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route now travelled, the distance is son, did not lose a single man, and 66 miles, and on a straight line about arrived at Port Jackson, in New 55. On this part of the route the Holland, without the least damage first and very considerable expendi. in hull, mast, or rigging. There tures are specially necessary. From was novelty in the construction of Laurel hill to the Ohio river, by the the Lady Nelson, which, upon Mr. usual route, is about 70 miles, and Grant's experience, is also a most on a straight line 54 or 55; the road important improvement. She was is tolerable, though capable of im- built with a sliding keel, divided inprovement.

to three several parts, with consideTo carry into effect the princi- rable intervals between them. Mr. ples arising from the foregoing facts, Grant and captain Shank are of opithe committee present a bill for the nion, that vessels thus constructed consideration of the senate. To take sail faster, steer easier, tack and the proper measures for carrying wear quicker and in less room, carry into effect the section of the law re. more freight, draw less water, ride specting a road or roads to the state easier at anchor, take the ground of Ohio, is a duty imposed upon con- better, are more likely to be saved gress by the law itself.

in case of shipwreck, have the ad. To enlarge on the high importo vantage of all others in case of losing ance of cementing the union of our the rudder, and last longer than citizens on the western waters with those built in the common way. those of the Atlantic states, would be unnecessary. Politicians have generally agreed that rivers unite the interests and promote the friendship of those who inhabit their banks; For the Literary Magazine. while mountains, on the contrary, tend to the disunion and estrangement of those who are separated by them. In the present case, to make the crooked ways straight and the ZAHARA is a sandy plain in rough ways smooth, will in effect northern Africa, in general near remove the intervening mountains, two thousand miles in length, and and, by facilitating the intercourse one thousand in breadth. of our western brethren with those

At present there are thirty-two on the Atlantic, essentially unite known oases, or habitable countries, them in interest, which is the most in the Zahara, which have been effectual means of uniting the human rendered fertile by springs of fresh

water. The largest of these are inhabited by different tribes. Those colonies of Moors, which overspread the desert of Barbary, are said to

be seventeen in number. The other For the Literary Magazine. oases, being not so large, only serve

as points for the refreshment and

rest of caravans, and small parties MARITIME IMPROVEMENTS.

of way-farers.

The caravans traverse this great MR. GRANT, who has lately desert in nine principal directions, published an account of his voyage, The Moorish tribes who reside in circumnavigated the globe in vessels it, pass over it at every point. which, according to the opinion of The soil of the Zahara consists of some who might have been esteem, fine sand, a mass of small and uned competent judges, were not fit to combined particles; these particles, go to sea! His ship, the Lady Nel. however, are not stony, like the




elements of sand, but susceptible of
petrification. Being composed of For the Literary Magazine.
infinitely small grains to a very
great depth, and being agitated by
winds like the waves of the sea,
they are formed into mountains,
which, from the same cause, are

THE West India wreckers are shortly after dispersed, and raised persons licensed by the governor of to a considerable height, till their the Bahamas to cruize among these diffusion obscures the rays of the islands, and afford relief to wrecked sun.

vessels. By way of recompense, On this sandy extent there may they receive salvage on whatever frequently be seen columns of sand property they rescue from the resembling water-spouts. Their waves. They are hardy, dexterous, nature is averse to combination, and enterprizing ; being habituated, since in the whole desert there are from early life, to the perils of the scarcely any rocks, and fertile deep, and to diving for conchs, countries sparingly scattered in it. which abound on their shores. The

From the plains north of the Se- ensuing dialogue is a striking comnegal I have seen these sand-spouts ment on their notions of morality : rise in the form of columns, some Happening, says a late voyager, times advancing with rapidity, at in the course of one of my passages others proceeding with majestic through the Bahamas, to fall in with slowness, and at all times affording a wrecker, I held as long a convera grand and magnificent spectacle. sation with him as his haste would Their rapidity is sometimes so great permit, and was inquisitive on the that they are scarcely visible, when subject of his occupation. I will set they vanish so as to resemble ribe down the dialogue as it took place. bons floating in the air, the lower Q. From whence came you? extremities always touching the A. (As it caught my ear) From earth; at other times their upper Providence last from Philimingo extremities rise to an immense Bay, in Icumy (a familiar way of height, and are lost in the clouds: pronouncing Flamingo Bay, in Exthese spouts frequently break at a uma). great elevation, and the immense Q. Where are you bound to ? volume of sand is dispersed through A. On a racking voyage to Quby the atmosphere ; at other times (Cuba) and the westward. they break apparently in the mid Q. Are there many of you in this dle, and the report is similar to the quarter? explosion of a mine.

A. Morgan, I, and Phinander One day I counted three of these (Fernandez): parted company aspouts at the distance of about a while ago. mile from each other : the diameter Q. What success in cruizing ? of the greatest seemed to be two A. Middling, but middling. feet, and the rapidity of all of them Q. We have seen very few wreckwas prodigious.

ers to the eastward ; are there maVast as the Zahara is, compared ny to the westward ? io extent with some mighty king. A. We lay with forty sail four doms of Europe, it occupies no con- months along Floriday shore. siderable portion of Africa. I am Q. Forty sail! Then certainly inclined to believe that it has not you must have had many opportualways been an unproductive and nities of being essentially serviceable solitary desert, though no evidence to vessels passing the gulf stream, exists to support our conjectures of by directing them to keep off from its former fertility and population. places of danger, with which you



made it yoar business to become ac- but two. At Aldelfars, in the proquainted?

vince of Smaland, in the course of A. Not much of that; they went twenty-six years, they have only oba on generally in the night.

tained to the amount of 70,000 0. But then you might have af- franks; and, from the produce of forded them timely notice, by mak- Fahlun, in conjunction with the ing beacons on shore, or showing above, Sweden cannot be said to your lights?

have reaped more than forty-five A. No, no (laughing): we always marks of gold annually. put them out, for a better chance by The only silver mine worthy of night.

notice is that of Sala, in WestmaQ. But would there not have been nia. During the reign of Christina more humanity in showing them it yielded 20,000 marks of silver ; their danger?

but at present it produces no more A. I did not go there for human- than from two to three thousand, ity : I went racking. (In truth, as which scarcely repays the expences. strong an apology as any that can It is worked by an association of be suggested for it.)

several individuals, who are favour. ed by means of certain special privileges, burthensome to the whole

canton, and is one of those establishFor the Literary Magazine. ments at first projected by a blind

cupidity, and afterwards persevered in from mere habit, without being attended either with advantage to

the public or to individuals. SWEDEN may truly be desig Copper is one of the principal nated as a mineral country, for the productions of Sweden. At the premetals actually constitute the prin- sent period, however, they do not cipal source of its wealth and prose extract more than from six to seven perity. In this point of view, nature thousand ship-pounds* yearly, from may be said to have treated the in- all the ten copper mines now workhabitants in the same manner that ed. The two principal ones are a sage but economical mother treats those of Fahlun, in Dalecarlia, and her children; for she has granted Atwidaberg; in Ostrogothia, the whatsoever is necessary with pro- latter of whioli alone produces 2000 fusion, what may be deemed useful ship-pounds. with moderation, and what is bril. The former of these merits par. liant, but dangerous, with parsi. ticular attention in every point of mony.

view. It is known in that country In that country the quantity of by the name of the Kopparberg, the different metals is in the inverse and situate at about forty leagues to proportion of the price of gold, sil- the north of Stockholm.' It is visitvcr, copper, and iron. The moun. ed every year by a multitude of tratains, in addition to these, contain vellers, some of whom are induced marble and other ornamental stones, to repair thither from an attachwhich at present are merely objects ment to mineralogical pursuits, and of curiosity, but will, at some period others from motives of mere curio. not far distant, be better known. sity. In 1802, I myself happened

Of the precious metals, little more to be there, and employed nearly than mere specimens may be said four hours in examining the mine. to be obtained. A few unproductive mines, which private persons had undertaken to work during the usual measure of minerals in the north

* A ship-pound, or schip-pund, is the last century, have been abandoned, of Europe, and nearly equivalent to and gold is at present extracted from three French quintals.

You first descend (having been pre- churches with plates of a mineral
viously provided with a kind of to which they are indebted for their
masquerade dress), by means of a prosperity, but this sheathing of
staircase, to the bottom of an im- copper is soon attacked by the vi.
mense excavation, and afterwards triolic vapours, and stands in need
penetrate into its recesses by means of being frequently repaired.”
of a narrow passage, at the end of About five hundred workmen are
which you seem to have arrived at constantly employed in the mine of
the region of shades. One of the Fahlun. They never sleep, and but
miners precedes, and another fol- seldom eat their meals, in the sub-
lows, each carrying a lighted torch terraneous regions; two persons,
of pine; the column of travellers however, remain constantly below,
advances slowly by the light of to prevent any accident by fire.
these, sometimes through galleries Eight horses are kept in stables cut
cut into the rock, sometimes des- out of the solid rock ; a council room
cending along ladders, and some-

has also been formed in the same times crossing frail bridges, sus manner; the principal persons conpended over terrible abysses. nected with the works sometimes

The mineral, which appertains to assemble there, “and it was there a company of two hundred different also that Gustavus III, affecting ori. proprietors, is equally divided among ginality in every thing, without rethem ; sixty only of these, who pos- curring to the forms usually ema sess a knowledge of the art, have ployed in the Swedish chancery, the privilege of smelting it, and without consulting the ministers they alone have the privilege of whom he had left behind him on the purchasing the other shares. At surface of the earth, signed a royal Fahlun it is only converted into proclamation, by which he granted what is termed black copper, by an exemption from certain duties on working; after which it is carried gold, silver, and lead.” to a furnace, for the purpose of being again purified.

The former of these operations is performed by means of wood, with For the Literary Magazine. which the mineral is intermixed, and the thick smoke which arises

LETTERS OF GRAY. at once darkens and infects the horizon around. We are assured, IN a late work, translated from however, « that neither man nor the German by miss Plumtre, animals are affected, and that no there appears several letters from particular malady is known either the poet Gray, to a gentleman of in that town or neighbourhood : but Switzerland, by name Bonstetten. the plants as well as the edifices ex Bonstetten, in his youth, resided perience the effects of these exhala- for some time at Cambridge, during tions, in which vitriol predominates. which he enjoyed an almost daily It is only by means of extraordinary intercourse with the poet Gray, who care that the adjacent lands are attached himself to him with great rendered in any degree fertile. ardour, and soon became his warmThe wood, of which most of the est and most confidential friend. houses are composed, is also cor- Every one who is acquainted with roded by the air impregnated with Gray's works will doubtless read these vapours, and becomes insensi- with the deepest interest the followbly converted into a species of char. ing reliques of his correspondence coal, which yields to the pressure of with his young friend. the fingers. These exhalations,” it is added, even attack metal itself. “ Cambridge, April 12, 1770. The inhabitants of Fahlun are par “ Never did I feel, my dear Bonticularly desirous to cover their stetton, to what a tedious length the



few short moments of our life may but an excellent education can be. be extended, by impatience and ex stow. In this case he is depraved pectation, till you had left me; nor by the public example, the theatres ever knew before with so strong a that inspire it with false opirrions, conviction how much this frail body terrify it with false infamy, or ele. sympathizes with the inquietude of vate it with false applause; and rethe mind. I am grown old in the member that extraordinary vices, compass of less than three weeks, and extraordinary virtues, are like the sultan in the Turkish tales, equally the produce of a vigothat did but plunge his head into a rous mind: little souls are alike vessel of water, and take it out again, incapable of the one and the other. as the standers by affirmed, at the “If you have ever met with the porcommand of a dervise, and found trait sketched out by Plato, you will he had passed many years in capti- know it again :' for my part, to my vity, and begot a large family of sorrow, I have had that happiness; children. The strength and spirits I see the principal features, and I that now enable me to write to you forsee the dangers with a trembling are only owing to your last letter: a anxiety. But enough of this; I retemporary gleam of sunshine, hea. turn to your letter. It proves, at ven knows when it may shine again; least, that in the midst of your I did not conceive till now, I own, new gaieties, I still hold some place what it was to lose you, nor felt the in your memory, and, what pleases solitude and insipidity of my own me above all, it has an air of undiscondition before I possessed the hap- sembled sincerity. Go on, my best piness of your friendship; I must and amiable friend, to show your cite another Greek writer to you, heart simply, and without the shabecause it is much to my purpose: dow of disguise, and leave me to he is describing the character of a weep over it, as I now do, no matgenius truly inclined to philosophy. ter whether from joy or sorrow.” * It includes,' he says, qualifications rarely united in one single

« April 19, 1770. mind, quickness of apprehension, “ Alas! how do I every moment and a retentive memory, vivacity feel the truth of what I have someand application, gentleness and mag- where read, Ce n'est pas le voir, nanimity ; to these he adds an in- que de s'en souvenir ;” and yet that vincible love of truth, and conse- remembrance is the only satisfaction quently of probity and justice. Such I have left. My life now is but a a soul, continues he, will be little perpetual conversation with your inclined to sensual pleasures, and shadow; the known sound of your consequently temperate ; a stranger voice still rings in my ears; there, to illiberality and avarice ; being on the corner of the fender you are accustomed to the most extensive standing, or tinkling on the pianoviews of things, and sublimest con- forte, or stretched at length on the templations, it will contract a habi. sofa. Do you reflect, my dearest tual greatness, will look down with friend, that it is a week or eight a kind of disregard on human life, days before I can receive a letter and on death, consequently, will from you, and as much before you possess the truest fortitude. Such,' can have my answer; that all that says he is the mind born to govern time I am employed with more than the rest of mankind.' But these Herculean toil, in pushing the tedivery endowments, so necessary to a

ous hours along, and wishing to soul formed for philosophy, are of- annihilate them; the more I strive, ten its ruin, especially when joined the heavier they move, and the lonto the external advantages of wealth, ger they grow? I cannot bear this nobility, strength, and beauty; that place, where I have spent many is, if it light on a bad soil, and want tedious years within less than a its proper nurture, which nothing month since you left me. I am go

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