled out of that card whose inclination is Gloria Dei. Divine worship is the contrary way. Without enterthere performed, once every month, ing more fully upon the description in the Swedish language. The ma- of a process so common, we may jority of attendants are nat of make a few similar observations Sweden, some of them settled here, with regard to spinning. This is of and others temporary residents, and two kinds; in the one the carded the greater part of both are seamen. wool is suddenly drawn out during Natives of Denmark and Norway, the rapid rotation of a spindle, and of both descriptions, also frequent it, forms a loose yarn. In the other as they receive almost equal benefit process the material is spun by a well from the service by the similarity known small engine or wheel, which of language. Since the indepen. requires the spinner to draw the madence of the United States, their terial out between the finger and commercial intercourse with these thumb of each hand. If we suppose nations is pretty considerable. In the machine itself to be left at libersome years four Swedish vessels, ty, and turned without the assistance and as many Danish, have come to of the spinner, the twisted thread, Philadelphia ; and their number being drawn inwards by the bobbin, will probably increase.

would naturally gather more of the material, and form an irregular thread thicker and thicker, till at

length the difficulty of drawing out For the Literary Magazine. so large a portion of material as

had acquired the twist would become ARKWRIGHT'S COTTON SPINNING. greater than that of snapping the

smaller part of the thread, which THE preparation of vegetable would accordingly break. It is the and animal fibres to form them into business of the spinner to prevent garments by weaving is very well this by drawing out the material known. The fibres themselves must with one hand, if the operator be first be properly disposed by comb- skilful, but if not, with two, that is ing or carding, after which treat. to say, by holding the material beVOL. V. NO, XXVIII.

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tween the finger and thumb of each a rotatory carding engine and a hand, the intermediate part may spinning engine, of which the chief be drawn out to the requisite fine. organ consists of two pair of cyness previous to the twist, by sepa- linders, may appear, they are subrating the hands during the act of ject, in the practical detail

, to all the pinching. Every rational process of difficulties which usually present invention must consist, in the first themselves to be overcome by inplace, in a careful analysis of the ventors. An account of this would operations meant to be performed. certainly form an interesting narThe objects of Arkwright's improve- rative in the history of the arts, ments were carding and spinning. Sir Richard Arkwright succeeded To do this by machinery, it was in making these engines go by horse, required either that the usual ma- by water, and by steam as first næuvre of the carder should be per- movers, and the saving of labour, formed with square cards, or that together with the advantages of a cylinders, covered with the kind of patent monopoly, were sufficient to metallic brush-work, before des- render

him one of the most opulent cribed, should be made to revolve in of the British manufacturers. contact with each other, either to card or to strip, accordingly as their respective velocities, directions, and inclinations of their wires might

For the Literary Magazine. be adjusted. With regard to spinning, it would become an indispensi

ON ANECDOTES. ble condition, not only that the raw material should be very nicely pre ANECDOTES are literary luxu. pared, in order that it might re- ries. The refinement of a nation inquire none of that intellectual skill fluences its literature; we now rewhich is capable of separating the quire not only a solid repast, but a knotty or imperfect parts as they delicious desert. A physician, au. offer themselves, but also that it stere as Hippocrates ; a critic, rigid should be regularly drawn out by as Aristotle, are alike inimical to our certain parts representing the fin- refreshments. We will not be foolgers and thumbs of the spinner. The ed into their systems. We do not contrivance by which this last means dismiss our fruits and our wines from was represented consisted in a our tables; we eat, and our health certain number of pairs of cylin- remains uninjured. We read anecders, each two revolving in contact dotes with voluptuous delight; nor with each other. Suppose a very is our science impaired, or our wit loose thread or slightly twisted rendered less brilliant. carding of cotton to pass between It is not just to consider anecdotes one pair of cylinders, clothed with merely as means of improvement. a proper facing to enable them to They serve also the purposes of hold it; and let it be imagined to utility, and deserve to be classed proceed from thence to another higher in the scale of study than hi. pair, whose surfaces revolve much therto they have been. quicker. It is evident that the quick All the world read anecdotes ; er revolution of the second pair but not many with reflection, and will draw out the cotton, rendering still fewer with taste. To most, one it thinner and longer when it comes anecdote resembles another; a little to be delivered at the other side. unconnected story that is heard, that This is precisely the operation which pleases, and is forgotten. Yet when the spinner performs with her fin- anecdotes are not merely transcribgers and thumb; and if the cotton ed, but animated by judicious reflecbe then delivered to a spinning ap. tions, they recal others of a kindred paratus, it will be converted into nature, and the whole series is made thread." Simple as these notions of to illustrate some topic that gratifies

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curiosity, or impresses on the mind progress of the human mind than in
some interesting conclusion in the that of empires.
affairs of human life.

A Hearne would feel a frigid rap-
History itself derives some of its ture if he could discover the name
most agreeable instructions from a of a Saxon monarch unrecorded in
skilful introduction of anecdotes. our annals; and of whom as little
We should not now dwell with anx- should remain, as of the doubtful
iety on a dull chronicle of the reigns bones of a Saxon dug out of a tumu.
of monarchs ; a parish register lus. Such are his anecdotes ! A
might prove more interesting. We Hume or a Robertson is only interest-
ought not to be now solicitous about ed with those characters who have
battles fought a hundred years ago, exerted themselves in the cause of
or sieges which can destroy none of humanity, and with those incidents
our own towns, or storms which can which have subverted or established
nerer burst upon our own shores. the felicities of a people.
We may reasonably turn with dis There will always be antiquaries
gust from fictions told without the to solace themselves with the ope,
grace of fable, and from truths un. that industry will compensate for a
interesting as fables told without total want of genius. Such will not
grace.

discern when enquiry dwindles into Romancers have existed in all minute trifling. The genuine histonations, under the names of histori. rian is regarded with contempt by ans, from the notorious Geoffrey of these unenlightened students. They Monmouth to Jean le Maire, who, condemn Hume precisely for what in his Illustrations of Gaul, makes he is most to be commended for the French nation descend from the not wasting his pages on researches fugitive princes of Troy. This is that resemble conjectures into Sax. not quite so marvellous as the ec on annals, 'which, if they could be centric follies of several modern known with accuracy, would not be Irish antiquaries. Col. Valencey more interesting than the annals of has pushed his national researches the Abyssinians, over which many as far back as the time of the de- a reader of taste has groaned in the luge. Since he was so employed, bulky volumes of Bruce. On the he might have gone farther; for an subject of such remote antiquities, old writer has even favoured us take here a conversation recorded with the names of the seven Irish by Boswell. On antiquarian rekings who flourished before Noah. searches Johnson said, “ All that is

Thomas Warton, in his observa- really known of the ancient state of tions on the Faery Queen, notices Britain is contained in a few pages. one of Geoffrey's fables. This We can know no more than what monk, in his account of the original the old writers have told us; yet state of Albion, has these words : what large books have we upon it, “ Erat tunc nomen insulæ Albion the whole of which, excepting such quæ a nemine nisi a paucis giganti- parts as are taken from those old bus inhabitabatur.” A few giants, writers, is all a dream, such as in that historian's opinion, were but Whitaker's Manchester. I have of little consideration.

heard Henry's history of Great Bri. Our hearts should learn to sym- tain well spoken of; I am told it is pathize ; and we should consult the carried on in separate divisions, as annals of history as a son and a the civil, the military, the religious brother would turn over his domes. history ; I wish much to have one tic memoirs. We should his anch well done, and that is, the tory, not to indulge the frivolous in- history of manners, of common life.” quisitiveness of a dull antiquary, but Robertson answered, “Henry should to explore the causes of the misery have applied his attention to that and prosperity of our country. We alone, which is enough for any man.” ought to be more interested in the Hence the history of manners has

become the prime object of the re- particulars Voltaire says, “ All searches of philosophers. How is these sumptuary laws only show, this prominent feature in history to that the government of these times be depicted ? The artist must not had not always great objects in here draw at fancy a beautiful or view; and that it appeared easier fantastical line. He must regard for ministers to proscribe than to his object with minute attention, and encourage industry.” reflect long on a thousand little Had I to sketch the situation of strokes, which are to give the faith- the Jews in the ninth century, and ful resemblance. The historian to exhibit, at the same time, the should assiduously arrange the mic character of that age of bigotry, nute anecdotes of the age he exa- could I do it more effectually than mines; and oftener have recourse by the following anecdote? to the diaries of individuals than to A Jew of Rouen, in Normandy, the archives of a nation. Nothing sells a house to a christian. After should escape his researches, though some time, a storm happens, lightevery thing he finds is not to be re- ning falls on the house, and does ported.

damage. The christian cites the Antiquarian studies begin of late Israelite into court for damages, to rank high. They seem to be di. His eloquent counsellor hurls a phi. rected to the illustration, not merely lippic against this detestable nation, of obliterated inscriptions, but of and concludes by proving, that it ancient manners. We may observe was owing to this house having been of what importance, in this interest. the property of an Israelite, that a ing subject, are the memorandums thunderbolt fell upon it. The judg. of an individual, from the recovery es, as may be supposed, are not of the book of the Master of the long in deciding. They decree that Revels, which Mr. Malone has been God had damaged this house as a so fortunate as to obtain. We enter mark of his vengeance against a more fully into the genius of those Jew, and therefore it was just the times from such publications than repairs should be at his cost. The from the superficial accounts and sentence was hard upon the Jew. fanciful conjectures of any modern To be condemned to rebuild a writer. He who would penetrate house is, however, better than to be further into these amusing research- burnt with some of its old wood. es must apply himself to a close examination of old plays; to a patient perusal of innumerable MSS.; and to the collecting matter from the printed books of the times. We are For the Literary Magazine. still in want of a work similar to St. Foix's Essays on Paris, one of THE FRENCH CHARACTER the most agreeable anecdotical productions which the philosopher and the antiquary has yet produced. THE French nation, before their

To inform the world, that, in the singular revolution, displayed a sixteenth century, bishops only were splendid scene of refinement, luxupermitted the use of silk; that prin- ry, and frivolity, which perhaps was ces and princesses only had the never before presented on the theaprerogative of wearing scarlet tre of the world. In reading the seclothes, either of silk or of wool ; cret memoirs of that country, a scanand that only princes and bishops dalous chronicle, carried on for thirhad a right to wear shoes made of ty years, we gather many curious şilk, would appear trivial in the particulars, only to be found in these hands of a mere antiquary ; but they fugitive leaves. Religion was forbecome important when touched by bidden by the philosophers, and po& true historian. On these little litics by the government. They ex

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